Document (#37268)

Author
Manaf, N.A. Abdul
Bechhofer, S.
Stevens, R.
Title
¬The current state of SKOS vocabularies on the Web
Source
9th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 2012-05-27/2012-05-31 in Hersonissos, Crete, Greece. Eds.: Elena Simperl et al
Imprint
Berlin : Springer
Year
2012
Pages
S.270-284
Series
Lecture notes in computer science; 7295
Abstract
We present a survey of the current state of Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) vocabularies on the Web. Candidate vocabularies were gathered through collections and web crawling, with 478 identified as complying to a given definition of a SKOS vocabulary. Analyses were then conducted that included investigation of the use of SKOS constructs; the use of SKOS semantic relations and lexical labels; and the structure of vocabularies in terms of the hierarchical and associative relations, branching factors and the depth of the vocabularies. Even though SKOS concepts are considered to be the core of SKOS vocabularies, our findings were that not all SKOS vocabularies published explicitly declared SKOS concepts in the vocabularies. Almost one-third of th SKOS vocabularies collected fall into the category of term lists, with no use of any SKOS semantic relations. As concept labelling is core to SKOS vocabularies, a surprising find is that not all SKOS vocabularies use SKOS lexical labels, whether skos:prefLabel or skos:altLabel, for their concepts. The branching factors and maximum depth of the vocabularies have no direct relationship to the size of the vocabularies. We also observed some common modelling slips found in SKOS vocabularies. The survey is useful when considering, for example, converting artefacts such as OWL ontologies into SKOS, where a definition of typicality of SKOS vocabularies could be used to guide the conversion. Moreover, the survey results can serve to provide a better understanding of the modelling styles of the SKOS vocabularies published on the Web, especially when considering the creation of applications that utilize these vocabularies.
Theme
Semantic Web
Wissensrepräsentation
Object
SKOS

Similar documents (author)

