Document (#27961)

Author
Stoyan, H.
Title
Information in der Informatik
Source
Grundlagen der praktischen Information und Dokumentation. 5., völlig neu gefaßte Ausgabe. 2 Bde. Hrsg. von R. Kuhlen, Th. Seeger u. D. Strauch. Begründet von Klaus Laisiepen, Ernst Lutterbeck, Karl-Heinrich Meyer-Uhlenried. Bd.1: Handbuch zur Einführung in die Informationswissenschaft und -praxis
Imprint
München : Saur
Year
2004
Pages
S.683-692
Abstract
1957 hat Karl Steinbuch mit seinem Mitarbeiter Helmut Gröttrup den Begriff "Informatik" erfunden. Er gebrauchte diesen Begriff nicht zur Bezeichnung eines wissenschaftlichen Fachgebiets, sondern eher für seine Abteilung bei der Firma SEL in Stuttgart. Zu dieser Zeit standen sich in diesem Feld drei Parteien gegenüber: Die Mathematiker, die mit Rechenanlagen elektronisch rechneten, die Elektrotechniker, die Nachrichtenverarbeitung trieben und die Wirtschaftler und Lochkartenleute, die mit mechanisch-elektronischen Geräten zählten, buchten und aufsummierten. Während sich in den USA und England die Mathematiker mit dem Namen für das Gerät "Computer" durchsetzten und die Wissenschaft pragmatisch "Computer Science" genannt wurde, war in Deutschland die Diskussion bis in die 60er Jahre unentschieden: Die Abkürzung EDV hält sich noch immer gegenüber "Rechner" und "Computer"; Steinbuch selbst nannte 1962 sein Taschenbuch nicht "Taschenbuch der Informatik" sondern "Taschenbuch der Nachrichtenverarbeitung". 1955 wurde eine Informatik-Tagung in Darmstadt noch "Elektronische Rechenanlagen und Informationsverarbeitung" genannt. Die Internationale Gesellschaft hieß "International Federation for Information Processing". 1957 aber definierte Steinbuch "Informatik" als "Automatische Informationsverarbeitung" und war auf diese Art den Mathematikern entgegengegangen. Als Firmenbezeichnung schien der Begriff geschützt zu sein. Noch 1967 wurde der Fachbeirat der Bundesregierung "für Datenverarbeitung" genannt. Erst als die Franzosen die Bezeichnung "Informatique" verwendeten, war der Weg frei für die Übernahme. So wurde der Ausschuss des Fachbeirats zur Etablierung des Hochschulstudiums bereits der "Einführung von Informatik-Studiengängen" gewidmet. Man überzeugte den damaligen Forschungsminister Stoltenberg und dieser machte in einer Rede den Begriff "Informatik" publik. Ende der 60er Jahre übernahmen F. L. Bauer und andere den Begriff, nannten 1969 die Berufsgenossenschaft "Gesellschaft für Informatik" und sorgten für die entsprechende Benennung des wissenschaftlichen Fachgebiets. Die strittigen Grundbegriffe dieses Prozesses: Information/Informationen, Nachrichten und Daten scheinen heute nur Nuancen zu trennen. Damals ging es natürlich auch um Politik, um Forschungsrichtungen, um den Geist der Wissenschaft, um die Ausrichtung. Mehr Mathematik, mehr Ingenieurwissenschaft oder mehr Betriebswirtschaft, so könnte man die Grundströmungen vereinfachen. Mit der Ausrichtung der Informatik nicht versöhnte Elektrotechniker nannten sich Informationstechniker, die Datenverarbeiter sammelten sich im Lager der Wirtschaftsinformatiker. Mit den Grundbegriffen der Informatik, Nachricht, Information, Datum, hat es seitdem umfangreiche Auseinandersetzungen gegeben. Lehrbücher mussten geschrieben werden, Lexika und Nachschlagewerke wurden verfasst, Arbeitsgruppen tagten. Die Arbeiten C. Shannons zur Kommunikation, mit denen eine statistische Informationstheorie eingeführt worden war, spielten dabei nur eine geringe Rolle.
Theme
Information
Field
Informatik

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  5. Abele, J.; Bovenschulte, M.: Wissen vermitteln - aber wie? : Zur politischen Notwendigkeit eines Public Understanding of Science (2003) 0.16
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