Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Beheshti, J. ; Cole, C. ; Abuhimed, D. ; Lamoureux, I.: Tracking middle school students' information behavior via Kuhlthau's ISP Model : temporality.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.5, S.943-960.
Abstract: The article reports a field study investigating the temporality of the information behavior of 44 grade 8 students from initiation to completion of their school inquiry-based history project. The conceptual framework for the study is Kuhlthau's 6-stage information-search process (ISP) model. The objective of the study is to test and extend ISP model concepts. As per other ISP model studies, our study measured the evolution of the feelings, thoughts, and actions of the study participants over the 3-month period of their class project. The unique feature of this study is the unlimited access the researchers had to a real-life history class, resulting in 12 separate measuring periods. We report 2 important findings of the study. First, through factor analysis, we determined 5 factors that define the temporality of completing an inquiry-based project for these grade 8 students. The second main finding is the importance of the students' consultations with their classmates, siblings, parents, and teachers in the construction of the knowledge necessary to complete their project.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23230/abstract.
2Cole, C. ; Beheshti, J. ; Abuhimed, D. ; Lamoureux, I.: ¬The end game in Kuhlthau's ISP Model : knowledge construction for grade 8 students researching an inquiry-based history project.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.11, S.2249-2266.
Abstract: This article reports on a field study of the information behavior of Grade 8 students researching an inquiry-based class history project. Kuhlthau's 7-stage Information Search Process (ISP) model forms the conceptual framework for the study. The aim of the study was to define an end game for the ISP model by answering the following question: How do the student participants' feelings, thoughts, and information behavior lead to the construction of new knowledge? Study findings tentatively indicate that knowledge construction results from an iterative process between the student and information, which can be divided into 3 phases. In the first phase, the students formulate questions from their previous knowledge to start knowledge construction; in the second phase, newly found topic information causes students to ask questions; and in the third phase, the students answer the questions asked by this newly found topic information. Based on these results and Kuhlthau's own ISP stage 7 assessment definition of the ISP model end game, we propose a model of knowledge construction inserted as an extra row in the ISP model framework.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23300/abstract.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Benutzerstudien
3Large, A. ; Beheshti, J. ; Tabatabaei, N. ; Nesset, V.: Developing a visual taxonomy : children's views on aesthetics.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.9, S.1808-1822.
Abstract: This article explores the aesthetic design criteria that should be incorporated into the information visualization of a taxonomy intended for use by children. Seven elementary-school students were each asked to represent their ideas in drawings for visualizing a taxonomy. Their drawings were analyzed according to six criteria - balance, equilibrium, symmetry, unity, rhythm, and economy - identified as aesthetic measures in previous research. The drawings revealed the presence of all six measures, and three - unity, equilibrium, and rhythm - were found to play an especially important role. It is therefore concluded that an aesthetic design for an information visualization for young users should incorporate all six measures.
4Leide, J.E. ; Cole, C. ; Beheshti, J. ; Large, A. ; Lin, Y.: Task-based information retrieval : structuring undergraduate history essays for better course evaluation using essay-type visualizations.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.9, S.1227-1241.
Abstract: When domain novices are in C.C. Kuhlthau's (1993) Stage 3, the exploration stage of researching an assignment, they often do not know their information need; this causes them to go back to Stage 2, the topic-selection stage, when they are selecting keywords to formulate their query to an Information Retrieval (IR) system. Our hypothesis is that instead of going backward, they should be going forward toward a goal state-the performance of the task for which they are seeking the information. If they can somehow construct their goal state into a query, this forward-looking query better operationalizes their information need than does a topic-based query. For domain novice undergraduates seeking information for a course essay, we define their task as selecting a high-impact essay structure which will put the students' learning on display for the course instructor who will evaluate the essay. We report a study of first-year history undergraduate students which tested the use and effectiveness of "essay type" as a task-focused query-formulation device. We randomly assigned 78 history undergraduates to an intervention group and a control group. The dependent variable was essay quality, based on (a) an evaluation of the student's essay by a research team member, and (b) the marks given to the student's essay by the course instructor. We found that conscious or formal consideration of essay type is inconclusive as a basis of a task-focused query-formulation device for IR.
