Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 21. Januar 2019)
1Auer, S.: Towards an Open Research Knowledge Graph : vor einer Revolutionierung des wissenschaftlichen Arbeitens.
In: Open Password. 2018, Nr. 318 vom 08.02.2018 [http://www.password-online.de/?wysija-page=1&controller=email&action=view&email_id=405&wysijap=subscriptions&user_id=1045].
Abstract: Die TIB - Leibniz-Informationszentrum Technik und Naturwissenschaften hat ein Positionspapier zum Open Research Knowledge Graph veröffentlicht. Auer, Sören; Blümel, Ina; Ewerth, Ralph; Garatzogianni, Alexandra; Heller, Lambert; Hoppe, Anett; Kasprzik, Anna; Koepler, Oliver; Nejdl, Wolfgang; Plank, Margret; Sens, Irina; Stocker, Markus; Tullney, Marco; Vidal, Maria-Esther; van Wezenbeek, Wilma (2018): Towards an Open Research Knowledge Graph.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1157185.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch eine weitere TIB-Veröffentlichung unter: (https://www.tib.eu/de/service/aktuelles/detail/tib-veroeffentlicht-positionspapier-zu-open-research-knowledge-graph/).
Themenfeld: Elektronisches Publizieren
Objekt: Knowledge Graph
2Padmavathi, T. ; Krishnamurthy, M.: Semantic Web tools and techniques for knowledge organization : an overview.
In: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.4, S.273-290.
Abstract: The enormous amount of information generated every day and spread across the web is diversified in nature far beyond human consumption. To overcome this difficulty, the transformation of current unstructured information into a structured form called a "Semantic Web" was proposed by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 to enable computers to understand and interpret the information they store. The aim of the semantic web is the integration of heterogeneous and distributed data spread across the web for knowledge discovery. The core of sematic web technologies includes knowledge representation languages RDF and OWL, ontology editors and reasoning tools, and ontology query languages such as SPARQL have also been discussed.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web
Objekt: RDF ; OWL ; SPARQL
3Rousset, M.-C. ; Atencia, M. ; David, J. ; Jouanot, F. ; Ulliana, F. ; Palombi, O.: Datalog revisited for reasoning in linked data.
In: Reasoning Web: Semantic Interoperability on the Web, 13th International Summer School 2017, London, UK, July 7-11, 2017, Tutorial Lectures. Eds.: Ianni, G. et al. Cham : Springer International Publishing, 2017. S.121-166.
(Lecture Notes in Computer Scienc;10370) (Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI)
Abstract: Linked Data provides access to huge, continuously growing amounts of open data and ontologies in RDF format that describe entities, links and properties on those entities. Equipping Linked Data with inference paves the way to make the Semantic Web a reality. In this survey, we describe a unifying framework for RDF ontologies and databases that we call deductive RDF triplestores. It consists in equipping RDF triplestores with Datalog inference rules. This rule language allows to capture in a uniform manner OWL constraints that are useful in practice, such as property transitivity or symmetry, but also domain-specific rules with practical relevance for users in many domains of interest. The expressivity and the genericity of this framework is illustrated for modeling Linked Data applications and for developing inference algorithms. In particular, we show how it allows to model the problem of data linkage in Linked Data as a reasoning problem on possibly decentralized data. We also explain how it makes possible to efficiently extract expressive modules from Semantic Web ontologies and databases with formal guarantees, whilst effectively controlling their succinctness. Experiments conducted on real-world datasets have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach and its usefulness in practice for data integration and information extraction.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Wissensrepräsentation
Objekt: RDF ; OWL
4Branch, F. ; Arias, T. ; Kennah, J. ; Phillips, R. ; Windleharth, T. ; Lee, J.H.: Representing transmedia fictional worlds through ontology.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.12, S.2771-2782.
