Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Fremery, W. de ; Buckland, M.K.: Copy theory.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 73(2022) no.3, S.407-418.
Abstract: In information science, writing, printing, telecommunication, and digital computing have been central concerns because of their ability to distribute information. Overlooked is the obvious fact that these technologies fashion copies, and the theorizing of copies has been neglected. We may think a copy is the same as what it copies, but no two objects can really be the same. "The same" means similar enough as an acceptable substitute for some purpose. The differences between usefully similar things are also often important, in forensic analysis, for example, or inferential processes. Status as a copy is only one form of relationship between objects, but copies are so integral to information science that they demand a theory. Indeed, theorizing copies provides a basis for a more complete and unified view of information science.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24558.
2Buckland, M.: Document theory.
In: Knowledge organization. 45(2018) no.5, S.425-436.
(Reviews of concepts in knowledge organization)
Abstract: Document theory examines the concept of a document and how it can serve with other concepts to understand communication, documentation, information, and knowledge. Knowledge organization itself is in practice based on the arrangement of documents representing concepts and knowledge. The word "document" commonly refers to a text or graphic record, but, in a semiotic perspective, non-graphic objects can also be regarded as signifying and, therefore, as documents. The steady increase in the variety and number of documents since prehistoric times enables the development of communities, the division of labor, and reduction of the constraints of space and time. Documents are related to data, facts, texts, works, information, knowledge, signs, and other documents. Documents have physical (material), cognitive, and social aspects.
Themenfeld: Katalogfragen allgemein
3Buckland, M.K.: Information and society.
Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2017. xiv, 217 S.
(MIT Press Essential Knowledge series)
Abstract: iWe live in an information society, or so we are often told. But what does that mean? This volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series offers a concise, informal account of the ways in which information and society are related and of our ever-increasing dependence on a complex multiplicity of messages, records, documents, and data. Using information in its everyday, nonspecialized sense, Michael Buckland explores the influence of information on what we know, the role of communication and recorded information in our daily lives, and the difficulty (or ease) of finding information. He shows that all this involves human perception, social behavior, changing technologies, and issues of trust. Buckland argues that every society is an "information society"; a "non-information society" would be a contradiction in terms. But the shift from oral and gestural communication to documents, and the wider use of documents facilitated by new technologies, have made our society particularly information intensive. Buckland describes the rising flood of data, documents, and records, outlines the dramatic long-term growth of documents, and traces the rise of techniques to cope with them. He examines the physical manifestation of information as documents, the emergence of data sets, and how documents and data are discovered and used. He explores what individuals and societies do with information; offers a basic summary of how collected documents are arranged and described; considers the nature of naming; explains the uses of metadata; and evaluates selection methods, considering relevance, recall, and precision.
LCSH: Information science / Sociological aspects ; Communication / Social aspects ; Documentation / Social aspects ; Information society
BK: 05.20 (Kommunikation und Gesellschaft)
4Buckland, M.K.: Classifications, links and contexts : keynote address.
In: Classification and authority control: expanding resource discovery: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar 2015, 29-30 October 2015, Lisbon, Portugal. Eds.: Slavic, A. u. M.I. Cordeiro. Würzburg : Ergon-Verlag, 2015. S.1-17.
Abstract: Links commonly refer to models developed for the World Wide Web Consortium, but these are a special case within the wider field of links and references used in resource discovery, including subject indexes to classifications, relationships used in vocabulary control, and search term recommender services. There is a tension between standardised relationships (symbolized by Paul Otlet's modernist universalism and the Semantic Web) and the particular, subjective situations in which individuals try to make sense (symbolized by Ludwik Fleck's emphasis on the influence of local cultural contexts). A subject index to a classification is a collection of links, sometimes qualified by context. Different domains (specialties) have their own cultural contexts and benefit from differently tailored links even when searching within the same resources. Making links is a descriptive, language activity. Probabilistic methods can create links from familiar to unfamiliar vocabularies economically. Links commonly use a limited set of relationships, mainly equivalence, inclusion, and inheritance. A far wider range of relationships would help resource discovery. Extending resource discovery requires not only same-facet links to reach additional resources but also links across different facets to provide explanatory context.
Inhalt: Präsentation unter: http://www.udcds.com/seminar/2015/media/slides/Buckland_InternationalUDCSeminar2015.pdf.
6Buckland, M.K.: Knowledge organization and the technology of intellectual work.
