Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Buckland, M.K.: Information and society.
Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2017. xiv, 217 S.
(MIT Press Essential Knowledge series)
Abstract: iWe live in an information society, or so we are often told. But what does that mean? This volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series offers a concise, informal account of the ways in which information and society are related and of our ever-increasing dependence on a complex multiplicity of messages, records, documents, and data. Using information in its everyday, nonspecialized sense, Michael Buckland explores the influence of information on what we know, the role of communication and recorded information in our daily lives, and the difficulty (or ease) of finding information. He shows that all this involves human perception, social behavior, changing technologies, and issues of trust. Buckland argues that every society is an "information society"; a "non-information society" would be a contradiction in terms. But the shift from oral and gestural communication to documents, and the wider use of documents facilitated by new technologies, have made our society particularly information intensive. Buckland describes the rising flood of data, documents, and records, outlines the dramatic long-term growth of documents, and traces the rise of techniques to cope with them. He examines the physical manifestation of information as documents, the emergence of data sets, and how documents and data are discovered and used. He explores what individuals and societies do with information; offers a basic summary of how collected documents are arranged and described; considers the nature of naming; explains the uses of metadata; and evaluates selection methods, considering relevance, recall, and precision.
LCSH: Information science / Sociological aspects ; Communication / Social aspects ; Documentation / Social aspects ; Information society
BK: 05.20 (Kommunikation und Gesellschaft)
2Buckland, M.K.: Classifications, links and contexts : keynote address.
In: Classification and authority control: expanding resource discovery: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar 2015, 29-30 October 2015, Lisbon, Portugal. Eds.: Slavic, A. u. M.I. Cordeiro. Würzburg : Ergon-Verlag, 2015. S.1-17.
Abstract: Links commonly refer to models developed for the World Wide Web Consortium, but these are a special case within the wider field of links and references used in resource discovery, including subject indexes to classifications, relationships used in vocabulary control, and search term recommender services. There is a tension between standardised relationships (symbolized by Paul Otlet's modernist universalism and the Semantic Web) and the particular, subjective situations in which individuals try to make sense (symbolized by Ludwik Fleck's emphasis on the influence of local cultural contexts). A subject index to a classification is a collection of links, sometimes qualified by context. Different domains (specialties) have their own cultural contexts and benefit from differently tailored links even when searching within the same resources. Making links is a descriptive, language activity. Probabilistic methods can create links from familiar to unfamiliar vocabularies economically. Links commonly use a limited set of relationships, mainly equivalence, inclusion, and inheritance. A far wider range of relationships would help resource discovery. Extending resource discovery requires not only same-facet links to reach additional resources but also links across different facets to provide explanatory context.
Inhalt: Präsentation unter: http://www.udcds.com/seminar/2015/media/slides/Buckland_InternationalUDCSeminar2015.pdf.
3Buckland, M.K.: Knowledge organization and the technology of intellectual work.
In: Knowledge organization in the 21st century: between historical patterns and future prospects. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference 19-22 May 2014, Kraków, Poland. Ed.: Wieslaw Babik. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2014. S.14-21.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol. 14)
Abstract: Since ancient times intellectual work has required tools for writing, documents for reading, and bibliographies for finding, not to mention more specialized techniques and technologies. Direct personal discussion is often impractical and we depend on documents instead. Document technology evolved through writing, printing, telecommunications, copying, and computing and facilitated an 'information flood' which motivated important knowledge organization initiatives, especially in the nineteenth century (library science, bibliography, documentation). Electronics and the Internet amplified these trends. As an example we consider an initiative to provide shared access to the working notes of editors preparing scholarly editions of historically important texts. For the future, we can project trends leading to ubiquitous recording, pervasive representations, simultaneous interaction regardless of geography, and powerful analysis and visualization of the records resulting from that ubiquitous recording. This evolving situation has implications for publishing, archival practice, and knowledge organization. The passing of time is of special interest in knowledge organization because knowing is cultural, living, and always changing. Technique and technology are also cultural ("material culture") but fixed and inanimate, as can be seen in the obsolescence of subject headings, which remain inscribed while culture moves on. The tension between the benefits of technology and the limitations imposed by fixity in a changing world provide a central tension in knowledge organization over time.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/aiko_vol_14_2014_04.pdf.