Abstract: Currently, there is no structured data standard for representing elements commonly found in transmedia fictional worlds. Although there are websites dedicated to individual universes, the information found on these sites separate out the various formats, concentrate on only the bibliographic aspects of the material, and are only searchable with full text. We have created an ontological model that will allow various user groups interested in transmedia to search for and retrieve the information contained in these worlds based upon their structure. We conducted a domain analysis and user studies based on the contents of Harry Potter, Lord of the Rings, the Marvel Universe, and Star Wars in order to build a new model using Ontology Web Language (OWL) and an artificial intelligence-reasoning engine. This model can infer connections between transmedia properties such as characters, elements of power, items, places, events, and so on. This model will facilitate better search and retrieval of the information contained within these vast story universes for all users interested in them. The result of this project is an OWL ontology reflecting real user needs based upon user research, which is intuitive for users and can be used by artificial intelligence systems.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23886/full.
Themenfeld: Multimedia ; Wissensrepräsentation
5Wu, D. ; Shi, J.: Classical music recording ontology used in a library catalog.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.6, S.416-430.
Abstract: In order to improve the organization of classical music information resources, we constructed a classical music recording ontology, on top of which we then designed an online classical music catalog. Our construction of the classical music recording ontology consisted of three steps: identifying the purpose, analyzing the ontology, and encoding the ontology. We identified the main classes and properties of the domain by investigating classical music recording resources and users' information needs. We implemented the ontology in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) using five steps: transforming the properties, encoding the transformed properties, defining ranges of the properties, constructing individuals, and standardizing the ontology. In constructing the online catalog, we first designed the structure and functions of the catalog based on investigations into users' information needs and information-seeking behaviors. Then we extracted classes and properties of the ontology using the Apache Jena application programming interface (API), and constructed a catalog in the Java environment. The catalog provides a hierarchical main page (built using the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model), a classical music information network and integrated information service; this combination of features greatly eases the task of finding classical music recordings and more information about classical music.
Objekt: FRBR ; OWL
6Alaya, N. ; Yahia, S.B. ; Lamolle, M.: Ranking with ties of OWL ontology reasoners based on learned performances.
In: Knowledge discovery, knowledge engineering and knowledge management: 7th International Joint Conference, IC3K 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, November 12-14, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Eds.: A. Fred et al. Cham : Springer, 2016. S.234-259.
(Communications in computer and information science; 631)
Abstract: Over the last decade, several ontology reasoners have been proposed to overcome the computational complexity of inference tasks on expressive ontology languages such as OWL 2 DL. Nevertheless, it is well-accepted that there is no outstanding reasoner that can outperform in all input ontologies. Thus, deciding the most suitable reasoner for an ontology based application is still a time and effort consuming task. In this paper, we suggest to develop a new system to provide user support when looking for guidance over ontology reasoners. At first, we will be looking at automatically predict a single reasoner empirical performances, in particular its robustness and efficiency, over any given ontology. Later, we aim at ranking a set of candidate reasoners in a most preferred order by taking into account information regarding their predicted performances. We conducted extensive experiments covering over 2500 well selected real-world ontologies and six state-of-the-art of the most performing reasoners. Our primary prediction and ranking results are encouraging and witnessing the potential benefits of our approach.
7Arenas, M. ; Cuenca Grau, B. ; Kharlamov, E. ; Marciuska, S. ; Zheleznyakov, D.: Faceted search over ontology-enhanced RDF data.
Abstract: An increasing number of applications rely on RDF, OWL2, and SPARQL for storing and querying data. SPARQL, however, is not targeted towards end-users, and suitable query interfaces are needed. Faceted search is a prominent approach for end-user data access, and several RDF-based faceted search systems have been developed. There is, however, a lack of rigorous theoretical underpinning for faceted search in the context of RDF and OWL2. In this paper, we provide such solid foundations. We formalise faceted interfaces for this context, identify a fragment of first-order logic capturing the underlying queries, and study the complexity of answering such queries for RDF and OWL2 profiles. We then study interface generation and update, and devise efficiently implementable algorithms. Finally, we have implemented and tested our faceted search algorithms for scalability, with encouraging results.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
Objekt: RDF ; OWL2
8Leydesdorff, L. ; Opthof, T.: Citation analysis with medical subject Headings (MeSH) using the Web of Knowledge : a new routine.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.5, S.1076-1080.
