Document (#39504)

Author
Haustein, S.
Bowman, T.D.
Holmberg, K.
Tsou, A.
Sugimoto, C.R.
Larivière, V.
Title
Tweets as impact indicators : Examining the implications of automated "bot" accounts on Twitter
Source
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.1, S.232-238
Year
2016
Series
Brief communications
Abstract
This brief communication presents preliminary findings on automated Twitter accounts distributing links to scientific articles deposited on the preprint repository arXiv. It discusses the implication of the presence of such bots from the perspective of social media metrics (altmetrics), where mentions of scholarly documents on Twitter have been suggested as a means of measuring impact that is both broader and timelier than citations. Our results show that automated Twitter accounts create a considerable amount of tweets to scientific articles and that they behave differently than common social bots, which has critical implications for the use of raw tweet counts in research evaluation and assessment. We discuss some definitions of Twitter cyborgs and bots in scholarly communication and propose distinguishing between different levels of engagement-that is, differentiating between tweeting only bibliographic information to discussing or commenting on the content of a scientific work.
Content
Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23456/abstract.
Theme
Informetrie
Object
Twitter

Similar documents (author)

  1. Haustein, S.; Sugimoto, C.; Larivière, V.: Social media in scholarly communication : Guest editorial (2015) 3.66
    3.659865 = sum of:
      3.659865 = product of:
        4.87982 = sum of:
          1.3762814 = weight(author_txt:sugimoto in 5274) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.3762814 = score(doc=5274,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.44535214 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.240858 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              3.0903218 = fieldWeight in 5274, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.240858 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=43254)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=5274)
          1.4099665 = weight(author_txt:larivière in 5274) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.4099665 = score(doc=5274,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.4525896 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0080928 = boost
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              3.1153312 = fieldWeight in 5274, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=5274)
          2.093572 = weight(author_txt:haustein in 5274) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            2.093572 = score(doc=5274,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.58905697 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1500769 = boost
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              3.5541077 = fieldWeight in 5274, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=5274)
        0.75 = coord(3/4)
    
  2. Haustein, S.; Peters, I.; Sugimoto, C.R.; Thelwall, M.; Larivière, V.: Tweeting biomedicine : an analysis of tweets and citations in the biomedical literature (2014) 3.05
    3.0498872 = sum of:
      3.0498872 = product of:
        4.0665164 = sum of:
          1.1469012 = weight(author_txt:sugimoto in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.1469012 = score(doc=2694,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.44535214 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.240858 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              2.5752683 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.240858 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=43254)
                0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
          1.174972 = weight(author_txt:larivière in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.174972 = score(doc=2694,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.4525896 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0080928 = boost
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              2.5961092 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
          1.7446431 = weight(author_txt:haustein in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.7446431 = score(doc=2694,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.58905697 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1500769 = boost
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              2.9617562 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
        0.75 = coord(3/4)
    
  3. Sugimoto, C.R.; Work, S.; Larivière, V.; Haustein, S.: Scholarly use of social media and altmetrics : A review of the literature (2017) 3.05
    3.0498872 = sum of:
      3.0498872 = product of:
        4.0665164 = sum of:
          1.1469012 = weight(author_txt:sugimoto in 5246) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.1469012 = score(doc=5246,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.44535214 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.240858 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              2.5752683 = fieldWeight in 5246, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.240858 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=43254)
                0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=5246)
          1.174972 = weight(author_txt:larivière in 5246) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.174972 = score(doc=5246,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.4525896 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0080928 = boost
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              2.5961092 = fieldWeight in 5246, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=5246)
          1.7446431 = weight(author_txt:haustein in 5246) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.7446431 = score(doc=5246,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.58905697 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1500769 = boost
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              2.9617562 = fieldWeight in 5246, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=5246)
        0.75 = coord(3/4)
    
  4. Mohammadi, E.; Thelwall, M.; Haustein, S.; Larivière, V.: Who reads research articles? : an altmetrics analysis of Mendeley user categories (2015) 1.46
    1.4598076 = sum of:
      1.4598076 = product of:
        2.9196153 = sum of:
          1.174972 = weight(author_txt:larivière in 3627) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.174972 = score(doc=3627,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.4525896 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0080928 = boost
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              2.5961092 = fieldWeight in 3627, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=3627)
          1.7446431 = weight(author_txt:haustein in 3627) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.7446431 = score(doc=3627,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.58905697 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1500769 = boost
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              2.9617562 = fieldWeight in 3627, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.3125 = fieldNorm(doc=3627)
        0.5 = coord(2/4)
    