4Buckland, M.K.: Obsolescence in subject description.
In: Journal of documentation. 68(2012) no.2, S.154-161.
Abstract: Purpose - The paper aims to explain the character and causes of obsolescence in assigned subject descriptors. Design/methodology/approach - The paper takes the form of a conceptual analysis with examples and reference to existing literature. Findings - Subject description comes in two forms: assigning the name or code of a subject to a document and assigning a document to a named subject category. Each method associates a document with the name of a subject. This naming activity is the site of tensions between the procedural need of information systems for stable records and the inherent multiplicity and instability of linguistic expressions. As languages change, previously assigned subject descriptions become obsolescent. The issues, tensions, and compromises involved are introduced. Originality/value - Drawing on the work of Robert Fairthorne and others, an explanation of the unavoidable obsolescence of assigned subject headings is presented. The discussion relates to libraries, but the same issues arise in any context in which subject description is expected to remain useful for an extended period of time.
5Buckland, M.K.: Interrogating spatial analogies relating to knowledge organization : Paul Otlet and others.
In: Library trends. 61(2012) no.2, S.271-285.
Abstract: The author provides an examination of how ideas about place and space have been used in thinking about the organization of knowledge. The spatial analogies of Paul Otlet (1868-1944) in relation to his overall vision are traditional and conventional. Notions of space, place, position, location, and movement are frequent in the work of other leading innovators (Martin Schrettinger, Melvil Dewey, Wilhelm Ostwald, Emanuel Goldberg, and Suzanne Briet) concerning specific practical aspects of knowledge organization. Otlet's spatial imagery is more original and more ingenious when applied to technical problems compared to his overall vision.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Themenheft: 'Information and Space: Analogies and Metaphors'.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: 10.1353/lib.2012.0039.
Themenfeld: Geschichte der Sacherschließung
6Buckland, M.K.: Democratic theory in library information science.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 59(2008) no.9, S.1534.
(Letter to the editor)
Abstract: A recent article by Joseph Buschman regrets that democratic theory is an unfinished idea. The argument appears to assume an essential relationship between library and information science (LIS) and democratic theory. Libraries services are important for undemocratic purposes also, and like other sociotechnical systems, partake on the cultural context in which they are deployed.
Anmerkung: Bezugnahme auf: Buschman, J.: Democratic theory in library information science: toward an emendation. In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.10, S.1483-1496.
7Buckland, M.K.: Emanuel Goldberg and his knowledge machine : information, invention, and political forces.
Westport, Conn. : Libraries Unlimited, 2006. xiii, 380 S.
(New directions in information management)
Abstract: This book tells the story of Emanuel Goldberg, a chemist, inventor, and industrialist who contributed to almost every aspect of imaging technology in the first half of the 20th century. An incredible story emerges as Buckland unearths forgotten documents and rogue citations to show that Goldberg created the first desktop search engine, developed microdot technology, and designed the famous Contax 35 mm camera. It is a fascinating tribute to a great mind and a crucial period in the history of information science and technology.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 63(2012) no.2, S.427-428 (Thomas Haigh)
Themenfeld: Information ; Biographische Darstellungen ; Geschichte der Sacherschließung
LCSH: Goldberg, Emanuel, 1881 / 1970 ; Information technology / History ; Inventors / Biography
RSWK: Information und Dokumentation / Informationstechnik / Geschichte ; Goldberg, Emanuel / Biographie
BK: 06.01 / Geschichte des Informations- und Dokumentationswesens ; 54.01 / Geschichte der Informatik ; 02.01 / Geschichte der Wissenschaft und Kultur ; 06.44 / IuD-Einrichtungen
DDC: 004.1/9 B
LCC: T58.5 .B83 2006
RVK: ZG 8000 ; SR 800 ; ST 110
8Buckland, M.K.: Five grand challenges for library research : paradox of the global information infrastructure.