Abstract: Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is presented here for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation Index at the Web of Science (WoS). This freeware routine is applied to the case of "Brugada Syndrome," a specific disease and field of research (since 1992). The journals containing these publications, for example, are attributed to WoS categories other than "cardiac and cardiovascular systems", perhaps because of the possibility of genetic testing for this syndrome in the clinic. With this routine, all the instruments available for citation analysis can now be used on the basis of MeSH terms. Other options for crossing between Medline, WoS, and Scopus are also reviewed.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Citation indexing
Objekt: MeSH ; Web of Knowledge
9Li, Z.: ¬A domain specific search engine with explicit document relations.
Stockholm : KTH Electrical Engineering, 2013. IV, 55 S.
Abstract: The current web consists of documents that are highly heterogeneous and hard for machines to understand. The Semantic Web is a progressive movement of the Word Wide Web, aiming at converting the current web of unstructured documents to the web of data. In the Semantic Web, web documents are annotated with metadata using standardized ontology language. These annotated documents are directly processable by machines and it highly improves their usability and usefulness. In Ericsson, similar problems occur. There are massive documents being created with well-defined structures. Though these documents are about domain specific knowledge and can have rich relations, they are currently managed by a traditional search engine, which ignores the rich domain specific information and presents few data to users. Motivated by the Semantic Web, we aim to find standard ways to process these documents, extract rich domain specific information and annotate these data to documents with formal markup languages. We propose this project to develop a domain specific search engine for processing different documents and building explicit relations for them. This research project consists of the three main focuses: examining different domain specific documents and finding ways to extract their metadata; integrating a text search engine with an ontology server; exploring novel ways to build relations for documents. We implement this system and demonstrate its functions. As a prototype, the system provides required features and will be extended in the future.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:697394/FULLTEXT01.pdf.
Anmerkung: Master's thesis.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Semantic Web
10Glimm, B. ; Hogan, A. ; Krötzsch, M. ; Polleres, A.: OWL: Yet to arrive on the Web of Data?.
Abstract: Seven years on from OWL becoming a W3C recommendation, and two years on from the more recent OWL 2 W3C recommendation, OWL has still experienced only patchy uptake on the Web. Although certain OWL features (like owl:sameAs) are very popular, other features of OWL are largely neglected by publishers in the Linked Data world. This may suggest that despite the promise of easy implementations and the proposal of tractable profiles suggested in OWL's second version, there is still no "right" standard fragment for the Linked Data community. In this paper, we (1) analyse uptake of OWL on the Web of Data, (2) gain insights into the OWL fragment that is actually used/usable on the Web, where we arrive at the conclusion that this fragment is likely to be a simplified profile based on OWL RL, (3) propose and discuss such a new fragment, which we call OWL LD (for Linked Data).
Inhalt: Beitrag des Workshops: Linked Data on the Web (LDOW2012), April 16, 2012 Lyon, France; vgl.: http://events.linkeddata.org/ldow2012/.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Wissensrepräsentation
11García, J.A. ; Rodriguez-Sánchez, R. ; Fdez-Valdivia, J.: Scientific subject categories of Web of Knowledge ranked according to their multidimensional prestige of influential journals.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 63(2012) no.5, S.1017-1029.
