Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 15. Juni 2019)
1Li, C. ; Sugimoto, S.: Provenance description of metadata application profiles for long-term maintenance of metadata schemas : Luciano Floridi's philosophy of information as the foundation for library and information science.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.1, S.36-61.
Abstract: Purpose Provenance information is crucial for consistent maintenance of metadata schemas over time. The purpose of this paper is to propose a provenance model named DSP-PROV to keep track of structural changes of metadata schemas. Design/methodology/approach The DSP-PROV model is developed through applying the general provenance description standard PROV of the World Wide Web Consortium to the Dublin Core Application Profile. Metadata Application Profile of Digital Public Library of America is selected as a case study to apply the DSP-PROV model. Finally, this paper evaluates the proposed model by comparison between formal provenance description in DSP-PROV and semi-formal change log description in English. Findings Formal provenance description in the DSP-PROV model has advantages over semi-formal provenance description in English to keep metadata schemas consistent over time. Research limitations/implications The DSP-PROV model is applicable to keep track of the structural changes of metadata schema over time. Provenance description of other features of metadata schema such as vocabulary and encoding syntax are not covered. Originality/value This study proposes a simple model for provenance description of structural features of metadata schemas based on a few standards widely accepted on the Web and shows the advantage of the proposed model to conventional semi-formal provenance description.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-03-2017-0042.
2Monireh, E. ; Sarker, M.K. ; Bianchi, F. ; Hitzler, P. ; Doran, D. ; Xie, N.: Reasoning over RDF knowledge bases using deep learning.Preprint.
Abstract: Semantic Web knowledge representation standards, and in particular RDF and OWL, often come endowed with a formal semantics which is considered to be of fundamental importance for the field. Reasoning, i.e., the drawing of logical inferences from knowledge expressed in such standards, is traditionally based on logical deductive methods and algorithms which can be proven to be sound and complete and terminating, i.e. correct in a very strong sense. For various reasons, though, in particular the scalability issues arising from the ever increasing amounts of Semantic Web data available and the inability of deductive algorithms to deal with noise in the data, it has been argued that alternative means of reasoning should be investigated which bear high promise for high scalability and better robustness. From this perspective, deductive algorithms can be considered the gold standard regarding correctness against which alternative methods need to be tested. In this paper, we show that it is possible to train a Deep Learning system on RDF knowledge graphs, such that it is able to perform reasoning over new RDF knowledge graphs, with high precision and recall compared to the deductive gold standard.
Inhalt: Vgl.: arXiv:1811.04132v1 [cs.LG] 9 Nov 2018.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantic Web
3Taniguchi, S.: Is BIBFRAME 2.0 a suitable schema for exchanging and sharing diverse descriptive metadata about bibliographic resources?.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 56(2018) no.1, S.40-61.
Abstract: Knowledge organization systems have been studied in several fields and for different and complementary aspects. Among the aspects that concentrate common interests, in this article we highlight those related to the terminological and conceptual relationships among the components of any knowledge organization system. This research aims to contribute to the critical analysis of knowledge organization systems, especially ontologies, thesauri, and classification systems, by the comprehension of its similarities and differences when dealing with concepts and their ways of relating to each other as well as to the conceptual design that is adopted.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2017.1382643.
Objekt: BIBFRAME 2.0 ; RDF
4Padmavathi, T. ; Krishnamurthy, M.: Semantic Web tools and techniques for knowledge organization : an overview.
In: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.4, S.273-290.
Abstract: The enormous amount of information generated every day and spread across the web is diversified in nature far beyond human consumption. To overcome this difficulty, the transformation of current unstructured information into a structured form called a "Semantic Web" was proposed by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 to enable computers to understand and interpret the information they store. The aim of the semantic web is the integration of heterogeneous and distributed data spread across the web for knowledge discovery. The core of sematic web technologies includes knowledge representation languages RDF and OWL, ontology editors and reasoning tools, and ontology query languages such as SPARQL have also been discussed.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web
Objekt: RDF ; OWL ; SPARQL
5Hardesty, J.L. ; Young, J.B.: ¬The semantics of metadata : Avalon Media System and the move to RDF.
