Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 15. Juni 2019)
1Thellefsen, M.M. ; Thellefsen, T. ; Sørensen, B.: Information as signs : a semiotic analysis of the information concept, determining its ontological and epistemological foundations.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.2, S.372-382.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to formulate an analytical framework for the information concept based on the semiotic theory. Design/methodology/approach The paper is motivated by the apparent controversy that still surrounds the information concept. Information, being a key concept within LIS, suffers from being anchored in various incompatible theories. The paper suggests that information is signs, and it demonstrates how the concept of information can be understood within C.S. Peirce's phenomenologically rooted semiotic. Hence, from there, certain ontological conditions as well epistemological consequences of the information concept can be deduced. Findings The paper argues that an understanding of information, as either objective or subjective/discursive, leads to either objective reductionism and signal processing, that fails to explain how information becomes meaningful at all, or conversely, information is understood only relative to subjective/discursive intentions, agendas, etc. To overcome the limitations of defining information as either objective or subjective/discursive, a semiotic analysis shows that information understood as signs is consistently sensitive to both objective and subjective/discursive features of information. It is consequently argued that information as concept should be defined in relation to ontological conditions having certain epistemological consequences. Originality/value The paper presents an analytical framework, derived from semiotics, that adds to the developments of the philosophical dimensions of information within LIS.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-05-2017-0078.
Themenfeld: Begriffstheorie ; Information
2Wells, M.J.: Social semiotics as theory and practice in library and information science.
In: Journal of documentation. 71(2015) no.4, S.691-708.
Abstract: Purpose Information scholars frequently make use of "conceptual imports" - epistemological and methodological models developed in other disciplines - when conducting their own research. The purpose of this paper is to make the case that social semiotics is a worthy candidate to add to the information sciences toolkit. Design/methodology/approach Both traditional and social semiotics are described in detail, with key texts cited. To demonstrate the benefits social semiotic methods may bring to the information sciences, the digital display screen is then employed as a test case. Findings By treating the display as a semiotic resource, the author is able to demonstrate that, rather than being a transparent window by which the author may access all of the data, the screen actually distorts and conceals a significant amount of information, and severely restricts the control users have over software packages such as online public access catalogues. A programming paradigm known as language-oriented programming (LOP), however, can help to remedy these issues. Originality/value The test case is meant to provide a framework by which other information sciences issues may be explores via social semiotic methods. Social semiotics, moreover, is still evolving as a subject matter, so IS scholars could also potentially contribute to its continued development with their work.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2014-0018.
Wissenschaftsfach: Bibliothekswesen ; Informationswissenschaft ; Semiotik
3Schröder, H. u. U. Bock (Hrsg.): Semiotische Weltmodelle : Mediendiskurse in den Kulturwissenschaften ; Festschrift für Eckhard Höfner zum 65. Geburtstag.
Münster : LIT Verlag, 2010. 676 S.
(Semiotik der Kultur ; Bd. 8)
Abstract: Wissenschaftliche Tätigkeit als "Ausdruck einer lebendigen (Wissenschafts-) Kultur" zu verstehen ist das Motto im Werk Eckhard Höfners. Als "aufgeklärter Geist" hat er das Zusammenwirken von Disziplinen nicht nur gedacht, sondern beispielhaft gelebt. Die Gegnerschaft zum Wissenschafts-Schisma (hermeneutische Geisteswissenschaften einerseits und Naturwissenschaften anderseits) führt zum Dialog und Zusammenwirken. Dass dies nicht zuletzt von praktischer Relevanz in Kultur und Gesellschaft ist, zeigen die Beiträge der Festschrift, die Wissenschaftler verschiedener Fächer und Länder vereinigt.
Wissenschaftsfach: Semiotik ; Kommunikationswissenschaften
RSWK: Höfner, Eckhard / Bibliographie ; Kultursemiotik / Aufsatzsammlung
BK: 18.00 / Einzelne Sprachen und Literaturen allgemein
DDC: 302.2 / DDC22ger
RVK: AK 18000 ; AP 13700 ; ER 730
4Wildgen, W. u. B. van Heusden (Hrsg.): Metarepresentation, self-organization and art.
Bern : Lang, 2009. 298 S.