  5. Larivière, V.; Sugimoto, C.R.; Cronin, B.: ¬A bibliometric chronicling of library and information science's first hundred years (2012) 1.39
    1.3931239 = sum of:
      1.3931239 = product of:
        2.7862477 = sum of:
          1.3762814 = weight(author_txt:sugimoto in 1709) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.3762814 = score(doc=1709,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.44535214 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.240858 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              3.0903218 = fieldWeight in 1709, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.240858 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=43254)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=1709)
          1.4099665 = weight(author_txt:larivière in 1709) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.4099665 = score(doc=1709,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.4525896 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0080928 = boost
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.054041963 = queryNorm
              3.1153312 = fieldWeight in 1709, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=1709)
        0.5 = coord(2/4)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Fang, Z.; Dudek, J.; Costas, R.: ¬The stability of Twitter metrics : a study on unavailable Twitter mentions of scientific publications (2020) 0.34
    0.34039992 = sum of:
      0.34039992 = product of:
        1.215714 = sum of:
          0.09625782 = weight(abstract_txt:mentions in 1037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09625782 = score(doc=1037,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.11569188 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0023931 = boost
                7.685861 = idf(docFreq=53, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.83201885 = fieldWeight in 1037, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                7.685861 = idf(docFreq=53, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1037)
          0.076220594 = weight(abstract_txt:tweet in 1037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.076220594 = score(doc=1037,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14281291 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1137055 = boost
                8.5393505 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.5337094 = fieldWeight in 1037, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.5393505 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1037)
          0.006645847 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 1037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.006645847 = score(doc=1037,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.04457652 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2444278 = boost
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.14908852 = fieldWeight in 1037, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1037)
          0.06477687 = weight(abstract_txt:scientific in 1037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06477687 = score(doc=1037,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.12813444 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8271754 = boost
                4.669963 = idf(docFreq=1101, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.5055383 = fieldWeight in 1037, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.669963 = idf(docFreq=1101, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1037)
          0.15496756 = weight(abstract_txt:tweets in 1037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15496756 = score(doc=1037,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.22919922 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9952999 = boost
                7.649493 = idf(docFreq=55, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.67612606 = fieldWeight in 1037, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.649493 = idf(docFreq=55, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1037)
          0.1470481 = weight(abstract_txt:accounts in 1037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1470481 = score(doc=1037,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.31920224 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8839002 = boost
                7.37078 = idf(docFreq=73, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.46067375 = fieldWeight in 1037, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.37078 = idf(docFreq=73, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1037)
          0.6697972 = weight(abstract_txt:twitter in 1037) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.6697972 = score(doc=1037,freq=10.0), product of:
              0.48269352 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.578333 = boost
                7.0208845 = idf(docFreq=104, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              1.3876241 = fieldWeight in 1037, product of:
                3.1622777 = tf(freq=10.0), with freq of:
                  10.0 = termFreq=10.0
                7.0208845 = idf(docFreq=104, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1037)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  2. Haustein, S.; Peters, I.; Sugimoto, C.R.; Thelwall, M.; Larivière, V.: Tweeting biomedicine : an analysis of tweets and citations in the biomedical literature (2014) 0.32
    0.32078484 = sum of:
      0.32078484 = product of:
        0.891069 = sum of:
          0.05557448 = weight(abstract_txt:mentions in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05557448 = score(doc=2694,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11569188 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0023931 = boost
                7.685861 = idf(docFreq=53, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.48036632 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.685861 = idf(docFreq=53, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
          0.014578259 = weight(abstract_txt:than in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.014578259 = score(doc=2694,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.059730988 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0185949 = boost
                3.905044 = idf(docFreq=2367, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.24406525 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.905044 = idf(docFreq=2367, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
          0.032689847 = weight(abstract_txt:social in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.032689847 = score(doc=2694,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.07095191 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1101551 = boost
                4.256064 = idf(docFreq=1666, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.46073243 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.256064 = idf(docFreq=1666, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
          0.047971677 = weight(abstract_txt:impact in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.047971677 = score(doc=2694,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.08324648 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2024986 = boost
                4.610086 = idf(docFreq=1169, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.57626075 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.610086 = idf(docFreq=1169, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
          0.009398647 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.009398647 = score(doc=2694,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.04457652 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2444278 = boost
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.210843 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
          0.047095094 = weight(abstract_txt:articles in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.047095094 = score(doc=2694,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.09050501 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2538279 = boost
                4.8068705 = idf(docFreq=960, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.520359 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.8068705 = idf(docFreq=960, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
          0.040986843 = weight(abstract_txt:scholarly in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.040986843 = score(doc=2694,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.118985005 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4376321 = boost
                5.5115304 = idf(docFreq=474, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.34447065 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.5115304 = idf(docFreq=474, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
          0.21915723 = weight(abstract_txt:tweets in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.21915723 = score(doc=2694,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.22919922 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9952999 = boost
                7.649493 = idf(docFreq=55, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.95618665 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                7.649493 = idf(docFreq=55, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
          0.42361695 = weight(abstract_txt:twitter in 2694) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.42361695 = score(doc=2694,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.48269352 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.578333 = boost
                7.0208845 = idf(docFreq=104, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.87761056 = fieldWeight in 2694, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                7.0208845 = idf(docFreq=104, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=2694)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)
    