In: Code4Lib journal. Issue 37(2017), [http://journal.code4lib.org].
Abstract: The Avalon Media System (Avalon) provides access and management for digital audio and video collections in libraries and archives. The open source project is led by the libraries of Indiana University Bloomington and Northwestern University and is funded in part by grants from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and Institute of Museum and Library Services. Avalon is based on the Samvera Community (formerly Hydra Project) software stack and uses Fedora as the digital repository back end. The Avalon project team is in the process of migrating digital repositories from Fedora 3 to Fedora 4 and incorporating metadata statements using the Resource Description Framework (RDF) instead of XML files accompanying the digital objects in the repository. The Avalon team has worked on the migration path for technical metadata and is now working on the migration paths for structural metadata (PCDM) and descriptive metadata (from MODS XML to RDF). This paper covers the decisions made to begin using RDF for software development and offers a window into how Semantic Web technology functions in the real world.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/12668.
Objekt: Avalon ; RDF
6Rousset, M.-C. ; Atencia, M. ; David, J. ; Jouanot, F. ; Ulliana, F. ; Palombi, O.: Datalog revisited for reasoning in linked data.
In: Reasoning Web: Semantic Interoperability on the Web, 13th International Summer School 2017, London, UK, July 7-11, 2017, Tutorial Lectures. Eds.: Ianni, G. et al. Cham : Springer International Publishing, 2017. S.121-166.
(Lecture Notes in Computer Scienc;10370) (Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI)
Abstract: Linked Data provides access to huge, continuously growing amounts of open data and ontologies in RDF format that describe entities, links and properties on those entities. Equipping Linked Data with inference paves the way to make the Semantic Web a reality. In this survey, we describe a unifying framework for RDF ontologies and databases that we call deductive RDF triplestores. It consists in equipping RDF triplestores with Datalog inference rules. This rule language allows to capture in a uniform manner OWL constraints that are useful in practice, such as property transitivity or symmetry, but also domain-specific rules with practical relevance for users in many domains of interest. The expressivity and the genericity of this framework is illustrated for modeling Linked Data applications and for developing inference algorithms. In particular, we show how it allows to model the problem of data linkage in Linked Data as a reasoning problem on possibly decentralized data. We also explain how it makes possible to efficiently extract expressive modules from Semantic Web ontologies and databases with formal guarantees, whilst effectively controlling their succinctness. Experiments conducted on real-world datasets have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach and its usefulness in practice for data integration and information extraction.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Wissensrepräsentation
Objekt: RDF ; OWL
7Marcondes, C.H. ; Costa, L.C da.: ¬A model to represent and process scientific knowledge in biomedical articles with semantic Web technologies.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.2, S.73-85.
Abstract: Knowledge organization faces the challenge of managing the amount of knowledge available on the Web. Published literature in biomedical sciences is a huge source of knowledge, which can only efficiently be managed through automatic methods. The conventional channel for reporting scientific results is Web electronic publishing. Despite its advances, scientific articles are still published in print formats such as portable document format (PDF). Semantic Web and Linked Data technologies provides new opportunities for communicating, sharing, and integrating scientific knowledge that can overcome the limitations of the current print format. Here is proposed a semantic model of scholarly electronic articles in biomedical sciences that can overcome the limitations of traditional flat records formats. Scientific knowledge consists of claims made throughout article texts, especially when semantic elements such as questions, hypotheses and conclusions are stated. These elements, although having different roles, express relationships between phenomena. Once such knowledge units are extracted and represented with technologies such as RDF (Resource Description Framework) and linked data, they may be integrated in reasoning chains. Thereby, the results of scientific research can be published and shared in structured formats, enabling crawling by software agents, semantic retrieval, knowledge reuse, validation of scientific results, and identification of traces of scientific discoveries.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_43_2016_2_b.pdf.