(European semiotics ; Vol. 9)
Abstract: This book is about the interrelationship between nature, semiosis, metarepresentation and (self-)consciousness, and the role played by metarepresentation in evolution. Representations must have emerged via self-organization from non-representational systems (found in physics, chemistry and biology). Major steps have been the evolution of molecules, macromolecules, life, and finally cultural and symbolic systems. Representations and signs are therefore parts of a huge, possibly branching «ladder of beings». Metarepresentations - images representing images, language about language and language-use, thoughts about thoughts - constitute a fascinating theme within such diverse areas of research as philosophy, literature, theology, anthropology and history, neuroscience, psychology and linguistics. The contributions to this book reflect this variety of different, but often interrelated perspectives on metarepresentation. They also exemplify the difficulties of a truly interdisciplinary discourse and show how one may start such a discourse in the field of semiotics, understood as a meta-discipline which brings together all scientific enterprises dealing with human mind and human culture.
Inhalt: Introduction / Barend van Heusden and Wolfgang Wildgen -- Torturing the torturer, interpretation of evidence as meta-representation / Rik Peters -- Enthymematic reasoning as a meaning-making strategy in spoken discourse / Marcel Bax -- Meta-representation in linguistic jokes / Peiling Cui -- The mathematical structure of pain / Micghael Leyton -- Hypotyposis : meta-representation, mind-reading, and fictive interaction / Todd Oakley -- Film and representation : making filmic meaning / John Bateman -- Musical semantics : A very brief introduction / Ole Kühl -- Meta-representation, self-organization and self-reference in the visual arts / Wolfgang Wildgen -- Imitation, mirror neurons, and meta-cognition / Sven Østergaard -- A pragmaticistic view on metarepresentative semiosis / Ulf Harebdarski -- On the metascientific representation of inconsistency in linguistic theories / András Kertész and Csilla Rákosi -- Self-organization and identity links between theories / Peter Jo?rg Plath -- Meta-representations and paradigms / Boris and Hella Schapiro.
Wissenschaftsfach: Semiotik ; Kunst
LCSH: Representation (Philosophy) ; Semiotics
/ Kongress / Bremen <2006>
DDC: 121.6 / DDC22ger
LCC: B105.R4 M48 2009
5Danesi, M.: Semiotics.
In: Encyclopedia of library and information sciences. 3rd ed. Ed.: M.J. Bates. London : Taylor & Francis, 2009. S.xx-xx.
Abstract: This entry deals with the main goals, theories, concepts, and practices of semiotics, as a science of meaning. Based on the fundamental notion of sign-anything that has the capacity to stand for something else (real or imagined)-semiotics has a long history behind it that overlaps with those of philosophy and language study. The main notions that undergird the practice of semiotics are examined closely here. These include denotation, connotation, opposition, text, code, and structure. Denotation is the intensional meaning assigned to a sign, while connotation refers to the extensional meanings it gains through usage. Opposition is the technique of sifting out minimal differences in meaning among signs so as to extrapolate an overall meaning structure from them. A text is a form constructed with signs in a structured fashion in order to convey some message; it includes verbal forms (such as books, conversations, etc.) and nonverbal forms (such as body language, paintings, etc.). Codes are the systems that organize the meanings that signs bear in social contexts (language, music, etc.), and structure is the notion that signs bear a patterned relation with each other and that it is through this very relation that they bear meaning.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/book/10.1081/E-ELIS3.
6Gray, J.: Symbols and suggestions : Communication of mathematics in print.
In: Mathematical intelligencer. 23(2001) no.2, S.59-64.
Abstract: Mathematicians are creators (or discoverers, if you wish). They are also communicators, and receivers. In all these roles they are people with sophisticated ways of assembling and re-assembling ideas. For several centuries, the most effective communication medium has been print. Historians of mathematics sometimes used to claim that without this or that piece of notation some idea was unthinkable. This does not seem entirely satisfactory, especially to mathematicians who know very well that new symbols are easy to devise, but the claim has some merit. It is more profitable to argue that mathematical notation, like any language, is torn between syntax and semantics and often proceeds by relying on tacit understandings about meanings. Two examples will be considered here, one drawing on recent work about the implications of ratio and equality, and one on examples of logical notation
Wissenschaftsfach: Mathematik ; Semiotik ; Mathematische Logik
7Sowa, J.F.: Ontology, metadata, and semiotics.
