Document (#41965)

Author
Malsburg, C. von der
Title
Künstliche Intelligenz
Source
Kann das Gehirn das Gehirn verstehen? Gespräche über Hirnforschung und die Grenzen unserer Erkenntnis. Hrsg.: M. Eckoldt
Imprint
Heidelberg : Auer
Year
2013
Pages
S.104-109
Abstract
"Die Grundidee der künstlichen Intelligenz, die in den 50er-Jahren aufgekommen ist, war folgende: Der Experimentator schaut sich ein Phänomen, wie beispielsweise Schachspielen, an und überlegt, wie es funktioniert. Diese Funktionsidee setzt er dann in einen Algorithmus um, um schließlich sagen zu können, der Computer sei intelligent. In Wirklichkeit ist es natürlich nur eine Projektion, denn die Intelligenz sitzt nicht im Computer, sondern im Kopf des jeweiligen Programmierers. Man war damals auch der Meinung, dass man auf diese Weise Sprache verstehen könne. Dafür hätte man dann eine universelle Grammatik etwa der englischen Sprache formulieren und in einen Algorithmus gießen müssen. Dabei hat sich aber herausgestellt, dass sich Sprache nicht durchgängig an Regeln hält. Im Extremfall ist es sogar so, dass jedes Wort um sich herum sein eigenes Regelwerk verbreitet. Inzwischen weiß man, dass man gewaltige statistikbasierte Datenbanken braucht, um Sprache verarbeiten zu können. So wurde langsam klar, dass sich die Aufmerksamkeit des Programmierers von den Anwendungsvorgängen auf die Organisationsmechanismen zurückziehen muss, durch die Daten aufgenommen und verarbeitet werden. Was kann man dafür vom Gehirn lernen? Im Gehirn ist bei Geburt das Organisationsprinzip festgelegt, mit dessen Hilfe die Struktur der Umwelt verarbeitet werden kann, das heißt nicht mehr, als dass wir auf eine bestimmte Weise die Regelmäßigkeiten der Welt absorbieren. Wenn man sich darauf einlässt, muss man aber auch damit leben, dass der Computer nicht unfehlbar ist. So wie es Alan Turing ausdrückte: »If you want a computer to be infallible you can not ask it to be intelligent as well«. (Wenn man möchte, dass ein Computer unfehlbar ist, darf man nicht zugleich von ihm verlangen, dass er auch intelligent sei.) Wenn man Intelligenz haben möchte, dann muss man auch dieses heuristische Spielchen spielen wollen. Dann kann man gar nicht mehr davon reden, dass der Computer genau das macht, wofür der Programmierer ihn programmiert hat.
Content
Vgl.: https://www.lernwelt.at/downloads/kann-das-gehirn-das-gehirn-verstehen_leseprobe.pdf.
Field
Informatik

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  4. Thielicke, R.; Helmstaedter, M.: ¬"Ein völlig neues Kapitel der Künstlichen Intelligenz" : Interview mit Moritz Helmstaedter (2018) 0.33
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