Wissenschaftsfach: Medizin ; Biologie
Objekt: UMLS ; RDF
8Marx, E. et al.: Exploring term networks for semantic search over RDF knowledge graphs.
In: Metadata and semantics research: 10th International Conference, MTSR 2016, Göttingen, Germany, November 22-25, 2016, Proceedings. Eds.: E. Garoufallou. Cham : Springer, 2016. S.249-261.
(Communications in computer and information science; 672)
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
9Sandberg, J. ; Jin, Q.: How should catalogers provide authority control for journal article authors? : Name identifiers in the linked data world.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 54(2016) no.8, S.537-552.
Abstract: This article suggests that catalogers can provide authority control for authors of journal articles by linking to external international authority databases. It explores the representation of article authors from three disciplines in four databases: International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI), Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), Scopus, and Virtual International Authority File (VIAF). VIAF and Scopus are particularly promising databases for journal author names, but we believe that a combination of several name databases holds more promise than relying on a single database. We provide examples of RDF links between bibliographic description and author identifiers, including a partial BIBFRAME 2.0 description.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2016.1238429.
Objekt: ORCID ; VIAF ; RDF
10Prud'hommeaux, E. ; Gayo, E.: RDF ventures to boldly meet your most pedestrian needs.
In: Bulletin of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 41(2015) no.4, S.18-22.
Abstract: Defined in 1999 and paired with XML, the Resource Description Framework (RDF) has been cast as an RDF Schema, producing data that is well-structured but not validated, permitting certain illogical relationships. When stakeholders convened in 2014 to consider solutions to the data validation challenge, a W3C working group proposed Resource Shapes and Shape Expressions to describe the properties expected for an RDF node. Resistance rose from concerns about data and schema reuse, key principles in RDF. Ideally data types and properties are designed for broad use, but they are increasingly adopted with local restrictions for specific purposes. Resource Shapes are commonly treated as record classes, standing in for data structures but losing flexibility for later reuse. Of various solutions to the resulting tensions, the concept of record classes may be the most reasonable basis for agreement, satisfying stakeholders' objectives while allowing for variations with constraints.
Anmerkung: Contribution to a special section "Linked data and the charm of weak semantics".
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantic Web
11Isaac, A. ; Baker, T.: Linked data practice at different levels of semantic precision : the perspective of libraries, archives and museums.
In: Bulletin of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 41(2015) no.4, S.34-39.
Abstract: Libraries, archives and museums rely on structured schemas and vocabularies to indicate classes in which a resource may belong. In the context of linked data, key organizational components are the RDF data model, element schemas and value vocabularies, with simple ontologies having minimally defined classes and properties in order to facilitate reuse and interoperability. Simplicity over formal semantics is a tenet of the open-world assumption underlying ontology languages central to the Semantic Web, but the result is a lack of constraints, data quality checks and validation capacity. Inconsistent use of vocabularies and ontologies that do not follow formal semantics rules and logical concept hierarchies further complicate the use of Semantic Web technologies. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) helps make existing value vocabularies available in the linked data environment, but it exchanges precision for simplicity. Incompatibilities between simple organized vocabularies, Resource Description Framework Schemas and OWL ontologies and even basic notions of subjects and concepts prevent smooth translations and challenge the conversion of cultural institutions' unique legacy vocabularies for linked data. Adopting the linked data vision requires accepting loose semantic interpretations. To avoid semantic inconsistencies and illogical results, cultural organizations following the linked data path must be careful to choose the level of semantics that best suits their domain and needs.
Anmerkung: Contribution to a special section "Linked data and the charm of weak semantics".
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Semantische Interoperabilität
Objekt: SKOSD ; RDF
Anwendungsfeld: Archive ; Museen
12Harlow, C.: Data munging tools in Preparation for RDF : Catmandu and LODRefine.
