Document (#29875)

Author
Helmkamp, K.
Oehlschläger, S.
Title
¬Die Internationalisierung deutscher Standards : auf dem Weg von MAB2 zu MARC 21. "Access" - der Schlüssel zum Erfolg
Source
Bibliotheksdienst. 40(2006) H.11, S.1281-1285
Year
2006
Abstract
Seit einigen Jahren ist der Begriff "Access" oder "Zugang" in aller Munde. Er bezieht sich auf den Zugang zu Informationsressourcen im World Wide Web und stellt eine zentrale Voraussetzung für den Erfolg oder Misserfolg in der modernen Gesellschaft dar. Viele Lebensbereiche sind auf einen ungehinderten Zugang zu digitalen Ressourcen angewiesen. Für ein Wirtschaftsunternehmen ist es im 21. Jahrhundert nicht mehr nur wichtig, über traditionelle Produktionsfaktoren, wie Maschinen oder Kapital, zu verfügen, von gleicher Bedeutung ist der Zugang auf Informationen, die intern und extern zur Verfügung stehen, und die Grundlage für ein umfassendes Wissensmanagement bilden. Damit kann der Innovationsprozess beschleunigt und das eigene Risiko vermindert werden, beispielsweise wenn bei der Produktentwicklung die Zeit bis zur Markteinführung verringert und damit ein wesentlicher Vorteil gegenüber den Konkurrenten erzielt wird. Auch die Welt der Wissenschaft hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten sehr verändert. Das Interesse von Wissenschaftlern ist nicht auf ihre jeweilige eigene nationale und kulturelle Umgebung beschränkt. Sie benötigen Informationen über Dokumente und Daten aus der ganzen Welt. Gleichzeitig wollen sie die eigenen Forschungsergebnisse in der internationalen Forschungsgemeinschaft zur Diskussion stellen. Schließlich ist der Zugang zu digitalen und konventionellen Ressourcen eine Voraussetzung für den Erfolg in dynamischen und global agierenden Gesellschaften und Systemen. Diese sind davon abhängig, dass Wissen ständig neu generiert und organisiert wird, und propagieren das lebenslange Lernen. Das Konzept des lebenslangen Lernens richtet sich an den Einzelnen, der seine Informationskompetenz ständig erweitern soll. Dadurch wird das Bedürfnis nach Bildungsangeboten im weitesten Sinne und folglich nach einem ungehinderten Zugang zu ihnen geweckt. All dies zeigt, dass ein reibungsloser Metadatenaustausch auf der Grundlage von sprachraumübergreifenden Standards eine wichtige Voraussetzung für Erfolge in ganz unterschiedlichen Bereichen ist. Daraus erwachsen wichtige Aufgaben für Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare, die Daten über Dokumente bereitstellen und den Nachweis und Zugang zu ihnen garantieren. Deutschsprachige und ausländische Bibliotheken verwenden derzeit noch unterschiedliche Standards bei der Speicherung und dem Austausch von Katalogdaten. Während in Deutschland und Österreich das Maschinelle Austauschformat für Bibliotheken MAB2 verwendet wird, ist das Format Machine Readable Cataloguing MARC 21 der weltweit am weitesten verbreitete Standard.
Content
"Der Beschluss Der Standardisierungsausschuss hat in seiner 9. Sitzung am 15. Dezember 2004 wegweisende Beschlüsse zur Internationalisierung der deutschen Standards gefasst' Diese sehen als ersten Meilenstein die flächendeckende Einführung von MARC 21 als Austauschformat vor. Die Verbundsysteme als größte Datenproduzenten haben sich verpflichtet, MARC 21 einheitlich, d.h. ohne verbundspezifische Besonderheiten, einzuführen und anzuwenden. Gleichzeitig sollen die bisher unterschiedlichen Verbundrichtlinien vereinheitlicht werden. Die Einführung von MARC 21 bildet zusammen mit den Bestrebungen zur Verbesserung der Zusammenarbeit der Verbundsysteme einen entscheidenden Schritt, die Voraussetzungen für die Fremddatenübernahme und den Datentausch für die deutschen Bibliotheken sowohl auf nationaler als auch auf internationaler Ebene erheblich zu verbessern. Der Auftrag des Standardisierungsausschusses, den Umstieg auf MARC 21 vorzubereiten, richtet sich an die Arbeitstelle für Standardisierung (AfS). Für das Umstiegsprojekt gelang es erfolgreich, international agierende und verlässliche Partner zu gewinnen und Drittmittel einzuwerben: Die Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, die als amerikanische Stiftung ein Interesse an intensiven Kontakten zwischen den USA und deutschsprachigen Ländern u.a. auf der Ebene des Datentransfers hat, erklärte sich bereit, die Migration von MAB2 nach MARC 21 vor allem durch die Unterstützung von Kontakten auf der Arbeitsebene zu fördern. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft genehmigte einen Antrag für verschiedene Arbeitspakete, wie z.B. die Entwicklung eines Editionssystems und einer Übersetzung von MARC Concise, und eine auf 18 Monaten befristete Mitarbeiterstelle, die in erster Linie die Aufgabe hat, das Projekt zu betreuen und zu dokumentieren. Nach der Zeit- und Ressourcenplanung der AfS gliedert sich das Umstiegsvorhaben in zwei große Abschnitte: die Vorbereitungsphase, die Anfang Januar 2007 abgeschlossen sein wird, und im Anschluss daran die Phase des konkreten Umstiegs."
Theme
Formalerschließung
Datenformate
Object
MARC21
MAB2
Location
D

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  4. Altenhöner, R.; Jahns, Y.; Junger, U.; Mahnke, C.; Oehlschläger, S.; Werner, C.: Weltkongress Bibliothek und Information : 73. IFLA-Generalkonferenz in Durban, Südafrika. Aus den Veranstaltungen der Division IV Bibliographic Control, der Core Activities (CABS und UNIMARC sowie der Information Technology Section (2007) 0.24
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  5. Schmidt, A.: Endo-Management : Wissenslenkung in Cyber-Ökonomien (1999) 0.23
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