Document (#24711)

Author
Marshall, R
Title
Rhetoric and policy : how is it being used in pornography and the Internet?
Source
Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods
Imprint
Medford, NJ : Information Today
Year
1999
Pages
S.280-291
Series
Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36
Abstract
This past year has seen an unprecedented wave of censorship, and overzealous law enforcement has swept through the online world. This paper attempts to look at this growing phenomenon from a rhetorical viewpoint by seeking to answer the following question: How is rhetoric deployed to support a partisan value? After a literature review concerning media and value, policy and pornography, and rhetoric and politics, the method of study was discussed. This consisted of downloading the text of the Supreme Court hearing of the ACLU v. Reno case. This transcript was analyzed and found several metaphors used by the government defense in trying to support its view. These were revealed in the results and examined in the discussion section. Findings were discussion according to exact wording: KNOWING, reference to immediate authority: PARENTS, defending definitions: FREE SPACE, and attacking the previous battle: "THEY DIDN'T . . .". Finally, a review of what was discovered along with what this study presented for further research was revealed. The author then encouraged researchers, as well as those in politics, to be aware of how words are used to support and sway the public and legal system. Also, that we need to constantly be on guard to protect our right to speak through whatever medium we deem necessary. The Internet is an impressive medium for communications, research, entertainment and commercial agencies. The number of Internet users over the age of 16 in the U.S. and Canada has reached 79 million. Also, for the first time, more than 50 percent of the population between the ages of 16 and 34 are Internet users, which comes to around 40 million individuals (McPhee & Coyle, 1998). With this growth comes the good and the bad of society. Pornography, to some a good thing and others a bad item, has accumulated phenomenal success on the Internet. It is this question, is it good or bad, that has sparked a continuous debate among politicians and practitioners. It is this arena that this study endeavors to consider. The legal battles between the online providers of pornographic material and the legal authorities along with those that would want to keep such material out of their lives have been in the courts over the past two years. In these battles, words have been used to sway judges toward certain lines of thought. It is this battle with words that this author seeks to study. How are words being used in the defense of policies that are ultimately considered unconstitutional? In particular, are politicians trying to influence the courts to support a biased agenda? This paper will try to answer this question in the following manner. First a literature review will be given considering the role of media in value making, a brief report of how the discussion of pornography has been played out in the court system, and then a look at rhetoric and the political voice. From there a brief discussion of the methodology the study will be given followed by a look at what was discovered in the analysis. The final section will consider what this means to policy makers and the public whom the policies effect. First, let us Consider what others have said concerning the areas of interest for this study
Theme
Internet

Similar documents (author)

  1. Marshall, J.K.: On equal terms: a thesaurus for nonsexist indexing and cataloguing (1977) 5.56
    5.56391 = sum of:
      5.56391 = weight(author_txt:marshall in 2172) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.56391 = fieldWeight in 2172, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.902256 = idf(docFreq=15, maxDocs=43254)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=2172)
    
  2. Marshall, P.: Folio Views 1.3 : fast and easy text searching (1990) 5.56
    5.56391 = sum of:
      5.56391 = weight(author_txt:marshall in 3224) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.56391 = fieldWeight in 3224, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.902256 = idf(docFreq=15, maxDocs=43254)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=3224)
    
  3. Marshall, F.: COMPASS at the British Museum : tailoring cocntent for particular audiences (2001) 5.56
    5.56391 = sum of:
      5.56391 = weight(author_txt:marshall in 2719) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.56391 = fieldWeight in 2719, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.902256 = idf(docFreq=15, maxDocs=43254)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=2719)
    
  4. Marshall, L.: Facilitating knowldge management and knowledge sharing : new opportunities for information professionals (1997) 5.56
    5.56391 = sum of:
      5.56391 = weight(author_txt:marshall in 3420) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.56391 = fieldWeight in 3420, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.902256 = idf(docFreq=15, maxDocs=43254)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=3420)
    
