Document (#40044)

Author
Savoy, J.
Title
Text representation strategies : an example with the State of the union addresses
Source
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.8, S.1858-1870
Year
2016
Abstract
Based on State of the Union addresses from 1790 to 2014 (225 speeches delivered by 42 presidents), this paper describes and evaluates different text representation strategies. To determine the most important words of a given text, the term frequencies (tf) or the tf?idf weighting scheme can be applied. Recently, latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) has been proposed to define the topics included in a corpus. As another strategy, this study proposes to apply a vocabulary specificity measure (Z?score) to determine the most significantly overused word-types or short sequences of them. Our experiments show that the simple term frequency measure is not able to discriminate between specific terms associated with a document or a set of texts. Using the tf idf or LDA approach, the selection requires some arbitrary decisions. Based on the term-specific measure (Z?score), the term selection has a clear theoretical basis. Moreover, the most significant sentences for each presidency can be determined. As another facet, we can visualize the dynamic evolution of usage of some terms associated with their specificity measures. Finally, this technique can be employed to define the most important lexical leaders introducing terms overused by the k following presidencies.
Content
Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23510/abstract.
Theme
Computerlinguistik

Similar documents (author)

  1. Savoy, J.: Stemming of French words based on grammatical categories (1993) 5.21
    5.2141504 = sum of:
      5.2141504 = weight(author_txt:savoy in 4650) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.2141504 = fieldWeight in 4650, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.342641 = idf(docFreq=27, maxDocs=43254)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=4650)
    
  2. Savoy, J.: Effectiveness of information retrieval systems used in a hypertext environment (1993) 5.21
    5.2141504 = sum of:
      5.2141504 = weight(author_txt:savoy in 6511) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.2141504 = fieldWeight in 6511, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.342641 = idf(docFreq=27, maxDocs=43254)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=6511)
    
  3. Savoy, J.: ¬A learning scheme for information retrieval in hypertext (1994) 5.21
    5.2141504 = sum of:
      5.2141504 = weight(author_txt:savoy in 292) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.2141504 = fieldWeight in 292, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.342641 = idf(docFreq=27, maxDocs=43254)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=292)
    
  4. Savoy, J.: Bayesian inference networks and spreading activation in hypertext systems (1992) 5.21
    5.2141504 = sum of:
      5.2141504 = weight(author_txt:savoy in 1261) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.2141504 = fieldWeight in 1261, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.342641 = idf(docFreq=27, maxDocs=43254)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=1261)
    