In: Library trends. 51(2003) no.4, S.675-686.
Abstract: Librarians have many and varied difficulties. For some library problems research is not the best remedy. Improved coordination, clarification of values, or drawing on existing research results may suffice. When research is indicated, it pays to be selective. Investing in research, like any other kind of investment, should be judged in terms of the probability of success, the likely delay before results are achieved, and the impact on the population of competent researchers, as well as the perceived importance of the problem. New technology permits new forms of service, generates new data for analysis, and supports new tools for researchers. Normal research is repetitious and progresses incrementally. A bolder strategy is to seek significant advances in library service by challenging researchers to achieve a deeper understanding of important, but inadequately understood, library phenomena. Five Grand Challenges are proposed: 1. Library service: Could library services be made more meaningful? 2. Library theory: Who knew what when? 3. Library design: Have digital libraries been designed backwards? 4. Library values: How neutral can libraries be? and 5. Library communities: How do communities differ?
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Themenheft: Research questions for the twenty-first century
9Buckland, M.K. ; Chen, A. ; Gebbie, M. ; Kim, Y. ; Norgard, B.: Variation by subdomain in indexes to knowledge organization systems.
In: Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the 6th International ISKO-Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada. Ed.: C. Beghtol et al. Würzburg : Ergon, 2000. S.48-54.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.7)
Abstract: Bibliographies and their knowledge organization systems commonly cover broad topical areas. Indexes to knowledge organization systems, such as the Subject Index to the Dewey Decimal Classification, provide a general index to the entirety. However, every community and every specialty develops its own specialized vocabulary. An index derived from the specialized use of language within a single subdomain could well be different from a general-purpose index for all domains and preferable for that subdomain. Statistical association techniques can be used to create indexes to knowledge systems. A preliminary analysis based on the INSPEC database shows that subdomain indexes differ significantly from each other and from a general index. The greater the polysemy of individual words the greater difference in the indexes
10Buckland, M.K.: What is a 'document'?.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 48(1997) no.9, S.804-809.
Abstract: Ordinarily the word document denotes a textual record. Increasingliy sophisticated attempts to provide access to the rapidly growing quantity of available documents raised questions about what should be considered a document. Paul Otlet and other developed a functional view of document and discussed whether sculpture, museum objects, and live animals, could be considered documents. Suzanne Briet equates document with organized physical evidence. These ideas appear to resemble notions of 'material culture' in cultural anthropology and 'object as signs' in semiotics. Others, especially in the USA took a narrower view. New digital technology renews old questions and also old confusions between medium, message and meaning
Anmerkung: Contribution to part 2 of a 2 part series on the history of documentation and information science
11Buckland, M.K.: Partnerships in navigation : an information retrieval research agenda.
In: Forging new partnerships in information: converging technologies. Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, ASIS'95, Chicago, IL, 9-12 October 1995. Ed.: T. Kinney. Medford, NJ : Learned Information, 1995. S.84-89.
Abstract: The transition from searching in a single database to searching a multiplicity of networked databases exacerbates some old difficulties in the design and evaluation of retrieval systems and creates new one. A networked environment calls into question the traditional definitions of recall and relevance. Efficient network searching raises questions about where to look first, where to look next and when to stop searching. The need for 'entry vocabulary' support and the need for support in moving from one system vocabulary to another are increased by the increased use of more different databases. The network environment offers the option of collecting different representations of the same object and merging them into an extended record
12Buckland, M.K. ; Liu, Z.: History of information science.
In: Annual review of information science and technology. 30(1995), S.385-416.
Abstract: State of the art review of the historical development of information science as deemed to be covered by the particular interests of memebers of the American Society for Information Science, as defined as the representation, storage, transmission, selection, retrieval, filtering, and use of documents and messages. Arranges the references cited roughly according to the classification scheme used by Information Science Abstracts, and so uses the headings: background; information science; techniques and technology; information related behaviour; application areas; social aspects; education for information science; institutions; individuals; geographical areas; and conclusions
13Buckland, M.K. ; Butler, M.H. ; Norgard, B.A. ; Plaunt, C.: Union records and dossiers : extended bibliographic information objects.
