Document (#30130)

Author
Friederici, A.
Title
Sprache und Gehirn : Zur Neurobiologie der Sprachverarbeitung
Source
Visionen. Hrsg.: Universität Kaiserslautern, H. Hofrichter
Imprint
Kaiserslautern : Universität
Year
2002
Pages
S.63-75
Abstract
Die Frage nach dem Zusammenhang zwischen kognitiven Leistungen und dem Gehirn hat die Menschheit schon seit langem beschäftigt. Dass es einen direkten Zusammenhang zwischen Sprache und Gehirn gibt, weiß man spätestens seit 1861, dem Jahr, in dem Paul Broca in einer ersten Veröffentlichung über einen Patienten mit einer schweren Sprachstörung berichtete. Dieser Patient war nur in der Lage, eine einzige Silbe zu produzieren, konnte aber durch verschiedene Intonationen dieser Silbe Bejahung oder Verneinung signalisieren und andeuten, dass er die an ihn gerichteten Fragen verstehen konnte. Die Obduktion des Gehirns dieses Patienten ergab eine Schädigung einer bestimmten Region im frontalen Anteil der linken Gehirnhälfte (genauer eine Schädigung des inneren Teils der dritten Stirnwindung, siehe Abb. 1). Dieser Teil des Gehirns wurde fortan für die menschliche Fähigkeit, Sprache zu produzieren, verantwortlich gemacht. Wenige Jahre später berichtete Carl Wernicke über eine Reihe von Patienten mit massiven Defiziten im Sprachverstehen bei gleichzeitig relativ gut erhaltenen Sprachproduktionsleistungen. Seine Patienten zeigten bei Obduktion ebenfalls Schädigungen in der linken Gehirnhälfte, allerdings im temporalen und nicht im frontalen Anteil (siehe Abb. 1). Diese Region wurde aufgrund der bei diesen Patienten beobachteten Defizite mit Prozessen des Sprachverstehens in Verbindung gebracht. Bis vor kurzem war die systematische Korrelation von Sprachdefiziten und bestimmten Hirnschädigungen die einzige Möglichkeit, Aussagen über den Zusammenhang von Sprache und Gehirn zu machen. Seit Anfang der siebziger Jahre konnte die Bestimmung der strukturellen Hirnschädigungen mittels der Computertomographie auch am lebenden Individuum vorgenommen werden, jedoch war man weiterhin auf die Bedeutung von Verhalten bei Patienten mit umschriebenen Hirnläsionen angewiesen. Erst seit den neunziger Jahren erlauben neue Verfahren der funktionellen Bildgebung einen Einblick in den Zusammenhang von Sprache und Gehirn im gesunden Menschen, Verfahren der funktionellen Bildgebung registrieren die Hirnaktivität während einer bestimmten kognitiven Aufgabe, wie zum Beispiel dem Verstehen eines Wortes oder eines Satzes.
Footnote
Der in Kaiserslautern von Frau Prof. Dr. Friederici gehaltene Vortrag mit dem Titel "Prozesse des Sprachverstehens und ihre Abbildung" liegt nicht als Manuskript vor. Aufgrund prinzipieller Entsprechung stellte uns jedoch die Referentin dankenswerterweise den am 23.1 1 .1999 an der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen gehaltenen, hier wiedergegebenen Vortrag zur Verfügung, der mittlerweile erschienen ist in dem von N. Elsner und G. Lüer herausgegebenem Band "Das Gehirn und sein Geist", Göttingen 2000: Wallstein Verlag, S. 71-85.
Field
Kognitionswissenschaft

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  5. Drew, L.: ¬Der freie Wille und die Algorithmen (2020) 0.20
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