  5. Savoy, J.: Searching information in legal hypertext systems (1993/94) 5.21
    5.2141504 = sum of:
      5.2141504 = weight(author_txt:savoy in 1826) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.2141504 = fieldWeight in 1826, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.342641 = idf(docFreq=27, maxDocs=43254)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=1826)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Savoy, J.: Text clustering : an application with the 'State of the Union' addresses (2015) 0.43
    0.43302643 = sum of:
      0.43302643 = product of:
        0.984151 = sum of:
          0.026489278 = weight(abstract_txt:important in 3593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.026489278 = score(doc=3593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10015402 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0663155 = boost
                4.2317667 = idf(docFreq=1707, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.26448542 = fieldWeight in 3593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.2317667 = idf(docFreq=1707, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3593)
          0.1487897 = weight(abstract_txt:speeches in 3593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1487897 = score(doc=3593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2511849 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1940798 = boost
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.59235126 = fieldWeight in 3593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.47762 = idf(docFreq=8, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3593)
          0.03970261 = weight(abstract_txt:state in 3593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03970261 = score(doc=3593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13116995 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2203059 = boost
                4.842891 = idf(docFreq=926, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.3026807 = fieldWeight in 3593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.842891 = idf(docFreq=926, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3593)
          0.16094255 = weight(abstract_txt:1790 in 3593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16094255 = score(doc=3593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2646827 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2257428 = boost
                9.728935 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.60805845 = fieldWeight in 3593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.728935 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3593)
          0.23859842 = weight(abstract_txt:presidents in 3593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.23859842 = score(doc=3593,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.27313668 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.245164 = boost
                9.883085 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.8735496 = fieldWeight in 3593, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                9.883085 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3593)
          0.04239073 = weight(abstract_txt:representation in 3593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04239073 = score(doc=3593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13702576 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2472476 = boost
                4.9498115 = idf(docFreq=832, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.30936322 = fieldWeight in 3593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.9498115 = idf(docFreq=832, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3593)
          0.057473328 = weight(abstract_txt:another in 3593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.057473328 = score(doc=3593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.16785432 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.380441 = boost
                5.4784007 = idf(docFreq=490, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.34240004 = fieldWeight in 3593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.4784007 = idf(docFreq=490, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3593)
          0.06910494 = weight(abstract_txt:addresses in 3593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06910494 = score(doc=3593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18979919 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4679077 = boost
                5.82552 = idf(docFreq=346, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.364095 = fieldWeight in 3593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.82552 = idf(docFreq=346, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3593)
          0.07828095 = weight(abstract_txt:union in 3593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07828095 = score(doc=3593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.20624924 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5301983 = boost
                6.0727262 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.3795454 = fieldWeight in 3593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.0727262 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3593)
          0.07914996 = weight(abstract_txt:define in 3593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07914996 = score(doc=3593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.20777284 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5358399 = boost
                6.095115 = idf(docFreq=264, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.3809447 = fieldWeight in 3593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.095115 = idf(docFreq=264, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3593)
          0.04322861 = weight(abstract_txt:most in 3593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04322861 = score(doc=3593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17490913 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9928416 = boost
                3.9543834 = idf(docFreq=2253, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.24714896 = fieldWeight in 3593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.9543834 = idf(docFreq=2253, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3593)
        0.44 = coord(11/25)
    
  2. Savoy, J.: Estimating the probability of an authorship attribution (2016) 0.29
    0.29298028 = sum of:
      0.29298028 = product of:
        0.7324507 = sum of:
          0.026489278 = weight(abstract_txt:important in 4402) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.026489278 = score(doc=4402,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10015402 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0663155 = boost
                4.2317667 = idf(docFreq=1707, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.26448542 = fieldWeight in 4402, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.2317667 = idf(docFreq=1707, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4402)
          0.03970261 = weight(abstract_txt:state in 4402) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03970261 = score(doc=4402,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13116995 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2203059 = boost
                4.842891 = idf(docFreq=926, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.3026807 = fieldWeight in 4402, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.842891 = idf(docFreq=926, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4402)
          0.16094255 = weight(abstract_txt:1790 in 4402) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16094255 = score(doc=4402,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2646827 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2257428 = boost
                9.728935 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.60805845 = fieldWeight in 4402, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.728935 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4402)
          0.16871457 = weight(abstract_txt:presidents in 4402) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16871457 = score(doc=4402,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.27313668 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.245164 = boost
                9.883085 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.6176928 = fieldWeight in 4402, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.883085 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4402)
          0.046668082 = weight(abstract_txt:associated in 4402) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.046668082 = score(doc=4402,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14609486 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2878611 = boost
                5.1109896 = idf(docFreq=708, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.31943685 = fieldWeight in 4402, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.1109896 = idf(docFreq=708, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4402)
          0.050070755 = weight(abstract_txt:determine in 4402) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.050070755 = score(doc=4402,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15311265 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3184301 = boost
                5.232305 = idf(docFreq=627, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.32701907 = fieldWeight in 4402, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.232305 = idf(docFreq=627, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4402)
          0.06910494 = weight(abstract_txt:addresses in 4402) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06910494 = score(doc=4402,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18979919 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4679077 = boost
                5.82552 = idf(docFreq=346, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.364095 = fieldWeight in 4402, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.82552 = idf(docFreq=346, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4402)
          0.07828095 = weight(abstract_txt:union in 4402) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07828095 = score(doc=4402,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.20624924 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5301983 = boost
                6.0727262 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.3795454 = fieldWeight in 4402, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.0727262 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4402)
          0.04924838 = weight(abstract_txt:text in 4402) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04924838 = score(doc=4402,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.13758466 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5306722 = boost
                4.049738 = idf(docFreq=2048, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.35794964 = fieldWeight in 4402, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.049738 = idf(docFreq=2048, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4402)
          0.04322861 = weight(abstract_txt:most in 4402) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04322861 = score(doc=4402,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17490913 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9928416 = boost
                3.9543834 = idf(docFreq=2253, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.24714896 = fieldWeight in 4402, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.9543834 = idf(docFreq=2253, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4402)
        0.4 = coord(10/25)
    