Abstract: A journal may be considered as having dimension-specific prestige when its score, based on a given journal ranking model, exceeds a threshold value. But a journal has multidimensional prestige only if it is a prestigious journal with respect to a number of dimensions-e.g., Institute for Scientific Information Impact Factor, immediacy index, eigenfactor score, and article influence score. The multidimensional prestige of influential journals takes into account the fact that several prestige indicators should be used for a distinct analysis of the impact of scholarly journals in a subject category. After having identified the multidimensionally influential journals, their prestige scores can be aggregated to produce a summary measure of multidimensional prestige for a subject category, which satisfies numerous properties. Using this measure of multidimensional prestige to rank subject categories, we have found the top scientific subject categories of Web of Knowledge as of 2010.
Objekt: Web of Knowledge
12Horridge, M. ; Brandt, S.: ¬A practical guide to building OWL ontologies using Protégé 4 and CO-ODE Tools.Edition 1.3.
Manchester : University of Manchester, 2011. 107 S.
Abstract: This guide introduces Protégé 4 for creating OWL ontologies. Chapter 3 gives a brief overview of the OWL ontology language. Chapter 4 focuses on building an OWL-DL ontology and using a Description Logic Reasoner to check the consistency of the ontology and automatically compute the ontology class hierarchy. Chapter 7 describes some OWL constructs such as hasValue Restrictions and Enumerated classes, which aren't directly used in the main tutorial.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://owl.cs.manchester.ac.uk/tutorials/protegeowltutorial/resources/ProtegeOWLTutorialP4_v1_3.pdf.
Objekt: Protégé ; OWL
13Green, R. ; Panzer, M.: Relations in the notational hierarchy of the Dewey Decimal Classification.
In: Classification and ontology: formal approaches and access to knowledge: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar, 19-20 September 2011, The Hague, The Netherlands. Eds.: A. Slavic u. E. Civallero. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2011. S.161-176.
Abstract: As part of a larger assessment of relationships in the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system, this study investigates the semantic nature of relationships in the DDC notational hierarchy. The semantic relationship between each of a set of randomly selected classes and its parent class in the notational hierarchy is examined against a set of relationship types (specialization, class-instance, several flavours of whole-part).The analysis addresses the prevalence of specific relationship types, their lexical expression, difficulties encountered in assigning relationship types, compatibility of relationships found in the DDC with those found in other knowledge organization systems (KOS), and compatibility of relationships found in the DDC with those in a shared formalism like the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Since notational hierarchy is an organizational mechanism shared across most classification schemes and is often considered to provide an easy solution for ontological transformation of a classification system, the findings of the study are likely to generalize across classification schemes with respect to difficulties that might be encountered in such a transformation process.
Objekt: DDC ; SKOS ; OWL
14Kutz, O. ; Mossakowski, T. ; Galinski, C. ; Lange, C.: Towards a standard for heterogeneous ontology integration and interoperability.
In: First International Conference on Terminology, Language and Content Resources (LaRC), 2011-06-10/2011-06-11 in Seoul, Korea. Ed..: Key-Sun Choi. Seoul : Korean Agency for Technology and Standards, 2011. S.97-106.
Abstract: Even though ontologies are widely being used to enable interoperability in information-rich endeavours, there is currently no united framework for ontology interoperability itself. Surprisingly little of the state of the art in modularity and structuring, e.g. in software engineering, has been applied to ontology engineering so far. However, application areas like Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), which require synchronization and orchestration of interoperable services, are in dire need of safe and secure ontology interoperability. OntoIOp (Ontology Integration and Interoperability), a new international standard proposed in ISO/TC 37/SC 3, aims at filling this gap.
Themenfeld: Semantische Interoperabilität
Objekt: OWL ; OntoIOp
15Fischer, W. ; Bauer, B.: Combining ontologies and natural language.
In: Advances in ontologies: Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Ontology Workshop Adelaide, Australia, 7 December 2010. Eds.: K. Taylor, T.Meyer u. M.Orgun [http://krr.meraka.org.za/~aow2010/AOW2010-preproceedings.pdf]. Adelaide : Macquarie University, Australia, 2010. S.27-34.
