Document (#23637)

Author
Becht, S.
Title
¬Das Linux des Wissens : Richard Stallmann plant eine frei zugängliche Enzyklopädie
Source
Frankfurter Rundschau. Nr.43 vom 20.2.2001, S.27
Year
2001
Abstract
Er gilt als Gründungsvater der OpenSource-Bewegung: Der Programmierer Richard Stallmann kündigte 1984 seinen Angestellten-Vertrag und widmete sich frei verfügbarer Software. Damit legte er auch die Grundlage für das Erfolgsprojekt Linux. Nun startet Stallman ein weiteres ProJekt: eine Internet-basierte Enzyklopädie. GNUPedia ist die Bezeichnung für das elektronische Lexikon, das das Wissen der Welt im Internet zusammentragen möchte. Zur schreibenden Hilfe aufgerufen sind alle, die einen Beitrag leisten möchten besonders Akademiker, Lehrer, Studenten und Schüler. Was nicht heißt, jeder könnte beliebigen Unfug veröffentlichen: Die Artikel werden gegenseitig begutachtet oder von Zertifizierungsstellen beglaubigt. Unterschiedliche Beiträge oder Meinungen zu einem Thema stehen aber unzensiert nebeneinander. Die in Englisch verfassten Artikel sollen nach und nach in andere Sprachen übersetzt werden. In seiner Grundphilosophie ähnelt das GNUPedia-Projekt der Open-Source-Bewegung für Software. So unterliegt die Enzyklopädie keinerlei Zugangsbeschränkungen, auch nicht finanzieller Art. Sie wird dezentral verwaltet. Beiträge dürfenjederzeit zitiert und sogar ohne Einschränkung komplett kopiert werden - jedoch stets mit einem Herkunftsnachweis versehen. Und natürlich soll die freie Enzyklopädie eine Alternative zu den eingeschränkten Werken anbieten, die von Medien-Unternehmen geschrieben beziehungsweise herausgebracht werden", erklärt Stallman. Natürlich ist das Ganze ein Mammutprojekt. Doch der Initiator hat es nicht besonders eilig. ,Small steps will do the job", kleine Schritte tun es auch, sagt er. Und wenn es 20 Jahre dauere, sei das auch in Ordnung. Stallman weiß, was er tut. Denn zwei wesentliche Dinge könnten seine freie, universelle Enzyklopädie zum Linux des Wissens werden lassen. Erstens gibt er dem Weh zurück, was das Web in seinem Wesen ist. Denn die funktionale InternetOberfläche ist nicht nur geeignet, um Inhalte zu offerieren, wie es die meisten Anbieter mehr oder minder gut auf ihren Sites probieren. Das WWW ist auch ein idealer Marktplatz für Ideen, Inhalte und Beiträge. So entstanden nach und nach Communities. Die haben im Internet Tradition, etwa in Form der Diskussionsforen des Usenets, und werden derzeit mit so genannten Web-Logs wiederbelebt. Zweitens hat Stallman seit Jahrzehnten Erfahrung im vernetzten, weltweiten Arbeiten. Ähnlich einem Redakteur für Lexika oder Dokumentationen beim Schreiben und Prüfen eines Artikels, ist der Mann bei der Programmier-Arbeit zu korrektem, verifizierbarem und zertifizierbarem Handeln geradezu gezwungen. Noch dazu, wenn, wie bei ihm, nach der Methode der offenen Quellen gearbeitet wird. Wie so etwas praktisch zu handhaben ist, lässt sich auf www.nupedia.com von Lawrence M. Sanger und Jimmy Wales schon bewundern. Bei Nupedia sind 150 Artikel von etwa hundert Wissenschaftlern in Arbeit. Auch dort wird penibel auf Qualität geachtet: Die Autoren müssen ausgewiesene Fachleute auf ihrem Gebiet sein. Jede Geschichte lesen mindestens drei andere Koryphäen gegen, und dann begutachten die 3000 kostenlos registrierten Nupedia-Mitglieder die Einträge. Erste Texte lassen sich schon nachlesen - siehe da: Das Wir-helfen-und-achten-uns-gegenseitig-Prinzip funktioniert. Nach anfänglichen Ressentiments sieht es nun so aus, als würden GNU Pedia und Nupedia im Web zusammenwachsen. Die Abkürzung GNU steht für GNU's Not Unix". Sie stammt aus dem Jahre 1984, als Stallman, nach langer Arbeit mit freier Software, die meisten Kollegen an die langsam boomende PC-Industrie verlor. Der Programmierer begann, ohne zu wissen, ob es überhaupt möglich sein würde, ein neues, freies Betriebssystern für Computer zu programmieren: GNU. Alle Codes für das Unix-kompatible System lagen und liegen offen und werden von einer nun weltweit vernetzten Community ständig benutzt, verändert und verbessert. GNU umfasst heute eine Reihe von freier Software, die meist mit der Offene-Quellen-Methode entstanden ist. Das bekannteste Beispiel ist Linux von Linus Torvald - der Kern des alternativen Betriebssystems. Die im Web populärste GNU-Anwendung dürfte wohl Gnutella (www.gnutella.co.uk, www.gnutellanews.com) sein, die nach dem Peer-to-peer-Prinzip organisierte Musiktauschbörse. Im Gegensatz zu dem bekannteren und vereinnahmenden Napster ist Gnutella auf keinen zentralen Rechner angewiesen, der (Musik-) Dateien bereitstellt. Im Gnutella-Netz ist jeder eingeloggte Rechner Teil des Netzwerks, Geber und Nehmer in einem, und damit nicht mehr zentral, wie beim proprietären Napster, zu kontrollieren oder abzuschalten
Footnote
Vgl. auch: http://www.fsf.org/encyclopedia/; Enzyklopädie Nupedia: http://www.nupedia.com
Theme
Internet
Informationsmittel
Object
GNU Pedia

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