In: Knowledge organization in the 21st century: between historical patterns and future prospects. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference 19-22 May 2014, Kraków, Poland. Ed.: Wieslaw Babik. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2014. S.14-21.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol. 14)
Abstract: Since ancient times intellectual work has required tools for writing, documents for reading, and bibliographies for finding, not to mention more specialized techniques and technologies. Direct personal discussion is often impractical and we depend on documents instead. Document technology evolved through writing, printing, telecommunications, copying, and computing and facilitated an 'information flood' which motivated important knowledge organization initiatives, especially in the nineteenth century (library science, bibliography, documentation). Electronics and the Internet amplified these trends. As an example we consider an initiative to provide shared access to the working notes of editors preparing scholarly editions of historically important texts. For the future, we can project trends leading to ubiquitous recording, pervasive representations, simultaneous interaction regardless of geography, and powerful analysis and visualization of the records resulting from that ubiquitous recording. This evolving situation has implications for publishing, archival practice, and knowledge organization. The passing of time is of special interest in knowledge organization because knowing is cultural, living, and always changing. Technique and technology are also cultural ("material culture") but fixed and inanimate, as can be seen in the obsolescence of subject headings, which remain inscribed while culture moves on. The tension between the benefits of technology and the limitations imposed by fixity in a changing world provide a central tension in knowledge organization over time.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/aiko_vol_14_2014_04.pdf.
7Buckland, M.: What kind of science can information science be?.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 63(2012) no.1, S.1-7.
Abstract: During the 20th century there was a strong desire to develop an information science from librarianship, bibliography, and documentation and in 1968 the American Documentation Institute changed its name to the American Society for Information Science. By the beginning of the 21st century, however, departments of (library and) information science had turned instead towards the social sciences. These programs address a variety of important topics, but they have been less successful in providing a coherent explanation of the nature and scope of the field. Progress can be made towards a coherent, unified view of the roles of archives, libraries, museums, online information services, and related organizations if they are treated as information-providing services. However, such an approach seems significantly incomplete on ordinary understandings of the providing of information. Instead of asking what information science is or what we might wish it to become, we ask instead what kind of field it can be given our assumptions about it. We approach the question by examining some keywords: science, information, knowledge, and interdisciplinary. We conclude that if information science is concerned with what people know, then it is a form of cultural engagement, and at most, a science of the artificial.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.21656/pdf.
8Buckland, M.K.: Obsolescence in subject description.
In: Journal of documentation. 68(2012) no.2, S.154-161.
Abstract: Purpose - The paper aims to explain the character and causes of obsolescence in assigned subject descriptors. Design/methodology/approach - The paper takes the form of a conceptual analysis with examples and reference to existing literature. Findings - Subject description comes in two forms: assigning the name or code of a subject to a document and assigning a document to a named subject category. Each method associates a document with the name of a subject. This naming activity is the site of tensions between the procedural need of information systems for stable records and the inherent multiplicity and instability of linguistic expressions. As languages change, previously assigned subject descriptions become obsolescent. The issues, tensions, and compromises involved are introduced. Originality/value - Drawing on the work of Robert Fairthorne and others, an explanation of the unavoidable obsolescence of assigned subject headings is presented. The discussion relates to libraries, but the same issues arise in any context in which subject description is expected to remain useful for an extended period of time.
9Buckland, M.K.: Interrogating spatial analogies relating to knowledge organization : Paul Otlet and others.
In: Library trends. 61(2012) no.2, S.271-285.
Abstract: The author provides an examination of how ideas about place and space have been used in thinking about the organization of knowledge. The spatial analogies of Paul Otlet (1868-1944) in relation to his overall vision are traditional and conventional. Notions of space, place, position, location, and movement are frequent in the work of other leading innovators (Martin Schrettinger, Melvil Dewey, Wilhelm Ostwald, Emanuel Goldberg, and Suzanne Briet) concerning specific practical aspects of knowledge organization. Otlet's spatial imagery is more original and more ingenious when applied to technical problems compared to his overall vision.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Themenheft: 'Information and Space: Analogies and Metaphors'.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: 10.1353/lib.2012.0039.
Themenfeld: Geschichte der Sacherschließung
10Buckland, M.: Vom Mikrofilm zur Wissensmaschine : Emanuel Goldberg zwischen Medientechnik und Politik : Biografie.Aus dem Engl. von Gernot Rieder.
Berlin : Avinus-Verl., 2010. 380 S.