Abstract: Ontologies are a popular concept for capturing semantic knowledge of the world in a computer understandable way. Todays ontological standards have been designed with primarily the logical formalisms in mind and therefore leaving the linguistic information aside. However knowledge is rarely just about the semantic information itself. In order to create and modify existing ontologies users have to be able to understand the information represented by them. Other problem domains (e.g. Natural Language Processing, NLP) can build on ontological information however a bridge to syntactic information is missing. Therefore in this paper we argue that the possibilities of todays standards like OWL, RDF, etc. are not enough to provide a sound combination of syntax and semantics. Therefore we present an approach for the linguistic enrichment of ontologies inspired by cognitive linguistics. The goal is to provide a generic, language independent approach on modelling semantics which can be annotated with arbitrary linguistic information. This knowledge can then be used for a better documentation of ontologies as well as for NLP and other Information Extraction (IE) related tasks.
Anmerkung: Preprint. To be published as Vol 122 in the Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology Series by the Australian Computer Society Inc. http://crpit.com/.
Objekt: RDF ; OWL
16Assem, M. van: Converting and integrating vocabularies for the Semantic Web.
Amsterdam : Vrije Universiteit, 2010. IV, 186 S.
(SIKS Dissertation Series No. 2010-40)
Abstract: This thesis focuses on conversion of vocabularies for representation and integration of collections on the Semantic Web. A secondary focus is how to represent metadata schemas (RDF Schemas representing metadata element sets) such that they interoperate with vocabularies. The primary domain in which we operate is that of cultural heritage collections. The background worldview in which a solution is sought is that of the Semantic Web research paradigmwith its associated theories, methods, tools and use cases. In other words, we assume the SemanticWeb is in principle able to provide the context to realize interoperable collections. Interoperability is dependent on the interplay between representations and the applications that use them. We mean applications in the widest sense, such as "search" and "annotation". These applications or tasks are often present in software applications, such as the E-Culture application. It is therefore necessary that applications requirements on the vocabulary representation are met. This leads us to formulate the following problem statement: HOW CAN EXISTING VOCABULARIES BE MADE AVAILABLE TO SEMANTIC WEB APPLICATIONS? ; We refine the problem statement into three research questions. The first two focus on the problem of conversion of a vocabulary to a Semantic Web representation from its original format. Conversion of a vocabulary to a representation in a Semantic Web language is necessary to make the vocabulary available to SemanticWeb applications. In the last question we focus on integration of collection metadata schemas in a way that allows for vocabulary representations as produced by our methods. Academisch proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad Doctor aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Dutch Research School for Information and Knowledge Systems.
Inhalt: Vgl. unter: http://www.cs.vu.nl/~mark/papers/thesis-mfjvanassem.pdf.
Themenfeld: Konzeption und Anwendung des Prinzips Thesaurus ; Wissensrepräsentation
Objekt: OWL ; RDF ; Art and architecture thesaurus ; WordNet ; SKOS ; MeSH
17Halpin, H. ; Hayes, P.J. ; McCusker, J.P. ; McGuinness, D.L. ; Thompson, H.S.: When owl:sameAs isn't the same : an analysis of identity in linked data.
In: The Semantic Web - ISWC 2010. 9th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2010, Shanghai, China, November 7-11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part I. Eds.: Peter F. Patel-Schneider et al. Berlin : Springer, 2010. S.305-320.
(Lecture notes in computer science; 6496)
Abstract: In Linked Data, the use of owl:sameAs is ubiquitous in interlinking data-sets. There is however, ongoing discussion about its use, and potential misuse, particularly with regards to interactions with inference. In fact, owl:sameAs can be viewed as encoding only one point on a scale of similarity, one that is often too strong for many of its current uses. We describe how referentially opaque contexts that do not allow inference exist, and then outline some varieties of referentially-opaque alternatives to owl:sameAs. Finally, we report on an empirical experiment over randomly selected owl:sameAs statements from the Web of data. This theoretical apparatus and experiment shed light upon how owl:sameAs is being used (and misused) on the Web of data.
