Document (#39586)

Author
Ravana, S.D.
Taheri, M.S.
Rajagopal, P.
Title
Document-based approach to improve the accuracy of pairwise comparison in evaluating information retrieval systems
Source
Aslib journal of information management. 67(2015) no.4, S.408-421
Year
2015
Abstract
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a method to have more accurate results in comparing performance of the paired information retrieval (IR) systems with reference to the current method, which is based on the mean effectiveness scores of the systems across a set of identified topics/queries. Design/methodology/approach Based on the proposed approach, instead of the classic method of using a set of topic scores, the documents level scores are considered as the evaluation unit. These document scores are the defined document's weight, which play the role of the mean average precision (MAP) score of the systems as a significance test's statics. The experiments were conducted using the TREC 9 Web track collection. Findings The p-values generated through the two types of significance tests, namely the Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney show that by using the document level scores as an evaluation unit, the difference between IR systems is more significant compared with utilizing topic scores. Originality/value Utilizing a suitable test collection is a primary prerequisite for IR systems comparative evaluation. However, in addition to reusable test collections, having an accurate statistical testing is a necessity for these evaluations. The findings of this study will assist IR researchers to evaluate their retrieval systems and algorithms more accurately.
Content
Vgl.: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-12-2014-0171.
Theme
Retrievalstudien

Similar documents (content)

  1. Ravana, S.D.; Rajagopal, P.; Balakrishnan, V.: Ranking retrieval systems using pseudo relevance judgments (2015) 0.42
    0.4158689 = sum of:
      0.4158689 = product of:
        0.79974794 = sum of:
          0.026907817 = weight(abstract_txt:purpose in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.026907817 = score(doc=4589,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09606979 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.063992 = boost
                4.481378 = idf(docFreq=1339, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.28008613 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.481378 = idf(docFreq=1339, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.014693072 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.014693072 = score(doc=4589,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07346944 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1395776 = boost
                3.1998224 = idf(docFreq=4826, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.1999889 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.1998224 = idf(docFreq=4826, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.055316295 = weight(abstract_txt:topic in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.055316295 = score(doc=4589,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.12328019 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2052901 = boost
                5.0765047 = idf(docFreq=738, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.44870386 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.0765047 = idf(docFreq=738, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.026525546 = weight(abstract_txt:using in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.026525546 = score(doc=4589,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.086456545 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2362022 = boost
                3.4711347 = idf(docFreq=3679, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.30680785 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.4711347 = idf(docFreq=3679, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.026587978 = weight(abstract_txt:retrieval in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.026587978 = score(doc=4589,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.08659215 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2371713 = boost
                3.4738557 = idf(docFreq=3669, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.30704835 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.4738557 = idf(docFreq=3669, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.03362409 = weight(abstract_txt:approach in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03362409 = score(doc=4589,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.10126407 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3378834 = boost
                3.7566452 = idf(docFreq=2765, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.33204365 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.7566452 = idf(docFreq=2765, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.07888953 = weight(abstract_txt:mean in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07888953 = score(doc=4589,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.19679503 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.522832 = boost
                6.4139447 = idf(docFreq=193, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.40087155 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.4139447 = idf(docFreq=193, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.070744604 = weight(abstract_txt:document in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.070744604 = score(doc=4589,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.13196959 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5273111 = boost
                4.28854 = idf(docFreq=1624, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.5360675 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.28854 = idf(docFreq=1624, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.040687155 = weight(abstract_txt:evaluation in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.040687155 = score(doc=4589,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14487825 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.600266 = boost
                4.49339 = idf(docFreq=1323, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.28083688 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.49339 = idf(docFreq=1323, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.058275755 = weight(abstract_txt:method in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.058275755 = score(doc=4589,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.1461101 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6070548 = boost
                4.5124526 = idf(docFreq=1298, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.39884824 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.5124526 = idf(docFreq=1298, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.057886753 = weight(abstract_txt:test in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.057886753 = score(doc=4589,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18326707 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7998354 = boost
                5.0537615 = idf(docFreq=755, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.3158601 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.0537615 = idf(docFreq=755, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.04169916 = weight(abstract_txt:systems in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04169916 = score(doc=4589,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.19533291 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8383548 = boost
                3.4156382 = idf(docFreq=3889, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.21347739 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.4156382 = idf(docFreq=3889, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
          0.26791027 = weight(abstract_txt:scores in 4589) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.26791027 = score(doc=4589,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6412606 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.7612705 = boost
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.4177869 = fieldWeight in 4589, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4589)
        0.52 = coord(13/25)
    