In: Code4Lib journal. Issue 30(2015), [http://journal.code4lib.org].
Abstract: Data munging, or the work of remediating, enhancing and transforming library datasets for new or improved uses, has become more important and staff-inclusive in many library technology discussions and projects. Many times we know how we want our data to look, as well as how we want our data to act in discovery interfaces or when exposed, but we are uncertain how to make the data we have into the data we want. This article introduces and compares two library data munging tools that can help: LODRefine (OpenRefine with the DERI RDF Extension) and Catmandu. The strengths and best practices of each tool are discussed in the context of metadata munging use cases for an institution's metadata migration workflow. There is a focus on Linked Open Data modeling and transformation applications of each tool, in particular how metadataists, catalogers, and programmers can create metadata quality reports, enhance existing data with LOD sets, and transform that data to a RDF model. Integration of these tools with other systems and projects, the use of domain specific transformation languages, and the expansion of vocabulary reconciliation services are mentioned.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/11013.
Themenfeld: Formalerschließung ; Semantic Web
Objekt: Catmandu ; LODRefine ; RDF
13Gómez-Pérez, A. ; Corcho, O.: Ontology languages for the Semantic Web.
In: IEEE intelligent systems 2002, Jan./Feb., S.54-60.
Abstract: Ontologies have proven to be an essential element in many applications. They are used in agent systems, knowledge management systems, and e-commerce platforms. They can also generate natural language, integrate intelligent information, provide semantic-based access to the Internet, and extract information from texts in addition to being used in many other applications to explicitly declare the knowledge embedded in them. However, not only are ontologies useful for applications in which knowledge plays a key role, but they can also trigger a major change in current Web contents. This change is leading to the third generation of the Web-known as the Semantic Web-which has been defined as "the conceptual structuring of the Web in an explicit machine-readable way."1 This definition does not differ too much from the one used for defining an ontology: "An ontology is an explicit, machinereadable specification of a shared conceptualization."2 In fact, new ontology-based applications and knowledge architectures are developing for this new Web. A common claim for all of these approaches is the need for languages to represent the semantic information that this Web requires-solving the heterogeneous data exchange in this heterogeneous environment. Here, we don't decide which language is best of the Semantic Web. Rather, our goal is to help developers find the most suitable language for their representation needs. The authors analyze the most representative ontology languages created for the Web and compare them using a common framework.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://oa.upm.es/2646/1/JCR01.pdf.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantic Web
Objekt: XOL ; SHOE ; OML ; RDF ; DAML ; OIL
14Pohl, O.: rdfedit: user supporting Web application for creating and manipulating RDF instance data.
In: Metadata and semantics research: 8th Research Conference, MTSR 2014, Karlsruhe, Germany, November 27-29, 2014, Proceedings. Eds.: S. Closs et al. Cham : Springer, 2014. S.54-59.
(Communications in computer and information science; 478)
Abstract: rdfedit is a web application running on Django, rdflib and jQuery DataTables that supports novices in the field of Semantic Web technologies with the creation of RDF instance metadata. By utilizing the Semantic Web search engine Sindice, rdfedit can transform literals into URIs, fetch triples from external resources and import them into the user's local graph. Metadata experts can easily configure these features of rdfedit to fit their preferences regarding metadata schemata, so metadata creators with few knowledge about Semantic Web technologies can create RDF data in a fast and consistent manner while also following the Linked Data principles.
15Arenas, M. ; Cuenca Grau, B. ; Kharlamov, E. ; Marciuska, S. ; Zheleznyakov, D.: Faceted search over ontology-enhanced RDF data.
