Document (#41084)

Author
Holenstein, E.
Title
Sprache und Gehirn : Phänomenologische Perspektiven
Source
Sprache und Gehirn: Roman Jakobson zu Ehren. Hrsg.: H. Schnelle
Imprint
Frankfurt am Main : Suhrkamp
Year
1981
Pages
S.197-216
Series
Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch Wissenschaft ; 343
Abstract
Die Phänomenologie gehört zur breiten Bewegung in den Jahrzehnten um die letzte Jahrhundertwende, die es auf die Ergänzung der Kategorien und Gesetze der klassischen Logik und der klassischen Physik durch zusätzliche Kategorien und Gesetze abgesehen hatte. Ein Hauptanliegen der Phänomenologie ist die Beachtung der Abhängigkeit der Erfahrung von der Einstellung des Beobachters, von dessen Theorie bzw. dessen Kode. Die Phänomenologie betont dabei die Bedeutung der natürlichen, vorwissenschaftlichen, »lebensweltlichen« Kategorien und Gesetze der Erfahrung. Entsprechend ist eines ihrer Ziele die Rekonstruktion der Erfahrung und des Verstehens, so wie sie vom Menschen selbst »erlebt« werden, und nicht einfach nur eine prinzipiell mögliche alternative Simulation seiner Leistungen mittels Kategorien und Gesetze, die zwar wissenschaftstheoretischen Idealen genügen, dem menschlichen Erleben jedoch fremd sind.
Ein anderes Anliegen ist die Ersetzung von atomistischen, an sich neutralen, beziehungs- und sinnlosen Daten als Ausgangsmaterial der menschlichen Leistungen durch eine ganzheitliche Auffassung der Ausgangsphänomene, der Beachtung ihrer hierarchischen Ordnung, ihres prinzipiell relationalen Charakters und der Abhängigkeit der Relationen vom Sinn der Teilgegebenheiten im Ganzen, in das sie eingebettet sind, und partiell auch von deren Beschaffenheit, von deren »Stofflichkeit- (»Substanz«). Hierher gehört auch die Ablösung des linearen, mechanistischen Kausalnexus zwischen den einzelnen Daten durch zirkuläre, teleologische Formen der Verursachung. Entsprechend ist die Ablösung der behavioristischen Modelle des menschlichen Verhaltens durch computerwissenschaftliche und informationstheoretische Modelle prinzipiell als eine phänomenologische Wende hin zu einer, den formalen Kategorien (Ziel, Plan, Signal, Selektion, Koordination usw.) nach, den traditionellen Naturwissenschaften fremden, humanwissenschaftlichen Einstellung zu begrüßen. Eine andere Frage ist, ob die bisher entwikkelten Computer- und informationstechnischen Modelle ausreichen, um den menschlichen Leistungen äquivalente Leistungen zu erbringen und vor allem, um die Leistungsprozesse des menschlichen Gehirns und Geistes Schritt für Schritt zu rekonstruieren.
Field
Sprachwissenschaft
Kognitionswissenschaft

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