  1. Abdul Manaf, N.A. -> Manaf, N.A. Abdul: 2.09
    2.0921402 = sum of:
      2.0921402 = product of:
        4.1842804 = sum of:
          4.1842804 = weight(author_txt:abdul in 982) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            4.1842804 = score(doc=982,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.79832906 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1513646 = boost
                9.883085 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=43254)
                0.07015789 = queryNorm
              5.2412977 = fieldWeight in 982, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                9.883085 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=43254)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=982)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  2. Abdul, H.; Khoo, C.: Automatic indexing of medical literature using phrase matching : an exploratory study 1.97
    1.9724885 = sum of:
      1.9724885 = product of:
        3.944977 = sum of:
          3.944977 = weight(author_txt:abdul in 4670) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.944977 = score(doc=4670,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.79832906 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1513646 = boost
                9.883085 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=43254)
                0.07015789 = queryNorm
              4.9415426 = fieldWeight in 4670, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.883085 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=43254)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=4670)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  3. Abdul-Gader, A.: ¬The impact of user satisfaction on computer-mediated communication acceptance : a causal path model (1996) 1.97
    1.9724885 = sum of:
      1.9724885 = product of:
        3.944977 = sum of:
          3.944977 = weight(author_txt:abdul in 5801) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.944977 = score(doc=5801,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.79832906 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1513646 = boost
                9.883085 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=43254)
                0.07015789 = queryNorm
              4.9415426 = fieldWeight in 5801, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.883085 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=43254)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=5801)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  4. Stevens, N.D.: ¬The flaw of subject access in the library catalog : an opinion (1984) 1.62
    1.6154219 = sum of:
      1.6154219 = product of:
        3.2308438 = sum of:
          3.2308438 = weight(author_txt:stevens in 1878) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.2308438 = score(doc=1878,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6022215 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.583802 = idf(docFreq=21, maxDocs=43254)
                0.07015789 = queryNorm
              5.3648763 = fieldWeight in 1878, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.583802 = idf(docFreq=21, maxDocs=43254)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=1878)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  5. Stevens, N.D.: Evaluating reference books in theory and practice (1986) 1.62
    1.6154219 = sum of:
      1.6154219 = product of:
        3.2308438 = sum of:
          3.2308438 = weight(author_txt:stevens in 4593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.2308438 = score(doc=4593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6022215 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.583802 = idf(docFreq=21, maxDocs=43254)
                0.07015789 = queryNorm
              5.3648763 = fieldWeight in 4593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.583802 = idf(docFreq=21, maxDocs=43254)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=4593)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Tennis, J.T.; Sutton, S.A.: Extending the Simple Knowledge Organization System for concept management in vocabulary development applications (2008) 0.23
    0.23376279 = sum of:
      0.23376279 = product of:
        0.9740116 = sum of:
          0.010509807 = weight(abstract_txt:current in 3338) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.010509807 = score(doc=3338,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.031274308 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0339962 = boost
                4.3014708 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.33605242 = fieldWeight in 3338, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.3014708 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3338)
          0.011912659 = weight(abstract_txt:semantic in 3338) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.011912659 = score(doc=3338,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.03399881 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0780947 = boost
                4.484923 = idf(docFreq=1325, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.3503846 = fieldWeight in 3338, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.484923 = idf(docFreq=1325, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3338)
          0.005069689 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 3338) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.005069689 = score(doc=3338,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.019235883 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1468223 = boost
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.26355374 = fieldWeight in 3338, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3338)
          0.014998849 = weight(abstract_txt:state in 3338) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.014998849 = score(doc=3338,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.039642695 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1641439 = boost
                4.842891 = idf(docFreq=926, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.37835088 = fieldWeight in 3338, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.842891 = idf(docFreq=926, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3338)
          0.018914005 = weight(abstract_txt:concepts in 3338) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.018914005 = score(doc=3338,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.05296764 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6480714 = boost
                4.570701 = idf(docFreq=1216, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.35708603 = fieldWeight in 3338, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.570701 = idf(docFreq=1216, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3338)
          0.9126066 = weight(abstract_txt:skos in 3338) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.9126066 = score(doc=3338,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.8036022 = queryWeight, product of:
                15.72414 = boost
                7.2681255 = idf(docFreq=81, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              1.1356447 = fieldWeight in 3338, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                7.2681255 = idf(docFreq=81, maxDocs=43254)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3338)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  2. Summers, E.; Isaac, A.; Redding, C.; Krech, D.: LCSH, SKOS and Linked Data (2008) 0.23
    0.2335794 = sum of:
      0.2335794 = product of:
        1.4598713 = sum of:
          0.019060254 = weight(abstract_txt:semantic in 4632) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.019060254 = score(doc=4632,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.03399881 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0780947 = boost
                4.484923 = idf(docFreq=1325, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.56061536 = fieldWeight in 4632, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.484923 = idf(docFreq=1325, maxDocs=43254)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4632)
          0.03163519 = weight(abstract_txt:core in 4632) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03163519 = score(doc=4632,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.04766046 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2764511 = boost
                5.3100944 = idf(docFreq=580, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.6637618 = fieldWeight in 4632, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3100944 = idf(docFreq=580, maxDocs=43254)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4632)
          0.37667933 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabularies in 4632) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.37667933 = score(doc=4632,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.50718385 = queryWeight, product of:
                12.13996 = boost
                5.9415035 = idf(docFreq=308, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.74268794 = fieldWeight in 4632, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.9415035 = idf(docFreq=308, maxDocs=43254)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4632)
          1.0324965 = weight(abstract_txt:skos in 4632) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.0324965 = score(doc=4632,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.8036022 = queryWeight, product of:
                15.72414 = boost
                7.2681255 = idf(docFreq=81, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              1.2848352 = fieldWeight in 4632, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.2681255 = idf(docFreq=81, maxDocs=43254)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=4632)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)
    
  3. Miles, A.; Pérez-Agüera, J.R.: SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organisation for the Web (2006) 0.22
    0.22434488 = sum of:
      0.22434488 = product of:
        1.4021555 = sum of:
          0.020216454 = weight(abstract_txt:semantic in 2505) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.020216454 = score(doc=2505,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.03399881 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0780947 = boost
                4.484923 = idf(docFreq=1325, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.5946224 = fieldWeight in 2505, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.484923 = idf(docFreq=1325, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=2505)
          0.004301774 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 2505) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.004301774 = score(doc=2505,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.019235883 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1468223 = boost
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.22363278 = fieldWeight in 2505, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=2505)
          0.2825095 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabularies in 2505) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2825095 = score(doc=2505,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.50718385 = queryWeight, product of:
                12.13996 = boost
                5.9415035 = idf(docFreq=308, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.55701596 = fieldWeight in 2505, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.9415035 = idf(docFreq=308, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=2505)
          1.0951278 = weight(abstract_txt:skos in 2505) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.0951278 = score(doc=2505,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.8036022 = queryWeight, product of:
                15.72414 = boost
                7.2681255 = idf(docFreq=81, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              1.3627735 = fieldWeight in 2505, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                7.2681255 = idf(docFreq=81, maxDocs=43254)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=2505)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)
    