Abstract: An increasing number of applications rely on RDF, OWL2, and SPARQL for storing and querying data. SPARQL, however, is not targeted towards end-users, and suitable query interfaces are needed. Faceted search is a prominent approach for end-user data access, and several RDF-based faceted search systems have been developed. There is, however, a lack of rigorous theoretical underpinning for faceted search in the context of RDF and OWL2. In this paper, we provide such solid foundations. We formalise faceted interfaces for this context, identify a fragment of first-order logic capturing the underlying queries, and study the complexity of answering such queries for RDF and OWL2 profiles. We then study interface generation and update, and devise efficiently implementable algorithms. Finally, we have implemented and tested our faceted search algorithms for scalability, with encouraging results.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
Objekt: RDF ; OWL2
16AG KIM Gruppe Titeldaten DINI: Empfehlungen zur RDF-Repräsentation bibliografischer Daten.
Abstract: In den letzten Jahren wurde eine Vielzahl an Datensets aus Kultur- und Wissenschaftseinrichtungen als Linked Open Data veröffentlicht. Auch das deutsche Bibliothekswesen hat sich aktiv an den Entwicklungen im Bereich Linked Data beteiligt. Die zuvor lediglich in den Bibliothekskatalogen vorliegenden Daten können weiteren Sparten geöffnet und so auf vielfältige Weise in externe Anwendungen eingebunden werden. Gemeinsames Ziel bei der Veröffentlichung der Bibliotheksdaten als Linked Data ist außerdem, Interoperabilität und Nachnutzbarkeit zu ermöglichen und sich auf diese Weise stärker mit anderen Domänen außerhalb der Bibliothekswelt zu vernetzen. Es bestehen sowohl Linked-Data-Services einzelner Bibliotheken als auch der deutschen Bibliotheksverbünde. Trotz ihres gemeinsamen Ziels sprechen die bestehenden Services nicht die gleiche Sprache, da sie auf unterschiedlichen Modellierungen basieren. Um die Interoperabilität dieser Datenquellen zu gewährleisten, sollten die Dienste künftig einer einheitlichen Modellierung folgen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde im Januar 2012 eine Arbeitsgruppe gegründet, in der alle deutschen Bibliotheksverbünde, die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek sowie einige weitere interessierte und engagierte Kolleginnen und Kollegen mit entsprechender Expertise vertreten sind. Die Gruppe Titeldaten agiert seit April 2012 als Untergruppe des Kompetenzzentrums Interoperable Metadaten (DINI-AG KIM). Die Moderation und Koordination liegt bei der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek. Im Dezember 2012 schloss sich auch der OBVSG der Arbeitsgruppe an. Die Schweizerische Nationalbibliothek folgte im Mai 2013. Vorliegende Empfehlungen sollen zu einer Harmonisierung der RDFRepräsentationen von Titeldaten im deutschsprachigen Raum beitragen und so möglichst einen Quasi-Standard etablieren. Auch international wird an der Herausforderung gearbeitet, die bestehenden bibliothekarischen Strukturen in die heute zur Verfügung stehenden Konzepte des Semantic Web zu überführen und ihren Mehrwert auszuschöpfen. Die neuesten internationalen Entwicklungen im Bereich der Bereitstellung bibliografischer Daten im Semantic Web wie die Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative der Library of Congress (BIBFRAME) haben ebenfalls das Ziel, ein Modell zur RDF-Repräsentation bibliothekarischer Daten bereitzustellen. Die Gruppe Titeldaten beobachtet diese Entwicklungen und beabsichtigt, die Erfahrungen und Anforderungen der deutschsprachigen Bibliothekswelt mit einzubringen. Dabei werden einerseits international erarbeitete Empfehlungen aufgegriffen und andererseits Impulse aus der nationalen Kooperation dort eingebracht. Die hier verwendeten Properties könnten z. B. als Grundlage für ein Mapping zu BIBFRAME dienen.
Inhalt: Enthält Übersicht der RDF-Elemente für die bibliografischen Relationen. Vgl.: urn:nbn:de:kobv:11-100217673. Version 2.0 unter: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:kobv:11-110-18452/2153.3-7 (vgl. Mail an Inetbib vom 08.01.2019). Webversion unter: https://wiki.dnb.de/x/cYMOB.
