Document (#41466)

Author
Brunswicker, S.
Jensen, B.
Song, Z.
Majchrzak, A.
Title
Transparency as design choice of open data contests
Source
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.10, S.1205-1222
Year
2018
Abstract
Open data contests have become popular virtual events that motivate civic hackers to design high performing software applications that are useful and useable for citizens. However, such contests stir up controversy among scholars and practitioners about the role of transparency, or more specifically, the unrestricted access and observability of the applications submitted throughout the contest. In one view, transparency may reduce performance because it causes excessive replication, whereas another view argues that transparency can encourage novel forms of reuse, namely recombination. This article proposes a new perspective towards transparency as a design choice in open data contest architectures. We introduce a 2-dimensional view towards transparency, defined as observability of information about each submitted (a) solution (how it works) and its (b) performance (how high it scores). We design a sociotechnical contest architecture that jointly affords both transparency dimensions, and evaluate it in the field during a 21-day contest involving 28 participants. The results suggest that the joint instantiation of both transparency dimensions increases performance by triggering different kinds of recombination. Findings advance literature on sociotechnical architectures for civic design. Furthermore, they guide practitioners in implementing open data contests and balancing the tension between individual versus collective benefits.
Content
Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24033.

Similar documents (author)

  1. Jensen, E.A.: Systematischer oder alphabetischer Sachkatalog (1957) 1.97
    1.9704888 = sum of:
      1.9704888 = product of:
        3.9409776 = sum of:
          3.9409776 = weight(author_txt:jensen in 805) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.9409776 = score(doc=805,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7394478 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0480385 = boost
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.08273968 = queryNorm
              5.3296227 = fieldWeight in 805, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=805)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  2. Jensen, P.E.: Three methods of teaching basic subject cataloging (1985) 1.97
    1.9704888 = sum of:
      1.9704888 = product of:
        3.9409776 = sum of:
          3.9409776 = weight(author_txt:jensen in 1739) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.9409776 = score(doc=1739,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7394478 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0480385 = boost
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.08273968 = queryNorm
              5.3296227 = fieldWeight in 1739, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=1739)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  3. Jensen, A.: INSPEC: Window on the world of the physical and applied sciences (1993) 1.97
    1.9704888 = sum of:
      1.9704888 = product of:
        3.9409776 = sum of:
          3.9409776 = weight(author_txt:jensen in 5016) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.9409776 = score(doc=5016,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7394478 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0480385 = boost
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.08273968 = queryNorm
              5.3296227 = fieldWeight in 5016, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=5016)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  4. Jensen, M.B.: Enhancing catalogs with tables of contents and internal indexes (1993) 1.97
    1.9704888 = sum of:
      1.9704888 = product of:
        3.9409776 = sum of:
          3.9409776 = weight(author_txt:jensen in 5551) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.9409776 = score(doc=5551,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7394478 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0480385 = boost
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.08273968 = queryNorm
              5.3296227 = fieldWeight in 5551, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=5551)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  5. Jensen, N.: Library cooperation in Denmark : a new model (1995) 1.97
    1.9704888 = sum of:
      1.9704888 = product of:
        3.9409776 = sum of:
          3.9409776 = weight(author_txt:jensen in 2697) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.9409776 = score(doc=2697,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7394478 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0480385 = boost
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.08273968 = queryNorm
              5.3296227 = fieldWeight in 2697, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.527396 = idf(docFreq=22, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=2697)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Peled, A.: When transparency and collaboration collide : the USA Open Data program (2011) 0.16
    0.16107495 = sum of:
      0.16107495 = product of:
        0.80537474 = sum of:
          0.013997614 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 3599) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.013997614 = score(doc=3599,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.03741023 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3892761 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.37416542 = fieldWeight in 3599, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3599)
          0.04421108 = weight(abstract_txt:data in 3599) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04421108 = score(doc=3599,freq=8.0), product of:
              0.059337392 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5649577 = boost
                3.3718455 = idf(docFreq=3987, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.7450796 = fieldWeight in 3599, product of:
                2.828427 = tf(freq=8.0), with freq of:
                  8.0 = termFreq=8.0
                3.3718455 = idf(docFreq=3987, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3599)
          0.030602451 = weight(abstract_txt:performance in 3599) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.030602451 = score(doc=3599,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08437146 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6160947 = boost
                4.6426997 = idf(docFreq=1118, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.36271092 = fieldWeight in 3599, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.6426997 = idf(docFreq=1118, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3599)
          0.095343076 = weight(abstract_txt:open in 3599) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.095343076 = score(doc=3599,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.12478924 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.269483 = boost
                4.88981 = idf(docFreq=873, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.76403284 = fieldWeight in 3599, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.88981 = idf(docFreq=873, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3599)
          0.6212205 = weight(abstract_txt:transparency in 3599) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.6212205 = score(doc=3599,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.6910374 = queryWeight, product of:
                7.552734 = boost
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.89896804 = fieldWeight in 3599, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3599)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  2. Bingi, R.; Khazanchi, D.; Yadaw, S.B.: ¬A framework for the comparative analysis and evaluation of knowledge representation schemes (1995) 0.13
    0.12940314 = sum of:
      0.12940314 = product of:
        0.80876964 = sum of:
          0.06973112 = weight(abstract_txt:dimensions in 1233) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06973112 = score(doc=1233,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09329652 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3875738 = boost
                5.979311 = idf(docFreq=293, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.7474139 = fieldWeight in 1233, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.979311 = idf(docFreq=293, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1233)
          0.01119809 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 1233) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01119809 = score(doc=1233,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.03741023 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3892761 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.29933232 = fieldWeight in 1233, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1233)
          0.025009565 = weight(abstract_txt:data in 1233) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.025009565 = score(doc=1233,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.059337392 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5649577 = boost
                3.3718455 = idf(docFreq=3987, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.4214807 = fieldWeight in 1233, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.3718455 = idf(docFreq=3987, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1233)
          0.70283085 = weight(abstract_txt:transparency in 1233) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.70283085 = score(doc=1233,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6910374 = queryWeight, product of:
                7.552734 = boost
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              1.0170662 = fieldWeight in 1233, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1233)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)
    