  3. Kim, W.; Wilbur, W.J.: Corpus-based statistical screening for content-bearing terms (2001) 0.26
    0.2609136 = sum of:
      0.2609136 = product of:
        0.72476 = sum of:
          0.02123719 = weight(abstract_txt:specific in 189) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02123719 = score(doc=189,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10470775 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0902873 = boost
                4.326901 = idf(docFreq=1552, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.20282349 = fieldWeight in 189, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.326901 = idf(docFreq=1552, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=189)
          0.040730406 = weight(abstract_txt:selection in 189) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.040730406 = score(doc=189,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.16163173 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3546119 = boost
                5.375896 = idf(docFreq=543, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.25199512 = fieldWeight in 189, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.375896 = idf(docFreq=543, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=189)
          0.083029486 = weight(abstract_txt:union in 189) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.083029486 = score(doc=189,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.20624924 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5301983 = boost
                6.0727262 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.4025687 = fieldWeight in 189, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.0727262 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=189)
          0.026117897 = weight(abstract_txt:text in 189) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.026117897 = score(doc=189,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13758466 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5306722 = boost
                4.049738 = idf(docFreq=2048, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.18983147 = fieldWeight in 189, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.049738 = idf(docFreq=2048, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=189)
          0.05255885 = weight(abstract_txt:terms in 189) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05255885 = score(doc=189,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.13815135 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5338212 = boost
                4.058069 = idf(docFreq=2031, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.380444 = fieldWeight in 189, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.058069 = idf(docFreq=2031, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=189)
          0.18371302 = weight(abstract_txt:score in 189) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.18371302 = score(doc=189,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.27796328 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7764184 = boost
                7.0498724 = idf(docFreq=101, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.6609255 = fieldWeight in 189, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                7.0498724 = idf(docFreq=101, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=189)
          0.15273176 = weight(abstract_txt:specificity in 189) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15273176 = score(doc=189,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.30963996 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8749084 = boost
                7.4407387 = idf(docFreq=68, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.49325597 = fieldWeight in 189, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.4407387 = idf(docFreq=68, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=189)
          0.06298246 = weight(abstract_txt:measure in 189) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06298246 = score(doc=189,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.24741402 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0526237 = boost
                5.430678 = idf(docFreq=514, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.25456303 = fieldWeight in 189, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.430678 = idf(docFreq=514, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=189)
          0.101658925 = weight(abstract_txt:term in 189) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.101658925 = score(doc=189,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.2598049 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4287915 = boost
                4.819436 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.39128947 = fieldWeight in 189, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.819436 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=189)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)
    