In: Navigating the networks: Proceedings of the 1994 Mid-year Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, Portland, Oregon, May 21-25, 1994. Ed.: D.L. Andersen et al. Oxford : Learned Information, 1994. S.43-57.
Abstract: The growing number and sophistication of online bibliographic and networked based information systems is starting to blur the once clear boundaries that separated print documents. 2 concepts emerge as a consequence of these developments, first the 'union record', an entity which combines multiple catalog records for a single bibliographic item into an extended information object; and 2nd, an information 'dossier', a hypertext-like information object built by linking several distinct but related bibliographic entites
14Buckland, M.K. ; Butler, M.H. ; Norgard, B.A.: OASIS: prototyping graphical interfaces to networked information.
In: Integrating technologies - converging professions: proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, Columbus, OH, 24-28 October 1993. Ed.: S. Bonzi. Medford, NJ : Learned Information, 1993. S.204-210.
Abstract: The OASIS project is undergoing a complete revision in order to give a flexible graphical interface, more powerful analysis tools, and broader searching capabilities. A new X Windows interface is being linked to a search and analysis backend written primarily in Emacs Lisp to take advantage of its advanced string processing functions and multiple buffering features
15Buckland, M.K.: Agenda for online catalog designers.
In: Information technology and libraries. 11(1992), S.157-163.
Abstract: Fifteen recommendations are offered for the improvement of online catalogs within the categories of closer connections to users' work environment, SDI, Downloading, reform of LCSH, enhanced search capabilities, and linking with other bibliographies and text
16Buckland, M.K. ; Norgard, B.A. ; Plaunt, C.: Making a library catalog adaptive.
In: Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, Pittsburgh, 26.-29.10.92. Ed.: D. Shaw. Medford, NJ : Learned Information Inc., 1992. S.260-263.
Abstract: Presents the design of a prototype adaptive online catalogue. Online catalogue searches commonly retrieve too few or too many items. The prototype, implemented as a transparent workstation based front end to a MELVYL online catalogue of the holdings of the 9 campuses of California Universities, adapts to excessive or insufficient retrieval by strategically limiting, sorting or expanding users' searches, based on preferences defined by the user
17Buckland, M.K.: OASIS: a front-end for prototyping catalog enhancements.
In: Library hi tech. 10(1992) no.4, S.7-22.
Abstract: By the mid 1980s online bibliographic systems retrieved excessively large sets. Conversely, with standard Boolean systems, searches retrieved commonly nothing or too few records. In Nov. 92, 32% of searches yielded nothing from a retrieval set averaging 98. Offers solutions to these problems using MELVYL as a case study. Examines how non topical data such as date, language and location of document can improve topical searches. Explains OASIS and front end phototyping. Discusses adaptive retrieval, strategic commands, expanded retrieval and developments of OASIS. Covers aggregation of filtered sets, related terms, automatic progressive truncation, the SUMMARIZE LIBRARIES command, filing and filtering and collection analysis
19Buckland, M.K.: Information as thing.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 42(1991), S.351-360.
Abstract: Three meanings of "information" are distinguished: "information-as-process"; "information-as-knowledge"; and "information-as-thing", the attributive use of "information" to denote things regarded as informative. The nature and characteristics of "information-as-thing" are discussed, using an indirect approach ("What things are informative?"). Varieties of "information-as-thing"include data, text, documents, objects, and events. On this view "information" includes but extends beyond communication. Whatever information storage and retrieval systems store and retrieve is necessarily "information-as-thing"
20Buckland, M.K. ; Florian, D.: Expertise, task complexity, and artificial intelligence : a conceptual framework.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 42(1991) no.9, S.635-643.
Abstract: Relationships between users' exercise, task complexity of information system use, artificial intelligence, and information service mission provide the basis for a conceptual framework for considering the role that artificial intelligence might play in information systems