In: Conceptual structures: logical, linguistic, and computational issues. 8th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS 2000, Darmstadt, Germany, August 14-18, 2000. Ed.: B. Ganter et al. Berlin : Springer, 2000. S.55-81.
(Lecture notes in computer science; vol.1867: Lecture notes on artificial intelligence)
Abstract: The Internet is a giant semiotic system. It is a massive collection of Peirce's three kinds of signs: icons, which show the form of something; indices, which point to something; and symbols, which represent something according to some convention. But current proposals for ontologies and metadata have overlooked some of the most important features of signs. A sign has three aspects: it is (1) an entity that represents (2) another entity to (3) an agent. By looking only at the signs themselves, some metadata proposals have lost sight of the entities they represent and the agents - human, animal, or robot - which interpret them. With its three branches of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, semiotics provides guidelines for organizing and using signs to represent something to someone for some purpose. Besides representation, semiotics also supports methods for translating patterns of signs intended for one purpose to other patterns intended for different but related purposes. This article shows how the fundamental semiotic primitives are represented in semantically equivalent notations for logic, including controlled natural languages and various computer languages
Themenfeld: Metadaten ; Begriffstheorie
8Maasen, S. ; Weingart, P.: Metaphors and the dynamics of knowledge.
London : Routledge, 2000. VI, 185 S.
(Routledge studies in social and political thought ; 26)
Abstract: A striking characteristic of modern knowledge society is the rapid spread of certain ideas and concepts back and forth from everyday to scientific discourses, and across many different contexts of meaning. This book opens up a new road to the study of these 'dynamics of knowledge'. Sociologists of knowledge and recently evolutionary theorists have offered explanations that either attribute social attention to particular ideas or shifts of meaning to the predominance of certain groups. Maasen and Weingart, however, offer a radical new explanation that explains knowledge dynamics by reference to the interaction between metaphors and discourses. The study focuses on three major case studies: - The spread of Darwin's phrase 'struggle for existence'; - the reception of Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions in the sciences and humanities; - the diffusion of the concept of 'chaos' from scientific to everyday discourses. In its innovative theoretical approach (called 'metaphor analysis') and rich empirical analysis the book will be of interest for social and cognitive scientists alike
Wissenschaftsfach: Semiotik ; Wissenschaftstheorie
LCSH: Semantics (Philosophy) ; Metaphor
RSWK: Theoriendynamik / Metapher / Wissenschaftssoziologie
10Ma, Y. ; Diodato, V.: Icons as visual form of knowledge representation on the World Wide Web : a semiotic analysis.
In: Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods. Medford, NJ : Information Today, 1999. S.181-193.
(Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36)
Abstract: This article compares the indexing structure of icons with principles used for traditional indexing. The investigators apply fourteen traditional indexing principles to study and demonstrate whether traditional principles of indexing are applicable for icon analysis. One of the fourteen indexing principles is first chosen for this analysis. A sample of fifteen library homepages is drawn from the total population of the United States library homepages. The investigators examine the structure of the selected homepages and non-icon information on the homepages. They examine icons as a visual form of knowledge representation (the structure and features of the icons) to determine how icons are representative of the information to which they are linked. The investigators assess how the icons on each library homepage satisfy the indexing principle chosen for the study. The article also provides an analysis of meanings of these icons. The investigators use semiotics theory to study the icons. The icons on the homepages of the WWW carry meaning dependent on the syntax of their use. They also carry paradigmatic meanings derived from other systems or domains. Codes and syntax are culturally constructed, which shape the meaning of messages conveyed in the icons. This study demonstrates whether traditional indexing principles are applicable for icons analysis in the WWW environment. It is hoped that the study will help designers of WWW homepages employ icon features that communicate effectively to their users and suggest using icons as a visual form for knowledge representation on the WWW
12Hesse, W.: Information: das Soma des ausgehenden Jahrhunderts?.
In: Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften. 9(1998) H.2, S.212-215.
Inhalt: Enthält die Darstellung des semiotischen Tetraeders der FRISCO-Gruppe
Anmerkung: Erwiderung auf 'Janich, P.: Informationsbegriff und methodisch-kulturalistische Philosophie' in demselben Heft (S.169-182)
13Suominen, V.: Linguistic / semiotic conditions of information retrieval / documentation in the light of a sausurean conception of language : 'organising knowledge' or 'communication concerning documents'?.