  2. Keikha, M.; Crestani, F.; Carman, M.J.: Employing document dependency in blog search (2012) 0.28
    0.28138754 = sum of:
      0.28138754 = product of:
        0.87933606 = sum of:
          0.029386144 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 1985) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029386144 = score(doc=1985,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.07346944 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1395776 = boost
                3.1998224 = idf(docFreq=4826, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.3999778 = fieldWeight in 1985, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                3.1998224 = idf(docFreq=4826, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1985)
          0.039114527 = weight(abstract_txt:topic in 1985) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.039114527 = score(doc=1985,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.12328019 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2052901 = boost
                5.0765047 = idf(docFreq=738, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.31728154 = fieldWeight in 1985, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.0765047 = idf(docFreq=738, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1985)
          0.018756395 = weight(abstract_txt:using in 1985) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.018756395 = score(doc=1985,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.086456545 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2362022 = boost
                3.4711347 = idf(docFreq=3679, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.21694592 = fieldWeight in 1985, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.4711347 = idf(docFreq=3679, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1985)
          0.01880054 = weight(abstract_txt:retrieval in 1985) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01880054 = score(doc=1985,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08659215 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2371713 = boost
                3.4738557 = idf(docFreq=3669, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.21711598 = fieldWeight in 1985, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.4738557 = idf(docFreq=3669, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1985)
          0.023775823 = weight(abstract_txt:approach in 1985) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.023775823 = score(doc=1985,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10126407 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3378834 = boost
                3.7566452 = idf(docFreq=2765, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.23479033 = fieldWeight in 1985, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.7566452 = idf(docFreq=2765, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1985)
          0.035372302 = weight(abstract_txt:document in 1985) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.035372302 = score(doc=1985,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13196959 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5273111 = boost
                4.28854 = idf(docFreq=1624, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.26803374 = fieldWeight in 1985, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.28854 = idf(docFreq=1624, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1985)
          0.057886753 = weight(abstract_txt:test in 1985) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.057886753 = score(doc=1985,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18326707 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7998354 = boost
                5.0537615 = idf(docFreq=755, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.3158601 = fieldWeight in 1985, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.0537615 = idf(docFreq=755, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1985)
          0.65624356 = weight(abstract_txt:scores in 1985) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.65624356 = score(doc=1985,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.6412606 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.7612705 = boost
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              1.0233648 = fieldWeight in 1985, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1985)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  3. Wan, X.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J.: Towards a unified approach to document similarity search using manifold-ranking of blocks (2008) 0.27
    0.27359137 = sum of:
      0.27359137 = product of:
        0.854973 = sum of:
          0.089355916 = weight(abstract_txt:pairwise in 4079) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.089355916 = score(doc=4079,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.16972277 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.423706 = idf(docFreq=25, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.5264816 = fieldWeight in 4079, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.423706 = idf(docFreq=25, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4079)
          0.014693072 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 4079) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.014693072 = score(doc=4079,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07346944 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1395776 = boost
                3.1998224 = idf(docFreq=4826, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.1999889 = fieldWeight in 4079, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.1998224 = idf(docFreq=4826, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4079)
          0.018756395 = weight(abstract_txt:using in 4079) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.018756395 = score(doc=4079,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.086456545 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2362022 = boost
                3.4711347 = idf(docFreq=3679, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.21694592 = fieldWeight in 4079, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.4711347 = idf(docFreq=3679, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4079)
          0.03760108 = weight(abstract_txt:retrieval in 4079) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03760108 = score(doc=4079,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.08659215 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2371713 = boost
                3.4738557 = idf(docFreq=3669, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.43423197 = fieldWeight in 4079, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                3.4738557 = idf(docFreq=3669, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4079)
          0.04118093 = weight(abstract_txt:approach in 4079) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04118093 = score(doc=4079,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.10126407 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3378834 = boost
                3.7566452 = idf(docFreq=2765, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.40666875 = fieldWeight in 4079, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.7566452 = idf(docFreq=2765, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4079)
          0.10004798 = weight(abstract_txt:document in 4079) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10004798 = score(doc=4079,freq=8.0), product of:
              0.13196959 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5273111 = boost
                4.28854 = idf(docFreq=1624, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.7581139 = fieldWeight in 4079, product of:
                2.828427 = tf(freq=8.0), with freq of:
                  8.0 = termFreq=8.0
                4.28854 = idf(docFreq=1624, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4079)
          0.08930342 = weight(abstract_txt:unit in 4079) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08930342 = score(doc=4079,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.21375352 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5870901 = boost
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.4177869 = fieldWeight in 4079, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4079)
          0.4640342 = weight(abstract_txt:scores in 4079) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.4640342 = score(doc=4079,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.6412606 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.7612705 = boost
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.7236281 = fieldWeight in 4079, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4079)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  4. Rajagopal, P.; Ravana, S.D.; Koh, Y.S.; Balakrishnan, V.: Evaluating the effectiveness of information retrieval systems using effort-based relevance judgment (2019) 0.27
    0.26687494 = sum of:
      0.26687494 = product of:
        0.66718733 = sum of:
          0.038053397 = weight(abstract_txt:purpose in 1573) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.038053397 = score(doc=1573,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.09606979 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.063992 = boost
                4.481378 = idf(docFreq=1339, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.3961016 = fieldWeight in 1573, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.481378 = idf(docFreq=1339, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1573)
          0.014693072 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 1573) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.014693072 = score(doc=1573,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07346944 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1395776 = boost
                3.1998224 = idf(docFreq=4826, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.1999889 = fieldWeight in 1573, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.1998224 = idf(docFreq=4826, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1573)
          0.032487027 = weight(abstract_txt:using in 1573) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.032487027 = score(doc=1573,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.086456545 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2362022 = boost
                3.4711347 = idf(docFreq=3679, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.37576133 = fieldWeight in 1573, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.4711347 = idf(docFreq=3679, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1573)
          0.03256349 = weight(abstract_txt:retrieval in 1573) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03256349 = score(doc=1573,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.08659215 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2371713 = boost
                3.4738557 = idf(docFreq=3669, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.3760559 = fieldWeight in 1573, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.4738557 = idf(docFreq=3669, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1573)
          0.047551647 = weight(abstract_txt:approach in 1573) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.047551647 = score(doc=1573,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.10126407 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3378834 = boost
                3.7566452 = idf(docFreq=2765, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.46958065 = fieldWeight in 1573, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                3.7566452 = idf(docFreq=2765, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1573)
          0.05002399 = weight(abstract_txt:document in 1573) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05002399 = score(doc=1573,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.13196959 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5273111 = boost
                4.28854 = idf(docFreq=1624, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.37905696 = fieldWeight in 1573, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.28854 = idf(docFreq=1624, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1573)
          0.07047222 = weight(abstract_txt:evaluation in 1573) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07047222 = score(doc=1573,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.14487825 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.600266 = boost
                4.49339 = idf(docFreq=1323, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.48642373 = fieldWeight in 1573, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.49339 = idf(docFreq=1323, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1573)
          0.041207183 = weight(abstract_txt:method in 1573) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.041207183 = score(doc=1573,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1461101 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6070548 = boost
                4.5124526 = idf(docFreq=1298, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.2820283 = fieldWeight in 1573, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.5124526 = idf(docFreq=1298, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1573)
          0.072225064 = weight(abstract_txt:systems in 1573) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.072225064 = score(doc=1573,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.19533291 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8383548 = boost
                3.4156382 = idf(docFreq=3889, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.3697537 = fieldWeight in 1573, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.4156382 = idf(docFreq=3889, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1573)
          0.26791027 = weight(abstract_txt:scores in 1573) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.26791027 = score(doc=1573,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6412606 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.7612705 = boost
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.4177869 = fieldWeight in 1573, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1573)
        0.4 = coord(10/25)
    
