Document (#16480)

Author
Lonsdale, D.
Mitamura, T.
Nyberg, E.
Title
Acquisition of large lexicons for practical knowledge-based MT
Source
Machine translation. 9(1994/95) nos.3/4, S.251-283
Year
1994/95
Abstract
Although knowledge based MT systems have the potential to achieve high translation accuracy, each successful application system requires a large amount of hand coded lexical knowledge. Systems like KBMT-89 and its descendants have demonstarted how knowledge based translation can produce good results in technical domains with tractable domain semantics. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the development task for large scale applications with 10s of 1000s of of domain concepts precludes a purely hand crafted approach. The current challenge for the next generation of knowledge based MT systems is to utilize online textual resources and corpus analysis software in order to automate the most laborious aspects of the knowledge acquisition process. This partial automation can in turn maximize the productivity of human knowledge engineers and help to make large scale applications of knowledge based MT an viable approach. Discusses the corpus based knowledge acquisition methodology used in KANT, a knowledge based translation system for multilingual document production. This methodology can be generalized beyond the KANT interlinhua approach for use with any system that requires similar kinds of knowledge
Theme
Computerlinguistik
Multilinguale Probleme
Object
KBMT-89

Similar documents (content)

  1. Knight, K.: Automatic knowledge acquisition for machine translation (1997) 0.25
    0.25139827 = sum of:
      0.25139827 = product of:
        1.2569913 = sum of:
          0.236643 = weight(abstract_txt:automate in 5249) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.236643 = score(doc=5249,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15852943 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0455546 = boost
                7.9612727 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              1.4927386 = fieldWeight in 5249, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.9612727 = idf(docFreq=40, maxDocs=43254)
                0.1875 = fieldNorm(doc=5249)
          0.33103967 = weight(abstract_txt:translation in 5249) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.33103967 = score(doc=5249,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.28598365 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4323328 = boost
                6.173587 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              1.1575475 = fieldWeight in 5249, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.173587 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=43254)
                0.1875 = fieldNorm(doc=5249)
          0.3449285 = weight(abstract_txt:acquisition in 5249) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.3449285 = score(doc=5249,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.29392776 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4658842 = boost
                6.2587447 = idf(docFreq=224, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              1.1735146 = fieldWeight in 5249, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.2587447 = idf(docFreq=224, maxDocs=43254)
                0.1875 = fieldNorm(doc=5249)
          0.10777475 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 5249) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10777475 = score(doc=5249,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17951116 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9436524 = boost
                3.2020218 = idf(docFreq=4782, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.6003791 = fieldWeight in 5249, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2020218 = idf(docFreq=4782, maxDocs=43254)
                0.1875 = fieldNorm(doc=5249)
          0.23660533 = weight(abstract_txt:knowledge in 5249) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.23660533 = score(doc=5249,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.35252887 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.17113 = boost
                3.5795512 = idf(docFreq=3278, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.6711658 = fieldWeight in 5249, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.5795512 = idf(docFreq=3278, maxDocs=43254)
                0.1875 = fieldNorm(doc=5249)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  2. Dorr, B.J.: Large-scale dictionary construction for foreign language tutoring and interlingual machine translation (1997) 0.23
    0.22940725 = sum of:
      0.22940725 = product of:
        0.71689767 = sum of:
          0.13245918 = weight(abstract_txt:lexicons in 5245) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13245918 = score(doc=5245,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.19300844 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1536655 = boost
                8.784473 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.686287 = fieldWeight in 5245, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.784473 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=5245)
          0.023317672 = weight(abstract_txt:systems in 5245) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.023317672 = score(doc=5245,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08743503 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.344916 = boost
                3.4135768 = idf(docFreq=3870, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.2666857 = fieldWeight in 5245, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.4135768 = idf(docFreq=3870, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=5245)
          0.09211123 = weight(abstract_txt:scale in 5245) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09211123 = score(doc=5245,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.15149443 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4454567 = boost
                5.5031443 = idf(docFreq=478, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.60801727 = fieldWeight in 5245, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.5031443 = idf(docFreq=478, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=5245)
          0.043923475 = weight(abstract_txt:approach in 5245) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.043923475 = score(doc=5245,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.105848126 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4797692 = boost
                3.7558525 = idf(docFreq=2748, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.41496697 = fieldWeight in 5245, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.7558525 = idf(docFreq=2748, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=5245)
          0.09852659 = weight(abstract_txt:large in 5245) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09852659 = score(doc=5245,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.19963373 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3465981 = boost
                4.466985 = idf(docFreq=1349, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.49353677 = fieldWeight in 5245, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.466985 = idf(docFreq=1349, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=5245)
          0.1379332 = weight(abstract_txt:translation in 5245) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1379332 = score(doc=5245,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.28598365 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4323328 = boost