5Cole, C. ; Lin, Y. ; Leide, J. ; Large, A. ; Beheshti, J.: ¬A classification of mental models of undergraduates seeking information for a course essay in history and psychology : preliminary investigations into aligning their mental models with online thesauri.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.13, S.2092-2104.
Abstract: The article reports a field study which examined the mental models of 80 undergraduates seeking information for either a history or psychology course essay when they were in an early, exploration stage of researching their essay. This group is presently at a disadvantage when using thesaurus-type schemes in indexes and online search engines because there is a disconnect between how domain novice users of IR systems represent a topic space and how this space is represented in the standard IR system thesaurus. The study attempted to (a) ascertain the coding language used by the 80 undergraduates in the study to mentally represent their topic and then (b) align the mental models with the hierarchical structure found in many thesauri. The intervention focused the undergraduates' thinking about their topic from a topic statement to a thesis statement. The undergraduates were asked to produce three mental model diagrams for their real-life course essay at the beginning, middle, and end of the interview, for a total of 240 mental model diagrams, from which we created a 12-category mental model classification scheme. Findings indicate that at the end of the intervention, (a) the percentage of vertical mental models increased from 24 to 35% of all mental models; but that (b) 3rd-year students had fewer vertical mental models than did 1st-year undergraduates in the study, which is counterintuitive. The results indicate that there is justification for pursuing our research based on the hypothesis that rotating a domain novice's mental model into a vertical position would make it easier for him or her to cognitively connect with the thesaurus's hierarchical representation of the topic area.
Themenfeld: Benutzerstudien ; Informationsdienstleistungen
Wissenschaftsfach: Psychologie ; Geschichtswissenschaft
6Yi, K. ; Beheshti, J. ; Cole, C. ; Leide, J.E. ; Large, A.: User search behavior of domain-specific information retrieval systems : an analysis of the query logs from PsycINFO and ABC-Clio's Historical Abstracts/America: History and Life.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.9, S.1208-1220.
Abstract: The authors report the findings of a study that analyzes and compares the query logs of PsycINFO for psychology and the two history databases of ABC-Clio: Historical Abstracts and America: History and Life to establish the sociological nature of information need, searching, and seeking in history versus psychology. Two problems are addressed: (a) What level of query log analysis - by individual query terms, by co-occurrence of word pairs, or by multiword terms (MWTs) - best serves as data for categorizing the queries to these two subject-bound databases; and (b) how can the differences in the nature of the queries to history versus psychology databases aid in our understanding of user search behavior and the information needs of their respective users. The authors conclude that MWTs provide the most effective snapshot of user searching behavior for query categorization. The MWTs to ABC-Clio indicate specific instances of historical events, people, and regions, whereas the MWTs to PsycINFO indicate concepts roughly equivalent to descriptors used by PsycINFO's own classification scheme. The average length of queries is 3.16 terms for PsycINFO and 3.42 for ABC-Clio, which breaks from findings for other reference and scholarly search engine studies, bringing query length closer in line to findings for general Web search engines like Excite.
Wissenschaftsfach: Psychologie ; Geschichtswissenschaft
Objekt: PsycINFO ; Historical Abstracts ; America: History and Life
7Cole, C. ; Leide, J.E. ; Large, A, ; Beheshti, J. ; Brooks, M.: Putting it together online : information need identification for the domain novice user.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.7, S.684-694.
