Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Bensman, S.J. ; Smolinsky, L.J.: Lotka's inverse square law of scientific productivity : its methods and statistics.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.7, S.1786-1791.
Abstract: This brief communication analyzes the statistics and methods Lotka used to derive his inverse square law of scientific productivity from the standpoint of modern theory. It finds that he violated the norms of this theory by extremely truncating his data on the right. It also proves that Lotka himself played an important role in establishing the commonly used method of identifying power-law behavior by the R2 fit to a regression line on a log-log plot that modern theory considers unreliable by basing the derivation of his law on this very method.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23785/full.
2Bensman, S.J.: Eugene Garfield, Francis Narin, and PageRank : the theoretical bases of the Google search engine.
Abstract: This paper presents a test of the validity of using Google Scholar to evaluate the publications of researchers by comparing the premises on which its search engine, PageRank, is based, to those of Garfield's theory of citation indexing. It finds that the premises are identical and that PageRank and Garfield's theory of citation indexing validate each other.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Citation indexing
Objekt: PageRank ; Google Scholar
3Bensman, S.J. ; Smolinsky, L.J. ; Pudovkin, A.I.: Mean citation rate per article in mathematics journals : differences from the scientific model.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.7, S.1440-1463.
Abstract: This paper analyzes the applicability of the article mean citation rate measures in the Science Citation Index Journal Citation Reports (SCI JCR) to the five JCR mathematical subject categories. These measures are the traditional 2-year impact factor as well as the recently added 5-year impact factor and 5-year article influence score. Utilizing the 2008 SCI JCR, the paper compares the probability distributions of the measures in the mathematical categories to the probability distribution of a scientific model of impact factor distribution. The scientific model distribution is highly skewed, conforming to the negative binomial type, with much of the variance due to the important role of review articles in science. In contrast, the three article mean citation rate measures' distributions in the mathematical categories conformed to either the binomial or Poisson, indicating a high degree of randomness. Seeking reasons for this, the paper analyzes the bibliometric structure of Mathematics, finding it a disjointed discipline of isolated subfields with a weak central core of journals, reduced review function, and long cited half-life placing most citations beyond the measures' time limits. These combine to reduce the measures' variance to one commensurate with random error. However, the measures were found capable of identifying important journals. Using data from surveys of the Louisiana State University (LSU) faculty, the paper finds a higher level of consensus among mathematicians and others on which are the important mathematics journals than the measures indicate, positing that much of the apparent randomness may be due to the measures' inapplicability to mathematical disciplines. Moreover, tests of the stability of impact factor ranks across a 5-year time span suggested that the proper model for Mathematics is the negative binomial.
4Bensman, S.J. ; Leydesdorff, L.: Definition and identification of journals as bibliographic and subject entities : librarianship versus ISI Journal Citation Reports methods and their effect on citation measures.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.6, S.1097-1117.
Abstract: This paper explores the ISI Journal Citation Reports (JCR) bibliographic and subject structures through Library of Congress (LC) and American research libraries cataloging and classification methodology. The 2006 Science Citation Index JCR Behavioral Sciences subject category journals are used as an example. From the library perspective, the main fault of the JCR bibliographic structure is that the JCR mistakenly identifies journal title segments as journal bibliographic entities, seriously affecting journal rankings by total cites and the impact factor. In respect to JCR subject structure, the title segment, which constitutes the JCR bibliographic basis, is posited as the best bibliographic entity for the citation measurement of journal subject relationships. Through factor analysis and other methods, the JCR subject categorization of journals is tested against their LC subject headings and classification. The finding is that JCR and library journal subject analyses corroborate, clarify, and correct each other.
Objekt: Journal Citation Report
5Bensman, S.J.: Distributional differences of the impact factor in the sciences versus the social sciences : an analysis of the probabilistic structure of the 2005 journal citation reports.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 59(2008) no.9, S.1366-1382.
Abstract: This paper examines the probability structure of the 2005 Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) Journal Citation Reports (JCR) by analyzing the Impact Factor distributions of their journals. The distribution of the SCI journals corresponded with a distribution generally modeled by the negative binomial distribution, whereas the SSCI distribution fit the Poisson distribution modeling random, rare events. Both Impact Factor distributions were positively skewed - the SCI much more so than the SSCI - indicating excess variance. One of the causes of this excess variance was that the journals highest in the Impact Factor in both JCRs tended to class in subject categories well funded by the National Institutes of Health. The main reason for the SCI Impact Factor distribution being more skewed than the SSCI one was that review journals defining disciplinary paradigms play a much more important role in the sciences than in the social sciences.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Citation indexing
Objekt: Science Citation Index ; Social Sciences Citation Index ; Journal Citation Reports
7Bensman, S.J.: ¬The impact factor, total citations, and better citation mouse traps : a commentary.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.12, S.1904-1908.