  5. Belbachir, F.; Boughanem, M.: Using language models to improve opinion detection (2018) 0.23
    0.23463017 = sum of:
      0.23463017 = product of:
        0.65175045 = sum of:
          0.06439559 = weight(abstract_txt:collection in 1330) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06439559 = score(doc=1330,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.103398964 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1038321 = boost
                4.6491785 = idf(docFreq=1132, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.6227876 = fieldWeight in 1330, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                4.6491785 = idf(docFreq=1132, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1330)
          0.022268003 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 1330) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.022268003 = score(doc=1330,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.07346944 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1395776 = boost
                3.1998224 = idf(docFreq=4826, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.30309206 = fieldWeight in 1330, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.1998224 = idf(docFreq=4826, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1330)
          0.01556336 = weight(abstract_txt:more in 1330) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01556336 = score(doc=1330,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08345042 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2145205 = boost
                3.4102545 = idf(docFreq=3910, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.18649828 = fieldWeight in 1330, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.4102545 = idf(docFreq=3910, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1330)
          0.028426148 = weight(abstract_txt:using in 1330) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.028426148 = score(doc=1330,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.086456545 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2362022 = boost
                3.4711347 = idf(docFreq=3679, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.32879117 = fieldWeight in 1330, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.4711347 = idf(docFreq=3679, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1330)
          0.040295266 = weight(abstract_txt:retrieval in 1330) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.040295266 = score(doc=1330,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.08659215 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2371713 = boost
                3.4738557 = idf(docFreq=3669, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.46534547 = fieldWeight in 1330, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                3.4738557 = idf(docFreq=3669, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1330)
          0.029421078 = weight(abstract_txt:approach in 1330) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029421078 = score(doc=1330,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.10126407 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3378834 = boost
                3.7566452 = idf(docFreq=2765, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.2905382 = fieldWeight in 1330, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.7566452 = idf(docFreq=2765, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1330)
          0.06920801 = weight(abstract_txt:document in 1330) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06920801 = score(doc=1330,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.13196959 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5273111 = boost
                4.28854 = idf(docFreq=1624, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.52442396 = fieldWeight in 1330, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                4.28854 = idf(docFreq=1624, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1330)
          0.05065091 = weight(abstract_txt:test in 1330) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05065091 = score(doc=1330,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18326707 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7998354 = boost
                5.0537615 = idf(docFreq=755, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.2763776 = fieldWeight in 1330, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.0537615 = idf(docFreq=755, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1330)
          0.33152205 = weight(abstract_txt:scores in 1330) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.33152205 = score(doc=1330,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.6412606 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.7612705 = boost
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.02014823 = queryNorm
              0.5169849 = fieldWeight in 1330, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.6845903 = idf(docFreq=147, maxDocs=43556)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1330)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)