(Forschung visuelle Kultur ; Bd. 1)
Abstract: Emanuel Goldberg (1881-1970), Chemiker, Ingenieur und Gründer von Zeis Ikon. Er beeinflusste maßgeblich die Bildtechnologie in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Ist Emanuel Goldberg der Erfinder der ersten Suchmaschine? 1932 bereits entwickelte er ein Gerät, das das Suchen, Auffinden und Anzeigen von beliebig vielen Dokumenten möglich machte. Diese Statistische Maschine, wie er sie nannte, kamen verschiedenste Technologien auf kreative Art und Weise zusammen: Mikrofilm für das Speichern von Dokumenten; Lochkarten für die Spezifikation der Suchanfragen; Elektronik für das Erkennen von Codierungsmustern; Optik; Kinematographie für die beweglichen Teile; und Telefonie für die Dateneingabe. Goldberg leistete Pionierarbeit, denn die Statistische Maschine scheint der erste Bildschirmarbeitsplatz mit elektronischen Komponenten gewesen zu sein und darüber hinaus das erste System zur Auffindung von Dokumenten, das über die Lokalisation von Einträgen mit bereits bekannten Positionsadressen hinausging und sich dem wesentlich anspruchsvolleren Unterfangen widmete, Dokumente hinsichtlich bestimmter Suchkriterien suchen, auswählen und abbilden zu können. Michael Buckland zeichnet hier eine unglaubliche Lebensgeschichte nach, die nicht nur Goldbergs Kreativität und Genialität honoriert, sondern auch ein intellektueller und gesellschaftlicher Spiegel ist - einer historisch wichtigen Zeit für die Geschichte der Informationswissenschaften und Technologie.
Inhalt: Originaltitel: Emanuel Goldberg and his knowledge machine
Themenfeld: Information ; Biographische Darstellungen ; Geschichte der Sacherschließung
RSWK: Goldberg, Emanuel
BK: 50.01 / Technikgeschichte
DDC: 609.2 / DDC22ger
GHBS: KKZG (SI) ; ZUI (FH K)
RVK: AN 92900 ; ZG 8000
11Buckland, M.K.: Democratic theory in library information science.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 59(2008) no.9, S.1534.
(Letter to the editor)
Abstract: A recent article by Joseph Buschman regrets that democratic theory is an unfinished idea. The argument appears to assume an essential relationship between library and information science (LIS) and democratic theory. Libraries services are important for undemocratic purposes also, and like other sociotechnical systems, partake on the cultural context in which they are deployed.
Anmerkung: Bezugnahme auf: Buschman, J.: Democratic theory in library information science: toward an emendation. In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.10, S.1483-1496.
12Buckland, M. ; Shaw, R.: 4W vocabulary mapping across diiverse reference genres.
In: Culture and identity in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Tenth International ISKO Conference 5-8 August 2008, Montreal, Canada. Ed. by Clément Arsenault and Joseph T. Tennis. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2008. S.151-156.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.11)
Inhalt: This paper examines three themes in the design of search support services: linking different genres of reference resources (e.g. bibliographies, biographical dictionaries, catalogs, encyclopedias, place name gazetteers); the division of vocabularies by facet (e.g. What, Where, When, and Who); and mapping between both similar and dissimilar vocabularies. Different vocabularies within a facet can be used in conjunction, e.g. a place name combined with spatial coordinates for Where. In practice, vocabularies of different facets are used in combination in the representation or description of complex topics. Rich opportunities arise from mapping across vocabularies of dissimilar reference genres to recreate the amenities of a reference library. In a network environment, in which vocabulary control cannot be imposed, semantic correspondence across diverse vocabularies is a challenge and an opportunity.
Anmerkung: Vgl. unter: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/tocs/0497f79b0c0b3ed06/0497f79b0c0b5550a/index.php
13Shaw, R. ; Buckland, M.: Open identification and linking of the four Ws.
In: Metadata for semantic and social applications : proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, Berlin, 22 - 26 September 2008, DC 2008: Berlin, Germany / ed. by Jane Greenberg and Wolfgang Klas. Göttingen : Univ.-Verl., 2008. S.208.