Abstract: Domain novice users in the beginning stages of researching a topic find themselves searching for information via information retrieval (IR) systems before they have identified their information need. Pre-Internet access technologies adapted by current IR systems poorly serve these domain novice users, whose behavior might be characterized as rudderless and without a compass. In this article we describe a conceptual design for an information retrieval system that incorporates standard information need identification classification and subject cataloging schemes, called the INIIReye System, and a study that tests the efficacy of the innovative part of the INIIReye System, called the Associative Index. The Associative Index helps the user put together his or her associative thoughts-Vannevar Bush's idea of associative indexing for his Memex machine that he never actually described. For the first time, data from the study reported here quantitatively supports the theoretical notion that the information seeker's information need is identified through transformation of his/her knowledge structure (i.e., the seeker's cognitive map or perspective an the task far which information is being sought).
8Cole, C. ; Leide, J. ; Beheshti, J. ; Large, A. ; Brooks, M.: Investigating the Anomalous States of Knowledge hypothesis in a real-life problem situation : a study of history and psychology undergraduates seeking information for a course essay.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.14, S.1544-1554.
Abstract: The authors present a study of the real-life information needs of 59 McGill University undergraduates researching essay topics for either a history or psychology course, interviewed just after they had selected their essay topic. The interview's purpose was to transform the undergraduate's query from general topic terms, based an vague conceptions of their essay topic, to an information need-based query. To chart the transformation, the authors investigate N. J. Belkin, R. N. Oddy, and H. M. Brooks' Anomalous States of Knowledge (ASK) hypothesis (1982a, 1982b), which links the user's ASK to a relevant document set via a common code based an structural facets. In the present study an interoperable structural code based an eight essay styles is created, then notions of structural facets compatible with a highimpact essay structure are presented. The important findings of the study are: (a) the undergraduates' topic statements and terms derived from it do not constitute an effective information need statement because for most of the subjects in the study the topic terms conformed to a low-impact essay style; (b) essay style is an effective interoperable structural code for charting the evolution of the undergraduate's knowledge state from ASK to partial resolution of the ASK in an information need statement.
9Cole, C. ; Beheshti, J. ; Leide, J. E. ; Large, A.: Interactive information retrieval : bringing the user to a selection state.
In: New directions in cognitive information retrieval. Eds.: A. Spink, C. Cole. Dordrecht : Springer Netherland, 2005. S.13-41.
(The information retrieval series, vol. 19)
Abstract: There have been various approaches to conceptualizing interactive information retrieval (IR), which can be generally divided into system and user approaches (Hearst, 1999; cf. also Spink, 1997). Both system and user approaches define user-system interaction in terms of the system and the user reacting to the actions or behaviors of the other: the system reacts to the user's input; the user to the output of the system (Spink, 1997). In system approach models of the interaction, e.g., Moran (1981), "[T]he user initiates an action or operation and the system responds in some way which in turn leads the user to initiate another action and so on" (Beaulieu, 2000, p. 433). In its purest form, the system approach models the user as a reactive part of the interaction, with the system taking the lead (Bates, 1990). User approaches, on the other hand, in their purest form wish to insert a model of the user in all its socio-cognitive dimensions, to the extent that system designers consider such approaches impractical (Vakkari and Jarvelin, 2005, Chap. 7, this volume). The cognitive approach to IR interaction attempts to overcome this divide (Ruthven, 2005, Chap. 4, this volume; Vakkari and Jarvelin, 2005 Chap. 7, this volume) by representing the cognitive elements of both system designers and the user in the interaction model (Larsen and Ingwersen, 2005 Chap. 3, this volume). There are cognitive approach researchers meeting in a central ground from both the system and user side. On the system side, are computer scientists employing cognitive research to design more effective IR systems from the point of view of the user's task (Nathan, 1990; Fischer, Henninger, and Redmiles, 1991; O'Day and Jeffries, 1993; Russell et al., 1993; Kitajima and Polson, 1996; Terwilliger and Polson, 1997). On the user side are cognitive approach researchers applying methods, concepts and models from psychology to design systems that are more in tune with how users acquire information (e.g., Belkin, 1980; Ford (2005, Chap. 5, this volume); Ingwersen (Larsen and Ingwersen, 2005, Chap. 3, this volume); Saracevic, 1996; Vakkari (Vakkari and Jarvelin, 2005, Chap. 7, this volume)).
