Document (#43140)

Author
Fuchs, C.
Hofkirchner, W.
Title
¬Ein einheitlicher Informationsbegriff für eine einheitliche Informationswissenschaft
Source
Stufen zur Informationsgesellschaft. Festschrift zum 65. Geburtstag von Klaus Fuchs-Kittowski. Hrsg.: Christiane Floyd, Christian Fuchs, Wolfgang Hofkirchner
Imprint
Frankfurt : Peter Lang
Year
2002
Pages
S.241-281
Isbn
3-631-37642-1
Abstract
Die Bedeutung von Information im Sinn des lateinischen "informare" als Gestaltung und Formung ist heute fast vergessen. Eine evolutionäre Theorie, die Information und Selbstorganisation in einem gemeinsamen Ansatz vereint, revitalisiert dieses Verständnis, indem sie dem Technikreduktionismus und der Verdinglichung in der Informatik entgegenwirkt. Weiters kann sie angesichts der globalen Probleme, die Überlebensprobleme der Menschheit sind, zu einem Verständnis der geschichtlichen Entwicklung im Sinn einer sozialen Systemgestaltung beitragen. Es wird eine Einteilung von Informationsbegriffen vorgestellt, die als eine Kategorie reduktionistische Informationsbegriffe umfaßt, die Information als Ding betrachten, das in allen Systemen und Kontexten das gleiche bedeutet. Eine andere Kategorie stellen antisynonymische Informationsbegriffe dar, die davon ausgehen, daß Systeme die Eigenschaft haben, Information autonom, unabhängig von ihrer Umwelt, erzeugen zu können. Dabei kann ein projektionistischer Analogismus identifiziert werden, der vom Informationsgeschehen eines Systems auf das Informationsgeschehen anderer Systeme schließt, und eine dualistische/pluralistische Äquivokation, die unüberbrückbare Unterschiede im Informationsgeschehen unterschiedlicher Systemtypen propagiert. Die dritte Kategorie stellen dialektische Ansätze dar, die davon ausgehen, daß Information in verschiedenen Systemarten sowohl gleiches als auch unterschiedliches bedeutet.
Der Informationsbegriff der heutigen Informatik ist vom Shannonschen Entropiebegriff geprägt, der Information rein syntaktisch und quantitativ faßt und daher semantische, pragmatische sowie qualitative Aspekte ausblendet. Für Norbert Wiener ist Information Negentropie, ein Maß für Ordnung. Gregory Bateson faßt Information als Differenz, die eine Differenz in einem System produziert. Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker sieht Information als die Anzahl der Uralternativen in einer bestimmten Situation. Dabei geht er von binären/letzten Alternativen aus, bei denen in Entscheidungssituationen eine von zwei Möglichkeiten ausgewählt wird. Auch er versucht, Information zu quantifizieren, und es werden qualitative Aspekte vernachlässigt. Die Entwicklung der Selbstorganisationstheorie erlaubt einen neuen Blick auf Information. Niklas Luhmann faßt Information in seiner Theorie selbstreferentieller Systeme als Teil des Kommunikationsprozesses: Information beinhalte einen Unterschied vom bereits Bekanntem. Und dieser Unterschied löse kognitive Strukturveränderung aus, d.h. mental wird ein Unterschied zur alten Struktur hergestellt. Information gilt ihm als rein kommunikatives Element, die Existenz von Information in verschiedenen Systemarten wird negiert. Hermann Haken und Maria Krell-Haken versuchen eine Synthese von Informationskonzept und Synergetik und sehen Information so, daß ein Übertragunsvorgang verschiedene Endzustände bewirken könne. Die Existenz mehrerer Attraktoren sei dabei also anzunehmen. Das Ergebnis ist ein anthropomorphistischer Ansatz, der die Evolution von Information negiert.
Die Semiotik im Sinne Peirces und Morris' ist die Basis mehrerer moderner Verständnisse von Information, die Konzepte der Information und Selbstorganisation vereinen wollen. Die Cybersemiotik Søren Briers orientiert sich an der Peirceschen Semiose und an Luhmanns Autopoiesiskonzept. Ziel ist die Verknüpfung von Semiotik und Kybernetik zweiter Ordnung. Ein evolutionäres Informationsverständnis stammt von Klaus Fuchs-Kittowski, der Information als Trias von Form (Syntax), Inhalt (Semantik) und Wirkung (Pragmatik) faßt. Information entsteht dabei intern in einem Prozeß von Abbildung (Abbildung von äußeren Einwirkungen auf innere Syntaxstrukturen), Interpretation (Bedeutung, Bildung der Semantik) und Bewertung (durch Verhalten kann sich Pragmatik manifestieren). Auch wir vertreten ein dialektisches Konzept der Information, das semiotische Erkenntnisse und eine noch zu entwickelnde Theorie evolutionärer Systeme integriert. Es wird von der Existenz unterschiedlicher Organisationsebenen mit jeweils emergenten Bedeutungsinhalten der Information ausgegangen. Zentrale Begriffe dabei sind Daten, Wissen und Weisheit als semiotische Aspekte individueller Information und soziale Information. Derartige evolutionäre Ansätze wirken dem verdinglichenden Informationsbegriff in der Informatik, anderen Wissenschaften und dem Alltagsdenken entgegen und bilden Schritte zu einer Vereinheitlichten Theorie der Information, die eine interdisziplinäre Kommunikation erlaubt, Basis einer einheitlichen Informationswissenschaft ist und in letzter Konsequenz eine Umgangsweise mit den globalen Problemen im Sinn einer sozialen Systemgestaltung erlaubt.
Theme
Information

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  4. Capurro, R.; Treude, L.: Information, Zeichen, Kompetenz : Fragen an Rafael Capurro zu aktuellen und grundsätzlichen Fragen der Informationswissenschaft von Linda Treude (2011) 0.19
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