  3. Hyldegaard, J.: Visual information seeking : browsing and navigation through adesktop VR user interface (1997) 0.11
    0.11358415 = sum of:
      0.11358415 = product of:
        0.94653463 = sum of:
          0.03295445 = weight(abstract_txt:high in 6643) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03295445 = score(doc=6643,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.06187545 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1300107 = boost
                4.8694243 = idf(docFreq=891, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.5325933 = fieldWeight in 6643, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.8694243 = idf(docFreq=891, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=6643)
          0.0438714 = weight(abstract_txt:design in 6643) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0438714 = score(doc=6643,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10162721 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2898045 = boost
                3.9468753 = idf(docFreq=2243, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.4316895 = fieldWeight in 6643, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.9468753 = idf(docFreq=2243, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=6643)
          0.8697088 = weight(abstract_txt:transparency in 6643) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.8697088 = score(doc=6643,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.6910374 = queryWeight, product of:
                7.552734 = boost
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              1.2585553 = fieldWeight in 6643, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=6643)
        0.12 = coord(3/25)
    
  4. Donlan, R.; Cooke, R.: Running with the devil : accessing library-licensed full text holdings through Google Scholar (2005) 0.11
    0.11171981 = sum of:
      0.11171981 = product of:
        0.6982488 = sum of:
          0.051590115 = weight(abstract_txt:towards in 2364) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.051590115 = score(doc=2364,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08342316 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3120993 = boost
                5.6540775 = idf(docFreq=406, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.61841476 = fieldWeight in 2364, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.6540775 = idf(docFreq=406, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2364)
          0.009798329 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 2364) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.009798329 = score(doc=2364,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.03741023 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3892761 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.26191577 = fieldWeight in 2364, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2364)
          0.02188337 = weight(abstract_txt:data in 2364) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02188337 = score(doc=2364,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.059337392 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5649577 = boost
                3.3718455 = idf(docFreq=3987, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.3687956 = fieldWeight in 2364, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.3718455 = idf(docFreq=3987, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2364)
          0.614977 = weight(abstract_txt:transparency in 2364) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.614977 = score(doc=2364,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6910374 = queryWeight, product of:
                7.552734 = boost
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.889933 = fieldWeight in 2364, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.109375 = fieldNorm(doc=2364)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)
    
  5. Claassen, W.T.: Transparent hypermedia? (1992) 0.10
    0.10033957 = sum of:
      0.10033957 = product of:
        0.62712234 = sum of:
          0.028246671 = weight(abstract_txt:high in 4264) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.028246671 = score(doc=4264,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.06187545 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1300107 = boost
                4.8694243 = idf(docFreq=891, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.45650852 = fieldWeight in 4264, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.8694243 = idf(docFreq=891, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4264)
          0.014546746 = weight(abstract_txt:that in 4264) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.014546746 = score(doc=4264,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.03741023 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3892761 = boost
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.38884407 = fieldWeight in 4264, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                2.3946586 = idf(docFreq=10595, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4264)
          0.05720584 = weight(abstract_txt:open in 4264) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05720584 = score(doc=4264,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.12478924 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.269483 = boost
                4.88981 = idf(docFreq=873, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.45841968 = fieldWeight in 4264, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.88981 = idf(docFreq=873, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4264)
          0.5271231 = weight(abstract_txt:transparency in 4264) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.5271231 = score(doc=4264,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.6910374 = queryWeight, product of:
                7.552734 = boost
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011244967 = queryNorm
              0.7627997 = fieldWeight in 4264, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.13653 = idf(docFreq=33, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4264)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)