                6.173587 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.4823115 = fieldWeight in 5245, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.173587 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=5245)
          0.14372022 = weight(abstract_txt:acquisition in 5245) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14372022 = score(doc=5245,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.29392776 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4658842 = boost
                6.2587447 = idf(docFreq=224, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.48896444 = fieldWeight in 5245, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.2587447 = idf(docFreq=224, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=5245)
          0.044906143 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 5245) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.044906143 = score(doc=5245,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17951116 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9436524 = boost
                3.2020218 = idf(docFreq=4782, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.25015795 = fieldWeight in 5245, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2020218 = idf(docFreq=4782, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=5245)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  3. Li, L.X.; Xu, L.D.: Knowledge-based problem solving (2002) 0.22
    0.21825922 = sum of:
      0.21825922 = product of:
        0.60627556 = sum of:
          0.060386565 = weight(abstract_txt:coded in 260) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.060386565 = score(doc=260,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14501618 = queryWeight, product of:
                7.614402 = idf(docFreq=57, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.4164126 = fieldWeight in 260, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.614402 = idf(docFreq=57, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=260)
          0.029106243 = weight(abstract_txt:applications in 260) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029106243 = score(doc=260,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.112319976 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2446157 = boost
                4.738502 = idf(docFreq=1028, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.25913683 = fieldWeight in 260, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.738502 = idf(docFreq=1028, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=260)
          0.051106445 = weight(abstract_txt:domain in 260) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.051106445 = score(doc=260,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.11334689 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2502923 = boost
                4.760114 = idf(docFreq=1006, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.4508853 = fieldWeight in 260, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.760114 = idf(docFreq=1006, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=260)
          0.0156309 = weight(abstract_txt:system in 260) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0156309 = score(doc=260,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08494791 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3256496 = boost
                3.364676 = idf(docFreq=4064, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.18400572 = fieldWeight in 260, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.364676 = idf(docFreq=4064, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=260)
          0.03264474 = weight(abstract_txt:systems in 260) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03264474 = score(doc=260,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.08743503 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.344916 = boost
                3.4135768 = idf(docFreq=3870, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.37335998 = fieldWeight in 260, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                3.4135768 = idf(docFreq=3870, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=260)
          0.021741014 = weight(abstract_txt:approach in 260) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.021741014 = score(doc=260,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.105848126 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4797692 = boost
                3.7558525 = idf(docFreq=2748, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.20539819 = fieldWeight in 260, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.7558525 = idf(docFreq=2748, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=260)
          0.052538015 = weight(abstract_txt:requires in 260) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.052538015 = score(doc=260,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1665132 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5154134 = boost
                5.769483 = idf(docFreq=366, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.31551862 = fieldWeight in 260, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.769483 = idf(docFreq=366, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=260)
          0.09430291 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 260) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09430291 = score(doc=260,freq=9.0), product of:
              0.17951116 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9436524 = boost
                3.2020218 = idf(docFreq=4782, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.52533174 = fieldWeight in 260, product of:
                3.0 = tf(freq=9.0), with freq of:
                  9.0 = termFreq=9.0
                3.2020218 = idf(docFreq=4782, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=260)
          0.2488187 = weight(abstract_txt:knowledge in 260) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2488187 = score(doc=260,freq=13.0), product of:
              0.35252887 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.17113 = boost
                3.5795512 = idf(docFreq=3278, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.70581084 = fieldWeight in 260, product of:
                3.6055512 = tf(freq=13.0), with freq of:
                  13.0 = termFreq=13.0
                3.5795512 = idf(docFreq=3278, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=260)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)
    
  4. Xu, Y.; Li, G.; Mou, L.; Lu, Y.: Learning non-taxonomic relations on demand for ontology extension (2014) 0.20
    0.1966354 = sum of:
      0.1966354 = product of:
        0.6144856 = sum of:
          0.10804936 = weight(abstract_txt:crafted in 4426) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10804936 = score(doc=4426,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.19552836 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1611723 = boost
                8.841632 = idf(docFreq=16, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.552602 = fieldWeight in 4426, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.841632 = idf(docFreq=16, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4426)
          0.12869388 = weight(abstract_txt:laborious in 4426) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12869388 = score(doc=4426,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.21970175 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2308596 = boost