  4. Belbachir, F.; Boughanem, M.: Using language models to improve opinion detection (2018) 0.15
    0.15131089 = sum of:
      0.15131089 = product of:
        0.420308 = sum of:
          0.08768026 = weight(abstract_txt:dirichlet in 45) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08768026 = score(doc=45,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.19299267 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0466633 = boost
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.45431912 = fieldWeight in 45, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.307549 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=45)
          0.02317812 = weight(abstract_txt:important in 45) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02317812 = score(doc=45,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10015402 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0663155 = boost
                4.2317667 = idf(docFreq=1707, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.23142475 = fieldWeight in 45, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.2317667 = idf(docFreq=1707, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=45)
          0.024776721 = weight(abstract_txt:specific in 45) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.024776721 = score(doc=45,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10470775 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0902873 = boost
                4.326901 = idf(docFreq=1552, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.2366274 = fieldWeight in 45, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.326901 = idf(docFreq=1552, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=45)
          0.034739785 = weight(abstract_txt:state in 45) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.034739785 = score(doc=45,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13116995 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2203059 = boost
                4.842891 = idf(docFreq=926, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.2648456 = fieldWeight in 45, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.842891 = idf(docFreq=926, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=45)
          0.043811914 = weight(abstract_txt:determine in 45) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.043811914 = score(doc=45,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15311265 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3184301 = boost
                5.232305 = idf(docFreq=627, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.2861417 = fieldWeight in 45, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.232305 = idf(docFreq=627, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=45)
          0.03047088 = weight(abstract_txt:text in 45) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03047088 = score(doc=45,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13758466 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5306722 = boost
                4.049738 = idf(docFreq=2048, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.22147004 = fieldWeight in 45, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.049738 = idf(docFreq=2048, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=45)
          0.03065933 = weight(abstract_txt:terms in 45) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03065933 = score(doc=45,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13815135 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5338212 = boost
                4.058069 = idf(docFreq=2031, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.22192566 = fieldWeight in 45, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.058069 = idf(docFreq=2031, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=45)
          0.10716593 = weight(abstract_txt:score in 45) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10716593 = score(doc=45,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.27796328 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7764184 = boost
                7.0498724 = idf(docFreq=101, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.3855399 = fieldWeight in 45, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.0498724 = idf(docFreq=101, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=45)
          0.037825033 = weight(abstract_txt:most in 45) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.037825033 = score(doc=45,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.17490913 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9928416 = boost
                3.9543834 = idf(docFreq=2253, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.21625534 = fieldWeight in 45, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.9543834 = idf(docFreq=2253, maxDocs=43254)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=45)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)
    
  5. Ruthven, I.; Lalmas, M.; Rijsbergen, K. van: Combining and selecting characteristics of information use (2002) 0.15
    0.14748037 = sum of:
      0.14748037 = product of:
        0.5267156 = sum of:
          0.037553065 = weight(abstract_txt:determine in 209) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.037553065 = score(doc=209,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15311265 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3184301 = boost
                5.232305 = idf(docFreq=627, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.24526429 = fieldWeight in 209, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.232305 = idf(docFreq=627, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=209)
          0.043104995 = weight(abstract_txt:another in 209) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.043104995 = score(doc=209,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.16785432 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.380441 = boost
                5.4784007 = idf(docFreq=490, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.25680003 = fieldWeight in 209, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.4784007 = idf(docFreq=490, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=209)
          0.026117897 = weight(abstract_txt:text in 209) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.026117897 = score(doc=209,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13758466 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5306722 = boost
                4.049738 = idf(docFreq=2048, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.18983147 = fieldWeight in 209, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.049738 = idf(docFreq=2048, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=209)
          0.05255885 = weight(abstract_txt:terms in 209) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05255885 = score(doc=209,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.13815135 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5338212 = boost
                4.058069 = idf(docFreq=2031, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.380444 = fieldWeight in 209, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.058069 = idf(docFreq=2031, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=209)
          0.059362467 = weight(abstract_txt:define in 209) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.059362467 = score(doc=209,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.20777284 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5358399 = boost
                6.095115 = idf(docFreq=264, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.28570852 = fieldWeight in 209, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.095115 = idf(docFreq=264, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=209)
          0.15273176 = weight(abstract_txt:specificity in 209) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15273176 = score(doc=209,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.30963996 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8749084 = boost
                7.4407387 = idf(docFreq=68, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.49325597 = fieldWeight in 209, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.4407387 = idf(docFreq=68, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=209)
          0.15528655 = weight(abstract_txt:term in 209) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15528655 = score(doc=209,freq=7.0), product of:
              0.2598049 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.4287915 = boost
                4.819436 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=43254)
                0.022195294 = queryNorm
              0.59770447 = fieldWeight in 209, product of:
                2.6457512 = tf(freq=7.0), with freq of:
                  7.0 = termFreq=7.0
                4.819436 = idf(docFreq=948, maxDocs=43254)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=209)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)