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© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Badia, A.: ¬The information manifold : why computers cannot solve algorithmic bias and fake news.
Cambridge, UK : MIT Press, 2019. xvii, 334 S.
(History and foundations of information science)
Abstract: An argument that information exists at different levels of analysis-syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic-and an exploration of the implications. Although this is the Information Age, there is no universal agreement about what information really is. Different disciplines view information differently; engineers, computer scientists, economists, linguists, and philosophers all take varying and apparently disconnected approaches. In this book, Antonio Badia distinguishes four levels of analysis brought to bear on information: syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and network-based. Badia explains each of these theoretical approaches in turn, discussing, among other topics, theories of Claude Shannon and Andrey Kolomogorov, Fred Dretske's description of information flow, and ideas on receiver impact and informational interactions. Badia argues that all these theories describe the same phenomena from different perspectives, each one narrower than the previous one. The syntactic approach is the more general one, but it fails to specify when information is meaningful to an agent, which is the focus of the semantic and pragmatic approaches. The network-based approach, meanwhile, provides a framework to understand information use among agents. Badia then explores the consequences of understanding information as existing at several levels. Humans live at the semantic and pragmatic level (and at the network level as a society), computers at the syntactic level. This sheds light on some recent issues, including "fake news" (computers cannot tell whether a statement is true or not, because truth is a semantic notion) and "algorithmic bias" (a pragmatic, not syntactic concern). Humans, not computers, the book argues, have the ability to solve these issues.
Inhalt: Introduction -- Information as codes : Shannon, Kolmogorov and the start of it all -- Information as content : semantics, possible worlds and all that jazz -- Information as pragmatics : impact and consequences -- Information as communication : networks and the phenomenon of emergence -- Will the real information please stand up? -- Is Shannon's theory a theory of information? -- Computers and information I : what can computers do? -- Computers and information II : machine learning, big data and algorithic bias -- Humans and information --Conclusions : where from here?
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 72(2021) no.3, S.357-361. (Marc Kosciejew)
Wissenschaftsfach: Informatik ; Kommunikationswissenschaften
LCSH: Information science / Philosophy ; Communication / Philosophy ; Information theory
RSWK: Massenmedien / Soziologie ; Informationsbeschaffung / Falschmeldung
BK: 05.31 Öffentlichkeit Kommunikationswissenschaft
2Badia, A.: Data, information, knowledge : an information science analysis.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.6, S.1279-1287.
Abstract: I analyze the text of an article that appeared in this journal in 2007 that published the results of a questionnaire in which a number of experts were asked to define the concepts of data, information, and knowledge. I apply standard information retrieval techniques to build a list of the most frequent terms in each set of definitions. I then apply information extraction techniques to analyze how the top terms are used in the definitions. As a result, I draw data-driven conclusions about the aggregate opinion of the experts. I contrast this with the original analysis of the data to provide readers with an alternative viewpoint on what the data tell us.