Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 21. Januar 2019)
1Dang, Y. ; Zhang, Y. ; Chen, H. ; Hu, P.J.-H. ; Brown, S.A. ; Larson, C.: Arizona Literature Mapper : an integrated approach to monitor and analyze global bioterrorism research literature.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.7, S.1466-1485.
Abstract: Biomedical research is critical to biodefense, which is drawing increasing attention from governments globally as well as from various research communities. The U.S. government has been closely monitoring and regulating biomedical research activities, particularly those studying or involving bioterrorism agents or diseases. Effective surveillance requires comprehensive understanding of extant biomedical research and timely detection of new developments or emerging trends. The rapid knowledge expansion, technical breakthroughs, and spiraling collaboration networks demand greater support for literature search and sharing, which cannot be effectively supported by conventional literature search mechanisms or systems. In this study, we propose an integrated approach that integrates advanced techniques for content analysis, network analysis, and information visualization. We design and implement Arizona Literature Mapper, a Web-based portal that allows users to gain timely, comprehensive understanding of bioterrorism research, including leading scientists, research groups, institutions as well as insights about current mainstream interests or emerging trends. We conduct two user studies to evaluate Arizona Literature Mapper and include a well-known system for benchmarking purposes. According to our results, Arizona Literature Mapper is significantly more effective for supporting users' search of bioterrorism publications than PubMed. Users consider Arizona Literature Mapper more useful and easier to use than PubMed. Users are also more satisfied with Arizona Literature Mapper and show stronger intentions to use it in the future. Assessments of Arizona Literature Mapper's analysis functions are also positive, as our subjects consider them useful, easy to use, and satisfactory. Our results have important implications that are also discussed in the article.
2Swanson, D.R. ; Smalheiser, N.R. ; Bookstein, A.: Information discovery from complementary literatures : categorizing viruses as potential weapons.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 52(2001) no.10, S.797-812.
Abstract: Using novel informatics techniques to process the Output of Medline searches, we have generated a list of viruses that may have the potential for development as weapons. Our findings are intended as a guide to the virus literature to support further studies that might then lead to appropriate defense and public health measures. This article stresses methods that are more generally relevant to information science. Initial Medline searches identified two kinds of virus literaturesthe first concerning the genetic aspects of virulence, and the second concerning the transmission of viral diseases. Both literatures taken together are of central importance in identifying research relevant to the development of biological weapons. Yet, the two literatures had very few articles in common. We downloaded the Medline records for each of the two literatures and used a computer to extract all virus terms common to both. The fact that the resulting virus list includes most of an earlier independently published list of viruses considered by military experts to have the highest threat as potential biological weapons served as a test of the method; the test outcome showed a high degree of statistical significance, thus supporting an inference that the new viruses an the list share certain important characteristics with viruses of known biological
3O'Keefe, K.M. ; Wildemuth, B.M. ; Friedman, C.P.: Medical students' confidence judgements using a factual database and personal memory : a comparison.
In: ournal of the American Society for Information Science. 50(1999) no.8, S.698-708.
Abstract: In order to determine whether medical students can recognize when an information need has been fulfilled and when it has not, this study examined the quality of medical students' confidence estimate in answering short-answer questions dealing with bacteriology, based upon their personal knowledge alone and what they were able to retrieve from a factual database in microbiology
4Fridman Noy, N.: Knowledge representation for intelligent information retrieval in experimental sciences.
Boston, MA : Northeastern University, 1997. V, 308 S.
Abstract: More and more information is available on-line every day. The greater the amount of on-line information, the greater the demand for tools that process and disseminate this information. Processing electronic information in the form of text and answering users' queries about that information intelligently is one of the great challenges in natural language processing and information retrieval. The research presented in this talk is centered on the latter of these two tasks: intelligent information retrieval. In order for information to be retrieved, it first needs to be formalized in a database or knowledge base. The ontology for this formalization and assumptions it is based on are crucial to successful intelligent information retrieval. We have concentrated our effort on developing an ontology for representing knowledge in the domains of experimental sciences, molecular biology in particular. We show that existing ontological models cannot be readily applied to represent this domain adequately. For example, the fundamental notion of ontology design that every "real" object is defined as an instance of a category seems incompatible with the universe where objects can change their category as a result of experimental procedures. Another important problem is representing complex structures such as DNA, mixtures, populations of molecules, etc., that are very common in molecular biology. We present extensions that need to be made to an ontology to cover these issues: the representation of transformations that change the structure and/or category of their participants, and the component relations and spatial structures of complex objects. We demonstrate examples of how the proposed representations can be used to improve the quality and completeness of answers to user queries; discuss techniques for evaluating ontologies and show a prototype of an Information Retrieval System that we developed.
Inhalt: Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science in the College of Computer Science at Northeastern University, Boston, MA. Vgl.: http://www.stanford.edu/~natalya/papers/Thesis.pdf.
Wissenschaftsfach: Mikrobiologie ; Molekularbiologie
5Wildemuth, B.M.: Search moves made by novices end users.
In: Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, Pittsburgh, 26.-29.10.92. Ed.: D. Shaw. Medford, NJ : Learned Information Inc., 1992. S.154-161.
Abstract: The transaction logs of 53 medical students' searches of a factual database, INQUIRER, of microbiology facts and concepts were analysed in detail to determine: the overall frequency of search moves; the interaction between the problem statement and the students' search strategies; the search moves selected by individual students; and the tactics (combinations of moves) used by the students. Over 200 searches were conducted in response to clinical scenarios in microbiology and the searches were made up of 853 search moves. Results indicate that students used only a few distinct moves and that their selection of moves varied by individual and by search stimulus. Patterns also emerged in students' combinations of search moves into search tactics
6Wildemuth, B.M. ; Jacob, E.K. ; Fullington, A.; ; Bliek, R. de ; Friedman, C.P.: ¬A detailed analysis of end-user search behaviours.
In: ASIS'91: systems understanding people. Proc. of the 54th Annual Meeting of the ASIS, vol.28, Washington, DC, 27.-31.10.1991. Ed.: J.-M. Griffiths. Medford : Learned Information Inc., 1991. S.302-312.
Abstract: Search statements in this revision process can be viewed as a 'move' in the overall search strategy. Very little is known about how end users develop and revise their search strategies. A study was conducted to analyse the moves made in 244 data base searches conducted by 26 medical students at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Students search INQUIRER, a data base of facts and concepts in microbiology. The searches were conducted during a 3-week period in spring 1990 and were recorded by the INQUIRER system. Each search statement was categorised, using Fidel's online searching moves (S. Online review 9(1985) S.61-74) and Bates' search tactics (s. JASIS 30(1979) S.205-214). Further analyses indicated that the most common moves were Browse/Specity, Select Exhaust, Intersect, and Vary, and that selection of moves varied by student and by problem. Analysis of search tactics (combinations of moves) identified 5 common search approaches. The results of this study have implcations for future research on search behaviours, for thedesign of system interfaces and data base structures, and for the training of end users
Themenfeld: Benutzerstudien ; Retrievalstudien ; Suchtaktik
Wissenschaftsfach: Biologie s. auch Mikrobiologie