In: Structures and relations in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the 5th International ISKO-Conference, Lille, 25.-29.8.1998. Ed.: W. Mustafa el Hadi et al. Würzburg : Ergon, 1998. S.277-284.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.6)
Abstract: Argumentation consists of representation of the basic structuralist concepts of language/semiotic as a two-level form, as a form of expression and here especially form of content, and of application of these concepts to the phenomena of the representation of the contents of documents. On the basis of argumentation the paper questions the notion of "organizing knowledge", is it, or in what sense it is possible to organize knowledge. The paper bings out some reservations to viewing content representation as organizing knowledge in a strong sense and suggests that instead could be used a notion of (meta)documentation, characterized as communication concerning documents
14Thellefsen, T. ; Thellefsen, M.: Signifikans-effekt i indeksering.
In: Svensk biblioteks forskning. 1998, no.2, S.57-82.
Abstract: Building on Jens-Erik Mai: 'Semiotics and its uses in library and information science', discusses indexing and semiotics. Presents the concept significance affect as expression of an information effect in index words, based on a discussion of the key concepts in Geroge Lakoff's cognitive semantics: basic-level categorizing, cue validity, prototype effect, kinesthetic image schemas, metaphors, metonymy and radical structures, and idealized cognitive models
Inhalt: Extract from the thesis 'Indexing, cognitive semantics and pragmatic semiotics', the Danish Library School Aalborg branch, 1998.
Anmerkung: Übers. d. Titels: Significance effect in indexing
15Gluck, M.: Making sense of semiotics : privileging respondents in revealing contextual geographic syntactic and semantic codes.
In: Information seeking in context: Proceedings of an International Conference on Research in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts, 14-16 August 1996, Tampere, Finland. Ed.: P. Vakkari u.a. London : Taylor Graham, 1997. S.53-66.
Abstract: Reviews sense making as a concept and method of investiagtion, reviews the study of semiotics in information studies research; explores the theoretical implications of combining sense making and semiotic approaches to information use phenomena; and suggests an empirical approach to clarify the resulting theoretical developments. Applies the Pierce Sign Triad and the Dervin Situation Micro Moment Triad to provide a theoretical and contextual starting point for the researcher. The aim is to apply the technique to correlate data from semiotic analyses of the annual reports of Fortune 100 companies and respondents' sense making interviews regarding these reports
16Mai, J.-E.: Semiotikken og dens anvendelsesmuligheder indenfor biblioteks- og informationsvidenskaben.
In: Svensk biblioteks forskning. 1997, no.3, S.43-62.
Abstract: Describes central elements of semiotics, a theory which discusses problems of interest to library and information science. Introduces 2 of Peirce's central elements, abduction and faneroscopy, while describing his philosophical development's 4 phases. Uses his concept's unlimited semiosis and sign tricotomies to analyse the subject indexing process, and places documents and indexing terms in Peirce's 10 sign classes, thus showing the extent of subjective evaluation in human indexing
Anmerkung: Übers. d. Titels: Semiotics and its uses within library and information science
17Schmauks, D.: Beschilderung zwischen Hilfe und Hindernis.
In: Herausforderungen an die Informationswirtschaft: Informationsverdichtung, Informationsbewertung und Datenvisualisierung. Proceedings des 5. Internationalen Symposiums für Informationswissenschaft (ISI'96), Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 17.-19. Oktober 1996. Hrsg.: J. Krause u.a. Konstanz : Universitätsverlag, 1996. S.251-258.
(Schriften zur Informationswissenschaft; Bd.27)
Abstract: Ein spezieller Aspekt von Kommunikationsdesign ist die Produktion von Zeichen, welche die Orientierung im Raum erleichtern. Ausgangspunkt dieser Arbeit ist die semiotische Analyse fest verorteter Zeichen im realen Raum, etwa Wegmarkierungen, Ortsschilder, Wegweiser und Panoramatafeln. Es wird geprüft, inwieweit funktional ähnliche Zeichen in virtuellen Räumen nützlich sind, etwa in Texten und in Benutzeroberflächen für Hypertext und das WWW
18Brier, S.: Cybersemiotics : a new interdisciplinary development applied to the problems of knowledge organisation and document retrieval in information science.