10Beheshti, J. ; Bowler, L. ; Large, A. ; Nesset, V.: Towards an alternative information retrieval system for children.
In: New directions in cognitive information retrieval. Eds.: A. Spink, C. Cole. Dordrecht : Springer Netherland, 2005. S.139-165.
(The information retrieval series, vol. 19)
Abstract: A recent survey of more than 1700 households indicates that the main reason many parents purchase computers and connect their children to the Internet at home is for education (Safe and Smart). In addition the survey shows that children also use the Internet for educational activities that go beyond required school work. In fact, the fastest growing group of Internet users are children between the ages of eight and twelve (Vise, 2003), who are increasingly using the Web to access educational as well as entertainment materials. Children, however, rely on conventional information retrieval (IR) systems and search engines intended for general adult use, such as MSN or Google, and to a much lesser extent, Web portals such as Yahooligans! and LycosZone specifically intended for young users (Large et al., 2004; Large, Beheshti, and Rahman, 2002a). But research has shown that children's information needs (Walter, 1994), research approaches (Kuhlthau, 1991), and cognitive abilities and higher order thinking skills (Neuman, 1995; Siegler, 1998; Vandergrift, 1989) differ from those of adults. The results of earlier studies on children's use of online catalogues designed for adults indicate that young users are often faced with difficulties locating specific information related to their information needs (Hirsh, 1997). A growing body of research points to the problems children typically encounter when seeking information on the Web. Kafai and Bates (1997) conducted one of the first studies with young children on their use of Web sites, and concluded that they were able to navigate through the links and scroll. Only the older children, however, could use search engines effectively. Hirsh (1999) investigated the searching behavior of ten fifth graders and concluded that they encountered difficulties in formulating effective search queries and did not use advanced features. Schacter, Chung, and Dorr (1998) conducted a study on Internet searching by fifth and sixth graders and concluded that they did not plan their searches, used ill-defined queries, and preferred browsing. Large, Beheshti, and Moukdad (1999), investigating the information seeking behavior of 53 sixth graders, similarly found that children preferred browsing to searching. Bowler, Large, and Rejskind (2001), focusing on a few case studies of grade six students concluded that search engines designed for adults are unsuitable for children. Wallace et al. (2000), studying sixth graders, discovered that experience in using search engines does not improve children's search strategies and in general information seeking is an unfamiliar activity for children.
11Large, J.A. ; Beheshti, J.: Interface design, Web portals, and children.
In: Library trends. 54(2005) no.2, S.318-342.
Abstract: Children seek information in order to complete school projects on a wide variety of topics, as well as to support their various leisure activities. Such information can be found in print documents, but increasingly young people are turning to the Web to meet their information needs. In order to exploit this resource, however, children must be able to search or browse digital information through the intermediation of an interface. In particular, they must use Web-based portals that in most cases have been designed for adult users. Guidelines for interface design are not hard to find, but typically they also postulate adult rather than juvenile users. The authors discuss their own research work that has focused upon what young people themselves have to say about the design of portal interfaces. They conclude that specific interface design guidelines are required for young users rather than simply relying upon general design guidelines, and that in order to formulate such guidelines it is necessary to actively include the young people themselves in this process.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: 10.1353/lib.2006.0017.
12Large, A. ; Beheshti, J. ; Nesset, V. ; Bowler, L.: Designing Web portals in intergenerational teams : two prototype portals for elementary school students.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 55(2004) no.13, S.1140-1154.
