Document (#35199)

Author
Feyerabend, P.
Title
Wider den Methodenzwang
Imprint
Frankfurt : Suhrkamp
Year
1986
Pages
423 S
Isbn
3-518-06742-7
Series
Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft; 597
Abstract
Im Jahre 1970 zog mich Imre Lakatos, einer der besten Freunde, die ich je besessen habe, zur Seite und sagte mir: »Paul«, sagte er, »du hast doch so komische Ideen. Warum schreibst du sie nicht nieder, ich schreibe eine Antwort, wir publizieren die Sache und haben einen Heidenspaß.« Der Vorschlag gefiel mir und ich machte mich an die Arbeit. Das Manuskript meines Teils des geplanten Buches war im Jahre 1972 beendet und ich schickte es nach London. Dort verschwand es auf geheimnisvolle Weise. Imre Lakatos, der dramatische Gesten liebte, verständigte die Interpol, und in der Tat, die Interpol fand mein Manuskript und schickte es an mich zurück. Ich las es noch einmal und schrieb es zum großen Teil um. Im Februar des Jahres 1974, nur einige Wochen nachdem ich meine Revision beendet hatte, starb Imre Lakatos. Ich habe dann meinen Teil ohne seine Antwort publiziert. Diese Entstehungsgeschichte erklärt die Form des Buches. Das Buch ist kein systematischer Traktat, es ist ein Brief an einen Freund und geht dabei auf die Eigentümlichkeiten des Adressaten ein. Zum Beispiel: Imre Lakatos war ein Rationalist, also spielt der Rationalismus im Buch eine große Rolle. Imre Lakatos bewunderte auch Popper, darum kommt Popper viel öfter vor, als es seiner »objektiven Bedeutung« entspricht. Imre Lakatos nannte mich, in etwas scherzhafter Weise, einen Anarchisten, darum stelle ich mich selber als einen Anarchisten vor. Imre Lakatos war ein Freund der Ironie, und darum machte ich von der Ironie häufigen Gebrauch. Zum Beispiel ist das Ende von Kapitel i ganz ironisch gemeint; denn anything goes ist nicht mein Grundsatz - ich glaube nicht, daß man »Grundsätze« unabhängig von konkreten Forschungsproblemen aufstellen und diskutieren kann, und solche Grundsätze ändern sich von einem Fall zum anderen -, sondern der erschreckte Ausruf eines Rationalisten, der sich die von mir zusammengetragene Evidenz etwas genauer ansieht. Bei der Lektüre der vielen ernsthaften und gründlichen Kritiken, die mir nach Publikation der englischen Fassung ins Haus flatterten, dachte ich oft mit Wehmut an meine Diskussionen mit Lakatos: wie hätten wir beide doch gelacht, wäre es uns vergönnt gewesen, diese Kritiken zusammen zu studieren. Die neue Fassung unterscheidet sich von der des Jahres 1975 durch Kürzungen, stilistische Änderungen, Einschübe und drei völlig neue Kapitel. Die politischen Anwendungen sind jetzt zur Gänze in Erkenntnis für freie Menschen (Suhrkamp 1980) zu finden. Weiteres (und älteres Material) zu den Problemen findet der Leser in den beiden Bänden meiner Philosophical Papers, Cambridge 1981, sowie in den (etwas anders gestalteten) Ausgewählten Schriften, 2 Bde., Vieweg 1980, 1981. Anwendungen auf die Kunst sind zu finden in Wissenschaft als Kunst, 1983. Noch einmal betone ich, daß die im Buch vorgetragenen Auffassungen nicht neu sind - für Physiker wie Mach, Boltzmann, Einstein, Bohr waren sie eine Selbstverständlichkeit. Aber die Ideen dieser großen Denker wurden von den Nagetieren des Wiener Kreises und den sie wieder benagenden kritisch-rationalistischen Nagetieren bis zur Unkenntlichkeit entstellt. Imre Lakatos war einer der wenigen Denker, die diese Diskrepanz bemerkten und durch die Entwicklung einer sehr viel komplexeren Rationalitätstheorie beseitigen wollte. Ich glaube nicht, daß ihm das gelungen ist. Aber die Anstrengung war der Mühe wert und hat zu vielen interessanten Ergebnissen geführt. Ihm widme ich daher auch diese, leider schon etwas weniger ironische, Fassung meines vereinsamten Teils unserer gemeinsamen Arbeit.
Footnote
Originaltitel: Against method: outline of an anarchistic theory of knowledge (1975)
Field
Philosophie
Wissenschaftstheorie

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  5. Bredemeier, W.: Eine Zivilgesellschaft, die nicht existiert, aber den mündigen Bürger verhindert : DSGVO und Regulierungen, die uns alle behindern (2020) 0.16
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