Inhalt: Vgl. unter: http://iswc2010.semanticweb.org/pdf/261.pdf.
18Assem, M. van ; Rijgersberg, H. ; Wigham, M. ; Top, J.: Converting and annotating quantitative data tables.
In: The Semantic Web - ISWC 2010. 9th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2010, Shanghai, China, November 7-11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part I. Eds.: Peter F. Patel-Schneider et al. Berlin : Springer, 2010. S.16-31.
(Lecture notes in computer science; 6496)
Abstract: Companies, governmental agencies and scientists produce a large amount of quantitative (research) data, consisting of measurements ranging from e.g. the surface temperatures of an ocean to the viscosity of a sample of mayonnaise. Such measurements are stored in tables in e.g. spreadsheet files and research reports. To integrate and reuse such data, it is necessary to have a semantic description of the data. However, the notation used is often ambiguous, making automatic interpretation and conversion to RDF or other suitable format diffiult. For example, the table header cell "f(Hz)" refers to frequency measured in Hertz, but the symbol "f" can also refer to the unit farad or the quantities force or luminous flux. Current annotation tools for this task either work on less ambiguous data or perform a more limited task. We introduce new disambiguation strategies based on an ontology, which allows to improve performance on "sloppy" datasets not yet targeted by existing systems.
Inhalt: Vgl. unter: http://www.cs.vu.nl/~mark/papers/Assem10a.pdf.
Objekt: OWL ; RDF
19Halpin, H. ; Hayes, P.J.: When owl:sameAs isn't the same : an analysis of identity links on the Semantic Web.
In: Linked Data on the Web (LDOW2010). Proceedings of the WWW2010 Workshop on Linked Data on the Web. Raleigh, USA, April 27, 2010. Edited by Christian Bizer et al. o.O., 2010. xx S.
(CEUR-WS.org ; Vol-628)
Abstract: In Linked Data, the use of owl:sameAs is ubiquitous in 'inter-linking' data-sets. However, there is a lurking suspicion within the Linked Data community that this use of owl:sameAs may be somehow incorrect, in particular with regards to its interactions with inference. In fact, owl:sameAs can be considered just one type of 'identity link', a link that declares two items to be identical in some fashion. After reviewing the definitions and history of the problem of identity in philosophy and knowledge representation, we outline four alternative readings of owl:sameAs, showing with examples how it is being (ab)used on the Web of data. Then we present possible solutions to this problem by introducing alternative identity links that rely on named graphs.
Inhalt: Vgl. unter: http://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol-628/. Vgl. auch unter: http://events.linkeddata.org/ldow2010/papers/ldow2010_paper09.pdf. Vgl. auch die Präsentation unter: http://www.ibiblio.org/hhalpin/homepage/presentations/ldow2010/.
20Hoekstra, R.: BestMap: context-aware SKOS vocabulary mappings in OWL 2.
Abstract: This paper describes an approach to SKOS vocabulary mapping that takes into account the context in which vocabulary terms are used in annotations. The standard vocabulary mapping properties in SKOS only allow for binary mappings between concepts. In the BestMap ontology, annotated resources are the contexts in which annotations coincide and allow for a more fine grained control over when mappings hold. A mapping between two vocabularies is defined as a class that groups descriptions of a resource. We use the OWL 2 features for property chains, disjoint properties, union, intersection and negation together with careful use of equivalence and subsumption to specify these mappings.
Inhalt: Beitrag für: OWLED 2009; OWL: Experiences and Directions, Sixth International Workshop, Chantilly, Virginia, USA, 23-24 October 2009, Co-located with ISWC 2009. - Vgl.: http://www.webont.org/owled/2009/.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantische Interoperabilität
Objekt: OWL 2 ; SKOS