Abstract: This article describes and discusses the detailed procedures followed by two intergenerational teams comprising the researchers and a group of eight grade-six elementary students (ages 11 to 12 years) and a group of six third-grade elementary students (ages 8 to 9 years), respectively, in designing two prototype Web portals intended for use by elementary school students. These procedures were based on three design theories: Contextual Inquiry, Participatory Design, and Cooperative Inquiry. The article also presents and describes the two resulting Web portal prototypes and discusses the design criteria employed by the teams. Conclusions are elaborated on the basis of this research experience regarding how such a design process should be conducted in the context of an intergenerational team, and what characteristics young users expect to find in Web portals that they will use to support their informational needs in terms of elementary school projects and assignments.
13Leide, J.E. ; Large, A. ; Beheshti, J. ; Brooks, M. ; Cole, C.: Visualization schemes for domain novices exploring a topic space : the navigation classification scheme.
In: Information processing and management. 39(2003) no.6, S.923-940.
Abstract: In this article and two other articles which conceptualize a future stage of the research program (Leide, Cole, Large, & Beheshti, submitted for publication; Cole, Leide, Large, Beheshti, & Brooks, in preparation), we map-out a domain novice user's encounter with an IR system from beginning to end so that appropriate classification-based visualization schemes can be inserted into the encounter process. This article describes the visualization of a navigation classification scheme only. The navigation classification scheme uses the metaphor of a ship and ship's navigator traveling through charted (but unknown to the user) waters, guided by a series of lighthouses. The lighthouses contain mediation interfaces linking the user to the information store through agents created for each. The user's agent is the cognitive model the user has of the information space, which the system encourages to evolve via interaction with the system's agent. The system's agent is an evolving classification scheme created by professional indexers to represent the structure of the information store. We propose a more systematic, multidimensional approach to creating evolving classification/indexing schemes, based on where the user is and what she is trying to do at that moment during the search session.
14Large, A. ; Beheshti, J. ; Rahman, T.: Design criteria for children's Web portals : the users speak out.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 53(2002) no.2, S.79-94.
Abstract: Four focus groups were held with young Web users (10 to 13 years of age) to explore design criteria for Web portals. The focus group participants commented upon four existing portals designed with young users in mind: Ask Jeeves for Kids, KidsClick, Lycos Zone, and Yahooligans! This article reports their first impressions on using these portals, their likes and dislikes, and their suggestions for improvements. Design criteria for children's Web portals are elaborated based upon these comments under four headings: portal goals, visual design, information architecture, and personalization. An ideal portal should cater for both educational and entertainment needs, use attractive screen designs based especially on effective use of color, graphics, and animation, provide both keyword search facilities and browsable subject categories, and allow individual user personalization in areas such as color and graphics
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
Objekt: WWW ; AskJeeves for Kids ; KidsClick ; Lycos Zone ; Yahooligans
15Large, A. ; Beheshti, J. ; Cole, C.: Information architecture for the Web : the IA matrix approach to designing children's portals.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 53(2002) no.10, S.831.838.
Abstract: The article presents a matrix that can serve as a tool for designing the information architecture of a Web portal in a logical and systematic manner. The information architect begins by inputting the portal's objective, target user, and target content. The matrix then determines the most appropriate information architecture attributes for the portal by filling in the Applied Information Architecture portion of the matrix. The article discusses how the matrix works using the example of a children's Web portal to provide access to museum information.
Anmerkung: Teil eines Themenschwerpunktes Information architecture
16Large, A. ; Beheshti, J. ; Rahman, T.: Gender differences in collaborative Web searching behavior : an elementary school study.
In: Information processing and management. 38(2002) no.3, S.427-443.
Abstract: This paper reports the results of an empirical study into gender differences in collaborative Web searching, conducted in a grade-six classroom of a Canadian elementary school. Searches undertaken by 16 same-sex groups of two or three students (six of boys, ten of girls) for information to support a class assignment were captured on videotape. The multiple search sessions took place over several weeks. An analysis of the search sessions reveals that the groups of boys formulated queries comprising fewer keywords than the groups of girls, the boys spent less time on individual pages than the girls, the boys clicked more hypertext links per minute than the girls, and in general were more active while online. The study overall demonstrates academic, affective and behavior differences between grade-six boys and girls working in same-sex groups on a Web-based class project.
