Document (#27914)

Author
Fuhr, N.
Title
Theorie des Information Retrieval I : Modelle
Source
Grundlagen der praktischen Information und Dokumentation. 5., völlig neu gefaßte Ausgabe. 2 Bde. Hrsg. von R. Kuhlen, Th. Seeger u. D. Strauch. Begründet von Klaus Laisiepen, Ernst Lutterbeck, Karl-Heinrich Meyer-Uhlenried. Bd.1: Handbuch zur Einführung in die Informationswissenschaft und -praxis
Imprint
München : Saur
Year
2004
Pages
S.207-214
Abstract
Information-Retrieval-(IR-)Modelle spezifizieren, wie zur einer gegebenen Anfrage die Antwortdokumente aus einer Dokumentenkollektion bestimmt werden. Dabei macht jedes Modell bestimmte Annahmen über die Struktur von Dokumenten und Anfragen und definiert dann die so genannte Retrievalfunktion, die das Retrievalgewicht eines Dokumentes bezüglich einer Anfrage bestimmt - im Falle des Booleschen Retrieval etwa eines der Gewichte 0 oder 1. Die Dokumente werden dann nach fallenden Gewichten sortiert und dem Benutzer präsentiert. Zunächst sollen hier einige grundlegende Charakteristika von Retrievalmodellen beschrieben werden, bevor auf die einzelnen Modelle näher eingegangen wird. Wie eingangs erwähnt, macht jedes Modell Annahmen über die Struktur von Dokumenten und Fragen. Ein Dokument kann entweder als Menge oder Multimenge von so genannten Termen aufgefasst werden, wobei im zweiten Fall das Mehrfachvorkommen berücksichtigt wird. Dabei subsummiert 'Term' einen Suchbegriff, der ein einzelnes Wort, ein mehrgliedriger Begriff oder auch ein komplexes Freitextmuster sein kann. Diese Dokumentrepräsentation wird wiederum auf eine so genannte Dokumentbeschreibung abgebildet, in der die einzelnen Terme gewichtet sein können; dies ist Aufgabe der in Kapitel B 5 beschriebenen Indexierungsmodelle. Im Folgenden unterscheiden wir nur zwischen ungewichteter (Gewicht eines Terms ist entweder 0 oderl) und gewichteter Indexierung (das Gewicht ist eine nichtnegative reelle Zahl). Ebenso wie bei Dokumenten können auch die Terme in der Frage entweder ungewichtet oder gewichtet sein. Daneben unterscheidet man zwischen linearen (Frage als Menge von Termen, ungewichtet oder gewichtet) und Booleschen Anfragen.
Theme
Retrievalalgorithmen

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  4. Kaiser, A.: Computer-unterstütztes Indexieren in Intelligenten Information Retrieval Systemen : Ein Relevanz-Feedback orientierter Ansatz zur Informationserschließung in unformatierten Datenbanken (1993) 0.17
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