  4. Isaac, A.: Aligning thesauri for an integrated access to Cultural Heritage Resources (2007) 0.22
    0.22201137 = sum of:
      0.22201137 = product of:
        0.69378555 = sum of:
          0.015758967 = weight(abstract_txt:semantic in 2554) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.015758967 = score(doc=2554,freq=7.0), product of:
              0.03399881 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0780947 = boost
                4.484923 = idf(docFreq=1325, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.46351525 = fieldWeight in 2554, product of:
                2.6457512 = tf(freq=7.0), with freq of:
                  7.0 = termFreq=7.0
                4.484923 = idf(docFreq=1325, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2554)
          0.004007941 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 2554) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.004007941 = score(doc=2554,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.019235883 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1468223 = boost
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.20835754 = fieldWeight in 2554, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2554)
          0.004947433 = weight(abstract_txt:were in 2554) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.004947433 = score(doc=2554,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.03438969 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3279595 = boost
                3.6829145 = idf(docFreq=2956, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.14386384 = fieldWeight in 2554, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.6829145 = idf(docFreq=2956, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2554)
          0.01841145 = weight(abstract_txt:lexical in 2554) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01841145 = score(doc=2554,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.0721445 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5704594 = boost
                6.5331817 = idf(docFreq=170, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.2552024 = fieldWeight in 2554, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.5331817 = idf(docFreq=170, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2554)
          0.013374221 = weight(abstract_txt:concepts in 2554) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.013374221 = score(doc=2554,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.05296764 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6480714 = boost
                4.570701 = idf(docFreq=1216, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.25249794 = fieldWeight in 2554, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.570701 = idf(docFreq=1216, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2554)
          0.026295371 = weight(abstract_txt:labels in 2554) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.026295371 = score(doc=2554,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.091495015 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7685763 = boost
                7.357357 = idf(docFreq=74, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.28739676 = fieldWeight in 2554, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.357357 = idf(docFreq=74, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2554)
          0.28833506 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabularies in 2554) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.28833506 = score(doc=2554,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.50718385 = queryWeight, product of:
                12.13996 = boost
                5.9415035 = idf(docFreq=308, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.56850207 = fieldWeight in 2554, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                5.9415035 = idf(docFreq=308, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2554)
          0.32265514 = weight(abstract_txt:skos in 2554) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.32265514 = score(doc=2554,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.8036022 = queryWeight, product of:
                15.72414 = boost
                7.2681255 = idf(docFreq=81, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.401511 = fieldWeight in 2554, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.2681255 = idf(docFreq=81, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=2554)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  5. Tennis, J.T.: Versioning concept schemes for persistent retrieval (2006) 0.22
    0.22063501 = sum of:
      0.22063501 = product of:
        0.9193126 = sum of:
          0.007356864 = weight(abstract_txt:current in 3957) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.007356864 = score(doc=3957,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.031274308 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0339962 = boost
                4.3014708 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.23523667 = fieldWeight in 3957, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.3014708 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3957)
          0.008338862 = weight(abstract_txt:semantic in 3957) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.008338862 = score(doc=3957,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.03399881 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0780947 = boost
                4.484923 = idf(docFreq=1325, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.24526922 = fieldWeight in 3957, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.484923 = idf(docFreq=1325, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3957)
          0.0050187362 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 3957) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0050187362 = score(doc=3957,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.019235883 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1468223 = boost
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.2609049 = fieldWeight in 3957, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3957)
          0.019573277 = weight(abstract_txt:core in 3957) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.019573277 = score(doc=3957,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.04766046 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2764511 = boost
                5.3100944 = idf(docFreq=580, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.41068166 = fieldWeight in 3957, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.3100944 = idf(docFreq=580, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3957)
          0.1647972 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabularies in 3957) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1647972 = score(doc=3957,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.50718385 = queryWeight, product of:
                12.13996 = boost
                5.9415035 = idf(docFreq=308, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.32492596 = fieldWeight in 3957, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.9415035 = idf(docFreq=308, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3957)
          0.7142276 = weight(abstract_txt:skos in 3957) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.7142276 = score(doc=3957,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.8036022 = queryWeight, product of:
                15.72414 = boost
                7.2681255 = idf(docFreq=81, maxDocs=43254)
                0.007031562 = queryNorm
              0.88878256 = fieldWeight in 3957, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                7.2681255 = idf(docFreq=81, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=3957)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)