Objekt: BIBFRAME ; RDF
18Luo, Y. ; Picalausa, F. ; Fletcher, G.H.L. ; Hidders, J. ; Vansummeren, S.: Storing and indexing massive RDF datasets.
In: Semantic search over the Web. Eds.: R. De Virgilio, et al. Berlin : Springer, 2012. S.31-60.
(Data-centric systems and applications)
Abstract: The resource description framework (RDF for short) provides a flexible method for modeling information on the Web [34,40]. All data items in RDF are uniformly represented as triples of the form (subject, predicate, object), sometimes also referred to as (subject, property, value) triples. As a running example for this chapter, a small fragment of an RDF dataset concerning music and music fans is given in Fig. 2.1. Spurred by efforts like the Linking Open Data project, increasingly large volumes of data are being published in RDF. Notable contributors in this respect include areas as diverse as the government, the life sciences, Web 2.0 communities, and so on. To give an idea of the volumes of RDF data concerned, as of September 2012, there are 31,634,213,770 triples in total published by data sources participating in the Linking Open Data project. Many individual data sources (like, e.g., PubMed, DBpedia, MusicBrainz) contain hundreds of millions of triples (797, 672, and 179 millions, respectively). These large volumes of RDF data motivate the need for scalable native RDF data management solutions capabable of efficiently storing, indexing, and querying RDF data. In this chapter, we present a general and up-to-date survey of the current state of the art in RDF storage and indexing.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web
19Smith, D.A. ; Shadbolt, N.R.: FacetOntology : expressive descriptions of facets in the Semantic Web.
Abstract: The formal structure of the information on the Semantic Web lends itself to faceted browsing, an information retrieval method where users can filter results based on the values of properties ("facets"). Numerous faceted browsers have been created to browse RDF and Linked Data, but these systems use their own ontologies for defining how data is queried to populate their facets. Since the source data is the same format across these systems (specifically, RDF), we can unify the different methods of describing how to quer the underlying data, to enable compatibility across systems, and provide an extensible base ontology for future systems. To this end, we present FacetOntology, an ontology that defines how to query data to form a faceted browser, and a number of transformations and filters that can be applied to data before it is shown to users. FacetOntology overcomes limitations in the expressivity of existing work, by enabling the full expressivity of SPARQL when selecting data for facets. By applying a FacetOntology definition to data, a set of facets are specified, each with queries and filters to source RDF data, which enables faceted browsing systems to be created using that RDF data.
Anmerkung: Volltext unter: ..\http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/345363/1/paper.pdf.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval ; Semantic Web
Objekt: RDF ; FacetOntology
20Iorio, A. di ; Peroni, S. ; Vitali, F.: ¬A Semantic Web approach to everyday overlapping markup.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 62(2011) no.9, S.1696-1716.
Abstract: Overlapping structures in XML are not symptoms of a misunderstanding of the intrinsic characteristics of a text document nor evidence of extreme scholarly requirements far beyond those needed by the most common XML-based applications. On the contrary, overlaps have started to appear in a large number of incredibly popular applications hidden under the guise of syntactical tricks to the basic hierarchy of the XML data format. Unfortunately, syntactical tricks have the drawback that the affected structures require complicated workarounds to support even the simplest query or usage. In this article, we present Extremely Annotational Resource Description Framework (RDF) Markup (EARMARK), an approach to overlapping markup that simplifies and streamlines the management of multiple hierarchies on the same content, and provides an approach to sophisticated queries and usages over such structures without the need of ad-hoc applications, simply by using Semantic Web tools and languages. We compare how relevant tasks (e.g., the identification of the contribution of an author in a word processor document) are of some substantial complexity when using the original data format and become more or less trivial when using EARMARK. We finally evaluate positively the memory and disk requirements of EARMARK documents in comparison to Open Office and Microsoft Word XML-based formats.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Wissensrepräsentation
Objekt: RDF ; EARMARK