Document (#37774)

Title
ISO 25964-2: Der Standard für die Interoperabilität von Thesauri
Source
Bibliotheksdienst. 47(2013) H.5, S.375-379
Year
2013
Abstract
Anfang März 2013 veröffentlicht, behandelt ISO 25964-2 die Interoperabilität zwischen Thesauri und anderen Vokabularien. Es geht dabei hauptsächlich um die theoretischen Grundlagen und die praktische Durchführung von Thesaurusföderationen. Zu den behandelten Vokabulartypen zählen Klassifikationen, Aktenpläne für die Schriftgutverwaltung, Taxonomien, Schlagwortlisten, Normdateien für Individualnamen, Ontologien, Terminologiedatenbanken und Synonymringe.
Content
"Interoperabilität bedeutet, dass zwei oder mehrere Systeme oder Systemkomponenten Informationen austauschen und nutzen können. Diese Fähigkeit ist von grundsätzlicher Bedeutung für Informationsnetzwerke, auf die wir alle angewiesen sind, und mehr noch für die Entwicklung des Semantischen Web. Bei Thesauri gibt es zwei Ebenen der Interoperabilität: 1. Erstellung des Thesaurus in einer standardisierten Form, um den Import und die Nutzung des Thesaurus in anderen Systemen zu gewährleisten (dies wurde in ISO 25964-1 behandelt und 2011 publiziert). 2. Ergänzende Nutzung von weiteren Vokabularien und zwar durch die Erstellung von Mappings zwischen den Begriffen eines Thesaurus und denen eines anderen Vokabulars (Thema von ISO 25964-2). Nur wenn Mappings mit der empfohlenen Sorgfalt von ISO 25964-2 durchgeführt werden, kann sichergestellt werden, dass die auf ihnen basierenden Verknüpfungen im Semantic Web den nichtsahnenden Netzsurfer nicht zu irreführenden Ergebnissen führen.
Der vollständige Titel von Teil 2 lautet "Information and documentation - Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies - Teil 2: Interoperability with other vocabularies". Wichtige Themen, die der Standard behandelt, sind Strukturmodelle für das Mapping, Richtlinien für Mappingtypen und der Umgang mit Präkombination, die besonders bei Klassifikationen, Taxonomien und Schlagwortsystemen vorkommt. Das primäre Augenmerk von ISO 25964 gilt den Thesauri, und mit Ausnahme von Terminologien existieren keine vergleichbaren Standards für die anderen Vokabulartypen. Statt zu versuchen, diese normativ darzustellen, behandelt Teil 2 ausschließlich die Interoperabilität zwischen ihnen und den Thesauri. Die Kapitel für die einzelnen Vokabulartypen decken jeweils folgende Sachverhalte ab: - Schlüsseleigenschaften des Vokabulars (deskriptiv, nicht normativ) - Semantische Komponenten/Beziehungen (deskriptiv, nicht normativ) Sofern anwendbar, Empfehlungen für das Mapping zwischen Vokabular und Thesaurus (normativ).
Im Fall von Ontologien, Terminologien und Synonymringen ist das Mapping in oder aus einem Thesaurus nicht immer nützlich. Hier sind andere Formen sich gegenseitig befruchtender Nutzung zu empfehlen. Dies gilt besonders für Ontologien, die im Kontext des Semantischen Web kombiniert mit Thesauri eingesetzt werden können. ISO 25964-2 zeigt die Unterschiede zwischen Thesauri und Ontologien auf und gibt Beispiele für die Möglichkeiten interoperabler Funktionen. Praktische Implementation und weiterführende Arbeiten Und was bedeutet dies für SKOS, dem W3C-Standard für die Veröffentlichung von Simple Knowledge Organization Systems im Web? Die Arbeitsgruppen von SKOS und ISO 25964 haben glücklicherweise eng zusammengearbeitet, was sich in einer guten Kompatibilität der beiden Standards äußert. Gemeinsam haben sie eine Tabelle erarbeitet, die die Übereinstimmungen zwischen den Datenmodellen von ISO 25964 und SKOS/SKOS-XL aufzeigt und nun beim ISO 25964-Sekretariat unter http://www.niso.org/schemas/iso25964/frei zugänglich ist. Die Tabelle ist formal kein Bestandteil der beiden Standards, aber von beiden abhängig. Das macht sie zu einem Beispiel für die Entwicklung praktischer Tools für das sich erweiternde Semantische Web durch die Gemeinschaft seiner Nutzer."
Footnote
Im Anhang eine Liste von Publikationen und Präsentationen.
Theme
Konzeption und Anwendung des Prinzips Thesaurus
Semantische Interoperabilität
Object
ISO 25964-2

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