  5. Marshall, L.: ¬The MEDLINE database : more accessible, convenient, and dangerous! (1997) 5.56
    5.56391 = sum of:
      5.56391 = weight(author_txt:marshall in 4607) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.56391 = fieldWeight in 4607, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.902256 = idf(docFreq=15, maxDocs=43254)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=4607)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Maben, M.: ¬The cataloging of primary state legal material (1993) 0.12
    0.11770288 = sum of:
      0.11770288 = product of:
        0.5885144 = sum of:
          0.14541961 = weight(abstract_txt:court in 1707) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14541961 = score(doc=1707,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18966478 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1054527 = boost
                8.178337 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.7667191 = fieldWeight in 1707, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.178337 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1707)
          0.21885726 = weight(abstract_txt:courts in 1707) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.21885726 = score(doc=1707,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.24908373 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2668334 = boost
                9.37226 = idf(docFreq=9, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.87864935 = fieldWeight in 1707, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.37226 = idf(docFreq=9, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1707)
          0.13975447 = weight(abstract_txt:legal in 1707) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13975447 = score(doc=1707,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.16781686 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2735331 = boost
                6.2812176 = idf(docFreq=219, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.83277965 = fieldWeight in 1707, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.2812176 = idf(docFreq=219, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1707)
          0.053911455 = weight(abstract_txt:what in 1707) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.053911455 = score(doc=1707,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13284302 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4628042 = boost
                4.328835 = idf(docFreq=1549, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.4058283 = fieldWeight in 1707, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.328835 = idf(docFreq=1549, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1707)
          0.030571563 = weight(abstract_txt:this in 1707) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.030571563 = score(doc=1707,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13411576 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.6292489 = boost
                2.4314568 = idf(docFreq=10335, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.22794908 = fieldWeight in 1707, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.4314568 = idf(docFreq=10335, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1707)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  2. Flower, J.: Network confidential (1994) 0.12
    0.11537537 = sum of:
      0.11537537 = product of:
        0.4807307 = sum of:
          0.025475131 = weight(abstract_txt:will in 1787) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.025475131 = score(doc=1787,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08448505 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0434022 = boost
                3.859638 = idf(docFreq=2477, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.3015342 = fieldWeight in 1787, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.859638 = idf(docFreq=2477, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1787)
          0.0211571 = weight(abstract_txt:used in 1787) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0211571 = score(doc=1787,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08040992 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.138077 = boost
                3.3678792 = idf(docFreq=4051, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.26311556 = fieldWeight in 1787, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.3678792 = idf(docFreq=4051, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1787)
          0.06340024 = weight(abstract_txt:internet in 1787) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06340024 = score(doc=1787,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.09774085 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2547433 = boost
                3.7131262 = idf(docFreq=2868, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.6486565 = fieldWeight in 1787, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                3.7131262 = idf(docFreq=2868, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1787)
          0.060410254 = weight(abstract_txt:discussion in 1787) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.060410254 = score(doc=1787,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15023668 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3913931 = boost
                5.1468873 = idf(docFreq=683, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.40210056 = fieldWeight in 1787, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.1468873 = idf(docFreq=683, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1787)
          0.28481168 = weight(abstract_txt:pornography in 1787) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.28481168 = score(doc=1787,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.42241636 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3330936 = boost
                8.630322 = idf(docFreq=20, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.6742439 = fieldWeight in 1787, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.630322 = idf(docFreq=20, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1787)
          0.025476301 = weight(abstract_txt:this in 1787) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.025476301 = score(doc=1787,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13411576 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.6292489 = boost
                2.4314568 = idf(docFreq=10335, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.18995756 = fieldWeight in 1787, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.4314568 = idf(docFreq=10335, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1787)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  3. Keith, S.: Searching for news headlines : connections between unresolved hyperlinking issues and a new battle over copyright online (2007) 0.11
    0.1098032 = sum of:
      0.1098032 = product of:
        0.343135 = sum of:
          0.02375719 = weight(abstract_txt:question in 2352) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02375719 = score(doc=2352,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.116307035 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0602187 = boost
                5.229125 = idf(docFreq=629, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.2042627 = fieldWeight in 2352, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.229125 = idf(docFreq=629, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2352)
          0.12118301 = weight(abstract_txt:court in 2352) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12118301 = score(doc=2352,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.18966478 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1054527 = boost
                8.178337 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.6389326 = fieldWeight in 2352, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                8.178337 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2352)
          0.01057855 = weight(abstract_txt:used in 2352) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01057855 = score(doc=2352,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08040992 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.138077 = boost
                3.3678792 = idf(docFreq=4051, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.13155778 = fieldWeight in 2352, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.3678792 = idf(docFreq=4051, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2352)
          0.020048914 = weight(abstract_txt:internet in 2352) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.020048914 = score(doc=2352,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.09774085 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2547433 = boost