Abstract: Platforms for social computing connect users via shared references to people with whom they have relationships, events attended, places lived in or traveled to, and topics such as favorite books or movies. Since free text is insufficient for expressing such references precisely and unambiguously, many social computing platforms coin identifiers for topics, places, events, and people and provide interfaces for finding and selecting these identifiers from controlled lists. Using these interfaces, users collaboratively construct a web of links among entities. This model needn't be limited to social networking sites. Understanding an item in a digital library or museum requires context: information about the topics, places, events, and people to which the item is related. Students, journalists and investigators traditionally discover this kind of context by asking "the four Ws": what, where, when and who. The DCMI Kernel Metadata Community has recognized the four Ws as fundamental elements of descriptions (Kunze & Turner, 2007). Making better use of metadata to answer these questions via links to appropriate contextual resources has been our focus in a series of research projects over the past few years. Currently we are building a system for enabling readers of any text to relate any topic, place, event or person mentioned in the text to the best explanatory resources available. This system is being developed with two different corpora: a diverse variety of biographical texts characterized by very rich and dense mentions of people, events, places and activities, and a large collection of newly-scanned books, journals and manuscripts relating to Irish culture and history. Like a social computing platform, our system consists of tools for referring to topics, places, events or people, disambiguating these references by linking them to unique identifiers, and using the disambiguated references to provide useful information in context and to link to related resources. Yet current social computing platforms, while usually amenable to importing and exporting data, tend to mint proprietary identifiers and expect links to be traversed using their own interfaces. We take a different approach, using identifiers from both established and emerging naming authorities, representing relationships using standardized metadata vocabularies, and publishing those representations using standard protocols so that links can be stored and traversed anywhere. Central to our strategy is to move from appearances in a text to naming authorities to the the construction of links for searching or querying trusted resources. Using identifiers from naming authorities, rather than literal values (as in the DCMI Kernel) or keys from a proprietary database, makes it more likely that links constructed using our system will continue to be useful in the future. WorldCat Identities URIs (http://worldcat.org/identities/) linked to Library of Congress and Deutsche Nationalbibliothek authority files for persons and organizations and Geonames (http://geonames.org/) URIs for places are stable identifiers attached to a wealth of useful metadata. Yet no naming authority can be totally comprehensive, so our system can be extended to use new sources of identifiers as needed. For example, we are experimenting with using Freebase (http://freebase.com/) URIs to identify historical events, for which no established naming authority currently exists. Stable identifiers (URIs), standardized hyperlinked data formats (XML), and uniform publishing protocols (HTTP) are key ingredients of the web's open architecture. Our system provides an example of how this open architecture can be exploited to build flexible and useful tools for connecting resources via shared references to topics, places, events, and people.
Anmerkung: Vgl. unter: http://dcpapers.dublincore.org/ojs/pubs/article/view/942/938.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web
14Buckland, M.K.: Emanuel Goldberg and his knowledge machine : information, invention, and political forces.
Westport, Conn. : Libraries Unlimited, 2006. xiii, 380 S.
(New directions in information management)
Abstract: This book tells the story of Emanuel Goldberg, a chemist, inventor, and industrialist who contributed to almost every aspect of imaging technology in the first half of the 20th century. An incredible story emerges as Buckland unearths forgotten documents and rogue citations to show that Goldberg created the first desktop search engine, developed microdot technology, and designed the famous Contax 35 mm camera. It is a fascinating tribute to a great mind and a crucial period in the history of information science and technology.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 63(2012) no.2, S.427-428 (Thomas Haigh)
Themenfeld: Information ; Biographische Darstellungen ; Geschichte der Sacherschließung
LCSH: Goldberg, Emanuel, 1881 / 1970 ; Information technology / History ; Inventors / Biography
RSWK: Information und Dokumentation / Informationstechnik / Geschichte ; Goldberg, Emanuel / Biographie
BK: 06.01 / Geschichte des Informations- und Dokumentationswesens ; 54.01 / Geschichte der Informatik ; 02.01 / Geschichte der Wissenschaft und Kultur ; 06.44 / IuD-Einrichtungen
DDC: 004.1/9 B
LCC: T58.5 .B83 2006
RVK: ZG 8000 ; SR 800 ; ST 110
15Buckland, M. ; Lancaster, L.: Combining place, time, and topic : the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative.
In: D-Lib magazine. 10(2004) no.5, x S.
Abstract: The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative was formed to encourage scholarly communication and the sharing of data among researchers who emphasize the relationships between place, time, and topic in the study of culture and history. In an effort to develop better tools and practices, The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative has sponsored the collaborative development of software for downloading and editing geo-temporal data to create dynamic maps, a clearinghouse of shared datasets accessible through a map-based interface, projects on format and content standards for gazetteers and time period directories, studies to improve geo-temporal aspects in online catalogs, good practice guidelines for preparing e-publications with dynamic geo-temporal displays, and numerous international conferences. The Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) grew out of discussions among an international group of scholars interested in religious history and area studies. It was established as a unit under the Dean of International and Area Studies at the University of California, Berkeley in 1997. ECAI's mission is to promote an international collaborative effort to transform humanities scholarship through use of the digital environment to share data and by placing greater emphasis on the notions of place and time. Professor Lewis Lancaster is the Director. Professor Michael Buckland, with a library and information studies background, joined the effort as Co-Director in 2000. Assistance from the Lilly Foundation, the California Digital Library (University of California), and other sources has enabled ECAI to nurture a community; to develop a catalog ("clearinghouse") of Internet-accessible georeferenced resources; to support the development of software for obtaining, editing, manipulating, and dynamically visualizing geo-temporally encoded data; and to undertake research and development projects as needs and resources determine. Several hundred scholars worldwide, from a wide range of disciplines, are informally affiliated with ECAI, all interested in shared use of historical and cultural data. The Academia Sinica (Taiwan), The British Library, and the Arts and Humanities Data Service (UK) are among the well-known affiliates. However, ECAI mainly comprises individual scholars and small teams working on their own small projects on a very wide range of cultural, social, and historical topics. Numerous specialist committees have been fostering standardization and collaboration by area and by themes such as trade-routes, cities, religion, and sacred sites.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://dlib.ukoln.ac.uk/dlib/may04/buckland/05buckland.html.