  3. Zubiaga, A.: ¬A longitudinal assessment of the persistence of twitter datasets (2018) 0.32
    0.3197935 = sum of:
      0.3197935 = product of:
        0.8883152 = sum of:
          0.014578259 = weight(abstract_txt:than in 369) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.014578259 = score(doc=369,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.059730988 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0185949 = boost
                3.905044 = idf(docFreq=2367, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.24406525 = fieldWeight in 369, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.905044 = idf(docFreq=2367, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=369)
          0.01887349 = weight(abstract_txt:social in 369) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01887349 = score(doc=369,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07095191 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1101551 = boost
                4.256064 = idf(docFreq=1666, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.266004 = fieldWeight in 369, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.256064 = idf(docFreq=1666, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=369)
          0.076220594 = weight(abstract_txt:tweet in 369) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.076220594 = score(doc=369,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14281291 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1137055 = boost
                8.5393505 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.5337094 = fieldWeight in 369, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.5393505 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=369)
          0.022378594 = weight(abstract_txt:implications in 369) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.022378594 = score(doc=369,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.079484865 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1750162 = boost
                4.5047255 = idf(docFreq=1299, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.28154534 = fieldWeight in 369, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.5047255 = idf(docFreq=1299, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=369)
          0.023985839 = weight(abstract_txt:impact in 369) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.023985839 = score(doc=369,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08324648 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2024986 = boost
                4.610086 = idf(docFreq=1169, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.28813037 = fieldWeight in 369, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.610086 = idf(docFreq=1169, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=369)
          0.006645847 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 369) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.006645847 = score(doc=369,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.04457652 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2444278 = boost
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.14908852 = fieldWeight in 369, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=369)
          0.15496756 = weight(abstract_txt:tweets in 369) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15496756 = score(doc=369,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.22919922 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9952999 = boost
                7.649493 = idf(docFreq=55, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.67612606 = fieldWeight in 369, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.649493 = idf(docFreq=55, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=369)
          0.1470481 = weight(abstract_txt:accounts in 369) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1470481 = score(doc=369,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.31920224 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8839002 = boost
                7.37078 = idf(docFreq=73, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.46067375 = fieldWeight in 369, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.37078 = idf(docFreq=73, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=369)
          0.42361695 = weight(abstract_txt:twitter in 369) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.42361695 = score(doc=369,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.48269352 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.578333 = boost
                7.0208845 = idf(docFreq=104, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.87761056 = fieldWeight in 369, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                7.0208845 = idf(docFreq=104, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=369)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)
    