                3.7131262 = idf(docFreq=2868, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.20512319 = fieldWeight in 2352, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.7131262 = idf(docFreq=2868, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2352)
          0.09119053 = weight(abstract_txt:courts in 2352) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09119053 = score(doc=2352,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.24908373 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2668334 = boost
                9.37226 = idf(docFreq=9, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.36610392 = fieldWeight in 2352, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.37226 = idf(docFreq=9, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2352)
          0.041175555 = weight(abstract_txt:legal in 2352) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.041175555 = score(doc=2352,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.16781686 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2735331 = boost
                6.2812176 = idf(docFreq=219, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.24536006 = fieldWeight in 2352, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.2812176 = idf(docFreq=219, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2352)
          0.022463106 = weight(abstract_txt:what in 2352) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.022463106 = score(doc=2352,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13284302 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4628042 = boost
                4.328835 = idf(docFreq=1549, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.16909511 = fieldWeight in 2352, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.328835 = idf(docFreq=1549, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2352)
          0.012738151 = weight(abstract_txt:this in 2352) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.012738151 = score(doc=2352,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13411576 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.6292489 = boost
                2.4314568 = idf(docFreq=10335, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.09497878 = fieldWeight in 2352, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.4314568 = idf(docFreq=10335, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2352)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  4. Organizing the Internet (2004) 0.11
    0.10948194 = sum of:
      0.10948194 = product of:
        0.39100692 = sum of:
          0.025219094 = weight(abstract_txt:will in 1996) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.025219094 = score(doc=1996,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.08448505 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0434022 = boost
                3.859638 = idf(docFreq=2477, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.29850364 = fieldWeight in 1996, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.859638 = idf(docFreq=2477, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1996)
          0.040006712 = weight(abstract_txt:good in 1996) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.040006712 = score(doc=1996,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13154647 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1275402 = boost
                5.561163 = idf(docFreq=451, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.30412608 = fieldWeight in 1996, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.561163 = idf(docFreq=451, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1996)
          0.014809971 = weight(abstract_txt:used in 1996) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.014809971 = score(doc=1996,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08040992 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.138077 = boost
                3.3678792 = idf(docFreq=4051, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.18418089 = fieldWeight in 1996, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.3678792 = idf(docFreq=4051, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1996)
          0.041247286 = weight(abstract_txt:consider in 1996) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.041247286 = score(doc=1996,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13425203 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1390765 = boost
                5.618061 = idf(docFreq=426, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.3072377 = fieldWeight in 1996, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.618061 = idf(docFreq=426, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1996)
          0.028068481 = weight(abstract_txt:internet in 1996) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.028068481 = score(doc=1996,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.09774085 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2547433 = boost
                3.7131262 = idf(docFreq=2868, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.28717247 = fieldWeight in 1996, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.7131262 = idf(docFreq=2868, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1996)
          0.04228718 = weight(abstract_txt:discussion in 1996) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04228718 = score(doc=1996,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15023668 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3913931 = boost
                5.1468873 = idf(docFreq=683, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.2814704 = fieldWeight in 1996, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.1468873 = idf(docFreq=683, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1996)
          0.19936818 = weight(abstract_txt:pornography in 1996) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.19936818 = score(doc=1996,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.42241636 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3330936 = boost
                8.630322 = idf(docFreq=20, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.47197077 = fieldWeight in 1996, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.630322 = idf(docFreq=20, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1996)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  5. Lindsay J.: Policing the Internet? (1997) 0.10
    0.10298128 = sum of:
      0.10298128 = product of:
        0.643633 = sum of:
          0.030570159 = weight(abstract_txt:will in 4449) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.030570159 = score(doc=4449,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08448505 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0434022 = boost
                3.859638 = idf(docFreq=2477, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.36184105 = fieldWeight in 4449, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.859638 = idf(docFreq=2477, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4449)
          0.04811739 = weight(abstract_txt:internet in 4449) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04811739 = score(doc=4449,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.09774085 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2547433 = boost
                3.7131262 = idf(docFreq=2868, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.49229562 = fieldWeight in 4449, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.7131262 = idf(docFreq=2868, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4449)
          0.08160406 = weight(abstract_txt:words in 4449) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08160406 = score(doc=4449,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1625758 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.447404 = boost
                5.354077 = idf(docFreq=555, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              0.5019447 = fieldWeight in 4449, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.354077 = idf(docFreq=555, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4449)
          0.48334143 = weight(abstract_txt:pornography in 4449) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.48334143 = score(doc=4449,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.42241636 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3330936 = boost
                8.630322 = idf(docFreq=20, maxDocs=43254)
                0.020978842 = queryNorm
              1.1442299 = fieldWeight in 4449, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.630322 = idf(docFreq=20, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4449)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)