In: Journal of documentation. 52(1996) no.3, S.296-344.
Abstract: This article is a contribution to the development of a comprehensive interdisciplinary theory of LIS in the hope of giving a more precise evaluation of its current problems. The article describes an interdisciplinary framework for LIS, especially information retrieval (IR), in a way that goes beyond the cognitivist 'information processing paradigm'. The main problem of this paradigm is that its concept of information and laguage does not deal in a systematic way with how social and cultural dynamics set the contexts that determine the meaning of those signs and words that are the basic tools for the organisation and retrieving of documents in LIS. The paradigm does not distinguish clearly enough between how the computer manipulates signs and how librarians work with meaning in practice when they design and run document mediating systems. The 'cognitive viewpoint' of Ingwersen and Belkin makes clear that information is not objective, but rather only potential, until it is interpreted by an individual mind with its own internal mental world view and purposes. It facilitates futher study of the social pragmatic conditions for the interpretation of concepts. This approach is not yet fully developed. The domain analytic paradigm of Hjoerland and Albrechtsen is a conceptual realisiation of an important aspect of this area. In the present paper we make a further development of a non-reductionistic and interdisciplinary view of information and human social communication by texts in the light of second-order cybernetics, where information is seen as 'a difference which makes a difference' for a living autopoietic (self-organised, self-creating) system. Other key ideas are from the semiotics of Peirce and also Warner. This is the understanding of signs as a triadic relation between an object, a representation and an interpretant. Information is the interpretation of signs by living, feeling, self-organising biological, psychological and social systems. Signification is created and controlled in an cybernetic way within social systems and is communicated through what Luhman calls generalised media, such as science and art. The modern socio-linguistic concept 'discourse communities' and Wittgenstein's 'language gane' concept give a further pragmatic description of the self-organising system's dynamic that determines the meaning of words in a social context. As Blair and Liebenau and Backhouse point out in their work it is these semantic fields of significance that are the true pragmatic tools of knowledge organisation and document retrieval. Methodologically they are the first systems to be analysed when designing document mediating systems as they set the context for the meaning of concepts. Several practical and analytical methods from linguistics and the sociology of knowledge can be used in combination with standard methodology to reveal the significant language games behind document mediation
Anmerkung: Extended and revised version of a PhD dissertation, Roskilde University, 1994
19Lenski, W. ; Wette-Roch, E.: Terminologie und Wissensrepräsentation in pragmatischer Sichtweise.
In: Analogie in der Wissensrepräsentation: Case-Based Reasoning und räumliche Modelle. 4. Tagung der deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation, Trier, 17.-20. Oktober 1995. Hrsg.: H. Czap u.a. Frankfurt : Indeks, 1996. S.147-159.
(Fortschritte in der Wissensorganisation; Bd.4)
Abstract: Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der grundsätzlichen Frage auseinander, wie Wissen im Hinblick auf seine mögliche Verarbeitung durch Systeme in angemessener Weise verstanden und repräsentiert werden kann. Über das im Bereich des Knowledge Engineering der Tendenz nach vorherrschende Wissensverständnis hinausgehend entwickeln wir einen Ansatz für die Modellierung von Wissen, der Wissen auch noch unter dem Aspekt des Handlungsbezuges und der Steuerung durch Interessen erfaßt. Zur Legitimation unseres Vorgehens weisen wir einen Begründungskontext aus, der auf die Sichtweise einer pragmatisch begründeten Semiotik zurückgreift. Aus unserem Zugang gewinnen wir insbesondere Folgerungen für mögliche Formen der Wissensrepräsentation. In diesem Rahmen wird ein System von Records vorgestellt, die in der Funktion von universellen Strukturtypen allgemeine Rahmenbedingungen für je konkrete Implementierungen spezifizieren. Mit der Wissensmodellierung für einen Thesaurus im Bereich der mathematischen Logik liegt eine Anwendung unseres Ansatzes vor
Wissenschaftsfach: Mathematische Logik ; Semiotik
20Galinski, C. ; Picht, H.: Graphic and other semiotic forms of knowlegde representation in terminology management.
In: TKE'96: Terminology and knowledge engineering. Proceedings 4th International Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering, 26.-28.8.1996, Wien. Ed.: C. Galinski u. K.-D. Schmitz. Frankfurt : Indeks, 1996. S.359-372.