                9.37226 = idf(docFreq=9, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.58576626 = fieldWeight in 4426, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.37226 = idf(docFreq=9, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4426)
          0.03372151 = weight(abstract_txt:domain in 4426) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03372151 = score(doc=4426,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11334689 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2502923 = boost
                4.760114 = idf(docFreq=1006, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.29750714 = fieldWeight in 4426, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.760114 = idf(docFreq=1006, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4426)
          0.035138782 = weight(abstract_txt:approach in 4426) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.035138782 = score(doc=4426,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.105848126 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4797692 = boost
                3.7558525 = idf(docFreq=2748, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.33197358 = fieldWeight in 4426, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.7558525 = idf(docFreq=2748, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4426)
          0.05953857 = weight(abstract_txt:hand in 4426) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05953857 = score(doc=4426,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.16557847 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5111539 = boost
                5.753267 = idf(docFreq=372, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.35957918 = fieldWeight in 4426, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.753267 = idf(docFreq=372, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4426)
          0.072143525 = weight(abstract_txt:corpus in 4426) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.072143525 = score(doc=4426,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18819287 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6110475 = boost
                6.1335816 = idf(docFreq=254, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.38334885 = fieldWeight in 4426, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.1335816 = idf(docFreq=254, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4426)
          0.114976175 = weight(abstract_txt:acquisition in 4426) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.114976175 = score(doc=4426,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.29392776 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4658842 = boost
                6.2587447 = idf(docFreq=224, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.39117154 = fieldWeight in 4426, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.2587447 = idf(docFreq=224, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4426)
          0.062223777 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 4426) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.062223777 = score(doc=4426,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.17951116 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9436524 = boost
                3.2020218 = idf(docFreq=4782, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.34662902 = fieldWeight in 4426, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.2020218 = idf(docFreq=4782, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4426)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  5. Basili, R.; Pazienza, M.T.; Velardi, P.: ¬An empirical symbolic approach to natural language processing (1996) 0.19
    0.19048198 = sum of:
      0.19048198 = product of:
        0.6802928 = sum of:
          0.058212485 = weight(abstract_txt:applications in 822) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.058212485 = score(doc=822,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.112319976 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2446157 = boost
                4.738502 = idf(docFreq=1028, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.51827365 = fieldWeight in 822, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.738502 = idf(docFreq=1028, maxDocs=43254)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=822)
          0.0312618 = weight(abstract_txt:system in 822) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0312618 = score(doc=822,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08494791 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3256496 = boost
                3.364676 = idf(docFreq=4064, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.36801144 = fieldWeight in 822, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.364676 = idf(docFreq=4064, maxDocs=43254)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=822)
          0.091185465 = weight(abstract_txt:scale in 822) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.091185465 = score(doc=822,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15149443 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4454567 = boost
                5.5031443 = idf(docFreq=478, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.6019064 = fieldWeight in 822, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.5031443 = idf(docFreq=478, maxDocs=43254)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=822)
          0.09753635 = weight(abstract_txt:large in 822) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09753635 = score(doc=822,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.19963373 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3465981 = boost
                4.466985 = idf(docFreq=1349, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.4885765 = fieldWeight in 822, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.466985 = idf(docFreq=1349, maxDocs=43254)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=822)
          0.20120831 = weight(abstract_txt:acquisition in 822) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.20120831 = score(doc=822,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.29392776 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4658842 = boost
                6.2587447 = idf(docFreq=224, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.6845502 = fieldWeight in 822, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.2587447 = idf(docFreq=224, maxDocs=43254)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=822)
          0.0628686 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 822) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0628686 = score(doc=822,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17951116 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9436524 = boost
                3.2020218 = idf(docFreq=4782, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.35022113 = fieldWeight in 822, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2020218 = idf(docFreq=4782, maxDocs=43254)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=822)
          0.13801979 = weight(abstract_txt:knowledge in 822) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13801979 = score(doc=822,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.35252887 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.17113 = boost
                3.5795512 = idf(docFreq=3278, maxDocs=43254)
                0.019044986 = queryNorm
              0.3915134 = fieldWeight in 822, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.5795512 = idf(docFreq=3278, maxDocs=43254)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=822)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)