Abstract: This communication comments upon the article Measuring the Utility of Journals in the Crime-Psychology Field: Beyond the Impact Factor by Walters (2006), recently published in JASIST. Walters' article is utilized as a vehicle to demonstrate certain misconceptions and incorrect value judgments common to the literature on the impact factor, arising from a lack of understanding of this measure's role in the thought structure of its creator, Eugene Garfield, as well as of his utilization of this measure.
8Bensman, S.J.: Urquhart and probability : the transition from librarianship to library and information science.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.2, S.189-214.
Abstract: In this article, I analyze the role of Donald J. Urquhart in the creation of modern library and information science. Urquhart was one of the chief architects of information science in Britain and founder of the National Lending Library for Science and Technology (NLL), which evolved into the present-day British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC). In particular, I focus an the part played by Urquhart in the development of that branch of information science termed bibliomefrics, the application of mathematical and statistical techniques to information phenomena, pursuing both historical and practical aims. The article is intended not only to trace the history of the probability distributions applicable to library use and other facets of human knowledge but also to demonstrate how these distributions can be used in the evaluation and management of scientific journal collections. For these purposes, the paper is divided into three parts of equal importance. The first part is statistical and establishes the theoretical framework, within which Urquhart's work is considered. It traces the historical development of the applicable probability distributions, discussing their origins an the European continent and how Continental principles became incorporated in the biometric statistics that arose in Britain as a result of the Darwinian revolution. This part analyzes the binomial and Poisson processes, laying out the reasons why the Poisson process is more suitable for modeling information phenomena. In doing so, it describes key distributions arising from these processes as weil as the various tests for these distributions, citing the literature that shows how to conduct these tests. Throughout the discussion, the relationship of these distributions to library use and the laws of information science is emphasized. The second part of the article analyzes the pioneering role of Urquhart as a conduit for the entry of these probability distributions into librarianship, converting it into library and information science. He was the first librarian to apply probability to library use, utilizing it not only to establish and manage the scientific journal collections of the NLL but also to evolve his Law of Supralibrary Use. Urquhart's work is portrayed within the context of a general trend to adopt probabilistic methods for analytical purposes, and a major premise of this article is that his law and the probabilistic breakthrough, an which it was based, were most likely in Britain, which was one of the few countries not only to develop but also maintain the necessary scientific preconditions. The third-and concluding section-discusses how Urquhart's Law forces a probabilistic reconceptualization of the functioning of the scientific journal system as weIl as the law's practical implications for journal sales, collection evaluation and management, resource sharing, and the transition from the paper to the electronic format.
9Bensman, S.J.: Urquhart's and Garfield's laws : the British controversy over their validity.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 52(2001) no.9, S.714-724.
Abstract: The British controversy over the validity of Urquhart's and Garfield's Laws during the 1970s constitutes an important episode in the formulation of the probability structure of human knowledge. This controversy took place within the historical context of the convergence of two scientific revolutions-the bibliometric and the biometric-that had been launched in Britain. The preceding decades had witnessed major breakthroughs in understanding the probability distributions underlying the use of human knowledge. Two of the most important of these breakthroughs were the laws posited by Donald J. Urquhart and Eugene Garfield, who played major roles in establishing the institutional bases of the bibliometric revolution. For his part, Urquhart began his realization of S. C. Bradford's concept of a national science library by analyzing the borrowing of journals on interlibrary loan from the Science Museum Library in 1956. He found that 10% of the journals accounted for 80% of the loans and formulated Urquhart's Law, by which the interlibrary use of a journal is a measure of its total use. This law underlay the operations of the National Lending Library for Science and Technology (NLLST), which Urquhart founded. The NLLST became the British Library Lending Division (BLLD) and ultimately the British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC). In contrast, Garfield did a study of 1969 journal citations as part of the process of creating the Science Citation Index (SCI), formulating his Law of Concentration, by which the bulk of the information needs in science can be satisfied by a relatively small, multidisciplinary core of journals. This law became the operational principle of the Institute for Scientif ic Information created by Garfield. A study at the BLLD under Urquhart's successor, Maurice B. Line, found low correlations of NLLST use with SCI citations, and publication of this study started a major controversy, during which both laws were called into question. The study was based on the faulty use of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, and the controversy over it was instrumental in causing B. C. Brookes to investigate bibliometric laws as probabilistic phenomena and begin to link the bibliometric with the biometric revolution. This paper concludes with a resolution of the controversy by means of a statistical technique that incorporates Brookes' criticism of the Spearman rank-correlation method and demonstrates the mutual supportiveness of the two laws
10Bensman, S.J.: Probability distributions in library and information science : a historical and practitioner viewpoint.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 51(2000) no.9, S.816-833.
Abstract: This paper has a dual character dictated by its twofold purpose. First, it is a speculative historiographic essay containing an attempt to fix the present posotion of library and information science within the context of the probabilisitc revolution that has been encompassing all of science. Second, it comprises a guide to practitioners engaged in statistical research in library and information science
Wissenschaftsfach: Informationswissenschaft ; Bibliothekswesen