Document (#23570)

Author
MPG Presse
Title
Wie das Gehirn Handlungen "abkupfert"
Source
Max Planck Forschung. 2000, H.1, S.4-5
Year
2000
Abstract
Psychologen und Hirnforscher haben gemeinsam die Grundlagen des Imitationsmechanismus im menschlichen Gehirn aufgedeckt. Offenbar besteht eine direkte neurale Verknüpfung zwischen der Wahrnehmung und der Ausführung einer Handlung. Wenn man zweimal das gleiche tut, ist es für das Gehirn nicht immer dasselbe: Ahmt man eine gesehene Bewegung nach, so werden andere Gehirnareale aktiviert, als wenn man die gleiche Bewegung auf einen symbolischen Reiz hin ausführt. Das bedeutet, daß imitative Handlungen in gesonderten Mechanismen der Hirnrinde verankert sind. Zu diesem Befund kamen Wissenschaftler des Münchner Max-Planck-Instituts für psychologische Forschung in Zusammenarbeit mit Forschern der University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA) sowie der Universität Parma (SCIENCE, 24. Dezember 1999). Andere nachahmen ist kinderleicht - so scheint es auf den ersten Blick. Doch bei näherem Hinsehen zeigt sich, daß das Phänomen Nachahmung keineswegs einfach zu verstehen ist. Denn wer nachahmt, führt dabei selbst eine bestimmte Handlung aus, die er zuvor bei anderen gesehen hat. Wie aber kann der Nachahmende wissen, welche Bewegungen er ausführen muß, um eine gleiche oder zumindest weithin ähnliche - Handlung zustande zu bringen? Oder anders gefragt: Wie können die motorischen Zentren im Gehirn Körperbewegungen hervorbringen, die denen entsprechen, die in den sensorischen Wahrnehmungszentren repräsentiert sind? Mit dieser Frage beschäftigen sich seit langem Forscher der unterschiedlichsten Fachdisziplinen. Harold Bekkering und Marcel Braß vorn Max-Planck-Institut für psychologische Forschung in München gingen das Problem aus dem Blickwinkel der Kognitionspsychologie an: Wie, so ihre Fragestellung, kann eine beobachtete Handlung in den entsprechenden motorischen Akt umgesetzt werden? Dazu lagen bisher nur tierexperimentelle Befunde vor, die eine Arbeitsgruppe unter Giacomo Rizzolatti an der Universität Parma gewonnen hatte: Sie belegten die Existenz sogenannter Mirror- oder Spiegel-Neuronen im prämotorischen Kortex von Affen, die gleichzeitig beobachtete und auszuführende Handlungen kodieren. Daraus schloß man auf einen spezifischen "lmitationsmechanismus", der wahrgenommene und auszuführende Handlungen direkt aufeinander abbildet
Field
Kognitionswissenschaft

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