Themenfeld: Internet ; Benutzerstudien
17Large, A. ; Beheshti, J. ; Moukdad, H.: Information seeking on the Web : navigational skills of grade-six primary school students.
In: Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods. Medford, NJ : Information Today, 1999. S.84-97.
(Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36)
Abstract: Reports on research into the information-seeking habits of primary schoolchildren conducted under operational conditions. Three workstations with Internet access were installed in a grade-six classroom in suburban Montreal. After a short introductory training session for the entire group followed by short individual sessions for each student, 53 students, working in small groups, used these workstations over a six-week period to seek information on the Web of relevance to a class project assigned by their teacher. The project dealt with the Winter Olympic Games (recently completed at that time). The student objective was to locate relevant information for a poster and an oral presentation on one of the sports represented at the Games. All screen activity was directly captured on videotape and group conversations at the workstation were audiotaped. Demographic and computer literacy information was gathered in a questionnaire. This paper presents a map of the information-seeking landscape based upon an analysis of the descriptive statistics gathered from the Web searches. It reveals that the novice users favored browsing over analytic search strategies, although they did show some sophistication in the construction of the latter. Online help was ignored. The children demonstrated a very high level of interactivity with the interface at the expense of thinking, planning and evaluating. This is a preliminary analysis of data which will subsequently be expanded by the inclusion of qualitative data
Themenfeld: Internet ; Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
18Beheshti, J.: ¬The evolving OPAC.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 24(1997) nos.1/2, S.163-185.
Abstract: Advances in computer and communication technology technology have had an important impact on OPACs. The client server architecture model, the Internet, protocols, and standards such as Z39.50 have resulted in newly designed interfaces which reduce syntactic and semantic knowledge required to conduct effective online searches. Experimental OPACs have been developed in an attempt to assist users in conceptual transformation of their information needs into searchable queries. These experiments are based primarily on determining users' behaviour at the OPAC terminal, which needs much further study. Other non traditional models for storing and retrieving information should be considered to create an intuitive OPAC
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenheftes "Cataloging and classification: trends, transformations, teaching, and training."
Themenfeld: OPAC ; Katalogfragen allgemein
19Beheshti, J. ; Large, V. ; Bialek, M.: PACE: a browsable graphical interface.
In: Information technology and libraries. 15(1996) no.4, S.231-240.
Abstract: PACE (Public Access Catalogue Extension) is an alternative user interface designed to enhace OPACs. PACE simulates images of books and library shelves to help users browse through the catalogue. Reports results of a study in which PACE was tested in a college library (Vanier College), in a real operational environment, against a second generation test based OPAC: Best-Seller. Results show that a simple browsable retrieval interface performed as well as a second generation OPAC in terms of retrieval speed and search success. The overwhelming majority of students, however, preferred the browsing capability of PACE through the familiar metaphor of books and library shelves to a text based OPAC
Themenfeld: OPAC ; Suchoberflächen
20Large, A. ; Beheshti, J. ; Breuleux, A. ; Renaud, A.: Multimedia and comprehension : the relationship among text, animation, and captions.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 46(1995) no.5, S.340-347.
Abstract: Reports the results from the 2nd phase of a cognitive study of multimedia and its effect on children's learning. A sample of 12 year old primary schools viewed a procedural text that included a 4 sequence animation with captions on how to find south using the sun's shadow, adapted from Compton's Mutlimedia Encyclopedia using Apple QuickTime. The children were divided into 4 grouos; text plus animation, text plus catptions plus animation; and caption with animation. They were then asked to undertake to recall in their own words what they had learned, and also to enact how they would find south usng a specially designed model. No significant differences were found among the groups regarding literal recall of what they had read and seen, or in their ability to draw inferences from it. The children in the text plus animation and captions groups, however, were more successful at identifying the major steps in the procedure and at enhancing that procedure whereas the children who read the text only experienced the most difficulty in performing the procedure