Themenfeld: Information Gateway
Objekt: Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative
16Buckland, M.K.: Five grand challenges for library research : paradox of the global information infrastructure.
In: Library trends. 51(2003) no.4, S.675-686.
Abstract: Librarians have many and varied difficulties. For some library problems research is not the best remedy. Improved coordination, clarification of values, or drawing on existing research results may suffice. When research is indicated, it pays to be selective. Investing in research, like any other kind of investment, should be judged in terms of the probability of success, the likely delay before results are achieved, and the impact on the population of competent researchers, as well as the perceived importance of the problem. New technology permits new forms of service, generates new data for analysis, and supports new tools for researchers. Normal research is repetitious and progresses incrementally. A bolder strategy is to seek significant advances in library service by challenging researchers to achieve a deeper understanding of important, but inadequately understood, library phenomena. Five Grand Challenges are proposed: 1. Library service: Could library services be made more meaningful? 2. Library theory: Who knew what when? 3. Library design: Have digital libraries been designed backwards? 4. Library values: How neutral can libraries be? and 5. Library communities: How do communities differ?
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Themenheft: Research questions for the twenty-first century
17Buckland, M.K. ; Chen, A. ; Gebbie, M. ; Kim, Y. ; Norgard, B.: Variation by subdomain in indexes to knowledge organization systems.
In: Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the 6th International ISKO-Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada. Ed.: C. Beghtol et al. Würzburg : Ergon, 2000. S.48-54.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.7)
Abstract: Bibliographies and their knowledge organization systems commonly cover broad topical areas. Indexes to knowledge organization systems, such as the Subject Index to the Dewey Decimal Classification, provide a general index to the entirety. However, every community and every specialty develops its own specialized vocabulary. An index derived from the specialized use of language within a single subdomain could well be different from a general-purpose index for all domains and preferable for that subdomain. Statistical association techniques can be used to create indexes to knowledge systems. A preliminary analysis based on the INSPEC database shows that subdomain indexes differ significantly from each other and from a general index. The greater the polysemy of individual words the greater difference in the indexes
18Buckland, M.: ¬The landscape of information science : the American Society for Information Science at 62.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 50(1999) no.11, S.970-974.
Abstract: Founded in 1937 as the American Documentation Institution, the ASIS is 62 years old. Information science includes 2 fundamental different traditions: a 'document' traditiion concerned with signifying objects and their use; and a 'computational' tradition of applying algorithmic, logical, mathematical, and mechanical techniques to information management. Both traditions have been deeply influenced by technological modernism: Technology, standards, systems, and efficiency enable progress. Both traditions are needed. Information Science is rooted in part in humanities and qualitative social sciences. The landscape of Information Science is complex. An ecumenical view is needed
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Themenheftes: The 50th Anniversary of the Journal of the American Society for Information Science. Pt.1: The Journal, its society, and the future of print
19Buckland, M. ; Chen, A. ; Chen, H.M. ; Kim, Y. ; Lam, B. ; Larson, R. ; Norgard, B. ; Purat, J. ; Gey, F.: Mapping entry vocabulary to unfamiliar metadata vocabularies.
In: D-Lib magazine. 5(1999) no.1, xx S.
Abstract: The emerging network environment brings access to an increasing population of heterogeneous repositories. Inevitably, these, have quite diverse metadata vocabularies (categorization codes, classification numbers, index and thesaurus terms). So, necessarily, the number of metadata vocabularies that are accessible but unfamiliar for any individual searcher is increasing steeply. When an unfamiliar metadata vocabulary is encountered, how is a searcher to know which codes or terms will lead to what is wanted? This paper reports work at the University of California, Berkeley, on the design and development of English language indexes to metadata vocabularies. Further details and the current status of the work can be found at the project website http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/research/metadata/
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january99/buckland/01buckland.html und http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/research/metadata/oasis.html.