  4. Zimmer, M.; Proferes, N.J.: ¬A topology of Twitter research : disciplines, methods, and ethics (2014) 0.30
    0.2978965 = sum of:
      0.2978965 = product of:
        1.0639161 = sum of:
          0.01887349 = weight(abstract_txt:social in 3087) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01887349 = score(doc=3087,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07095191 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1101551 = boost
                4.256064 = idf(docFreq=1666, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.266004 = fieldWeight in 3087, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.256064 = idf(docFreq=1666, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3087)
          0.03164811 = weight(abstract_txt:implications in 3087) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03164811 = score(doc=3087,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.079484865 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1750162 = boost
                4.5047255 = idf(docFreq=1299, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.39816523 = fieldWeight in 3087, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.5047255 = idf(docFreq=1299, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3087)
          0.013291694 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 3087) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.013291694 = score(doc=3087,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.04457652 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2444278 = boost
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.29817703 = fieldWeight in 3087, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3087)
          0.040986843 = weight(abstract_txt:scholarly in 3087) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.040986843 = score(doc=3087,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.118985005 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4376321 = boost
                5.5115304 = idf(docFreq=474, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.34447065 = fieldWeight in 3087, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.5115304 = idf(docFreq=474, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3087)
          0.10957862 = weight(abstract_txt:tweets in 3087) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10957862 = score(doc=3087,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.22919922 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9952999 = boost
                7.649493 = idf(docFreq=55, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.47809333 = fieldWeight in 3087, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.649493 = idf(docFreq=55, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3087)
          0.1470481 = weight(abstract_txt:accounts in 3087) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1470481 = score(doc=3087,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.31920224 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8839002 = boost
                7.37078 = idf(docFreq=73, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.46067375 = fieldWeight in 3087, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.37078 = idf(docFreq=73, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3087)
          0.70248926 = weight(abstract_txt:twitter in 3087) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.70248926 = score(doc=3087,freq=11.0), product of:
              0.48269352 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.578333 = boost
                7.0208845 = idf(docFreq=104, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              1.4553525 = fieldWeight in 3087, product of:
                3.3166249 = tf(freq=11.0), with freq of:
                  11.0 = termFreq=11.0
                7.0208845 = idf(docFreq=104, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3087)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  5. Didegah, F.; Thelwall, M.: Co-saved, co-tweeted, and co-cited networks (2018) 0.29
    0.28877425 = sum of:
      0.28877425 = product of:
        0.90241957 = sum of:
          0.076220594 = weight(abstract_txt:tweet in 292) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.076220594 = score(doc=292,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14281291 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1137055 = boost
                8.5393505 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.5337094 = fieldWeight in 292, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.5393505 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=292)
          0.082974575 = weight(abstract_txt:altmetrics in 292) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.082974575 = score(doc=292,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15112951 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1456746 = boost
                8.784473 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.5490296 = fieldWeight in 292, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.784473 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=292)
          0.04154469 = weight(abstract_txt:impact in 292) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04154469 = score(doc=292,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.08324648 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2024986 = boost
                4.610086 = idf(docFreq=1169, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.49905643 = fieldWeight in 292, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.610086 = idf(docFreq=1169, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=292)
          0.013291694 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 292) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.013291694 = score(doc=292,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.04457652 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2444278 = boost
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.29817703 = fieldWeight in 292, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                2.3854163 = idf(docFreq=10822, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=292)
          0.054380734 = weight(abstract_txt:articles in 292) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.054380734 = score(doc=292,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.09050501 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2538279 = boost
                4.8068705 = idf(docFreq=960, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.6008588 = fieldWeight in 292, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.8068705 = idf(docFreq=960, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=292)
          0.10957862 = weight(abstract_txt:tweets in 292) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10957862 = score(doc=292,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.22919922 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9952999 = boost
                7.649493 = idf(docFreq=55, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.47809333 = fieldWeight in 292, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.649493 = idf(docFreq=55, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=292)
          0.31262016 = weight(abstract_txt:bots in 292) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.31262016 = score(doc=292,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.52776146 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.7082253 = boost
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.59235126 = fieldWeight in 292, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=292)
          0.21180847 = weight(abstract_txt:twitter in 292) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.21180847 = score(doc=292,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.48269352 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.578333 = boost
                7.0208845 = idf(docFreq=104, maxDocs=43254)
                0.015016623 = queryNorm
              0.43880528 = fieldWeight in 292, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.0208845 = idf(docFreq=104, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=292)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)