Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Cole, C.: ¬A rebuttal of the book review of the book titled "The Consciousness' Drive: Information Need and the Search for Meaning" : mapping cognitive and document spaces.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.2, S.242.
(Letter to the editor)
Inhalt: Vgl. die Rezension in: JASIST 71(2020) no.1, S.118-120 (Heidi Julien).
2Cole, C.: ¬The consciousness' drive : information need and the search for meaning.
Cham : Springer International Publishing, 2018. X, 247 S.
Abstract: What is the uniquely human factor in finding and using information to produce new knowledge? Is there an underlying aspect of our thinking that cannot be imitated by the AI-equipped machines that will increasingly dominate our lives? This book answers these questions, and tells us about our consciousness - its drive or intention in seeking information in the world around us, and how we are able to construct new knowledge from this information. The book is divided into three parts, each with an introduction and a conclusion that relate the theories and models presented to the real-world experience of someone using a search engine. First, Part I defines the exceptionality of human consciousness and its need for new information and how, uniquely among all other species, we frame our interactions with the world. Part II then investigates the problem of finding our real information need during information searches, and how our exceptional ability to frame our interactions with the world blocks us from finding the information we really need. Lastly, Part III details the solution to this framing problem and its operational implications for search engine design for everyone whose objective is the production of new knowledge. In this book, Charles Cole deliberately writes in a conversational style for a broader readership, keeping references to research material to the bare minimum. Replicating the structure of a detective novel, he builds his arguments towards a climax at the end of the book. For our video-game, video-on-demand times, he has visualized the ideas that form the book's thesis in over 90 original diagrams. And above all, he establishes a link between information need and knowledge production in evolutionary psychology, and thus bases his arguments in our origins as a species: how we humans naturally think, and how we naturally search for new information because our consciousness drives us to need it.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 71(2020) no.1, S.118-120 (Heidi Julien). - Vgl. auch den Beitrag: Cole, C.: A rebuttal of the book review of the book titled "The Consciousness' Drive: Information Need and the Search for Meaning": mapping cognitive and document spaces. In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.2, S.242. ; Weitere Rez. unter: https://crl.acrl.org/index.php/crl/article/view/17830/19659: "Author Charles Cole's understanding of human consciousness is built foundationally upon the work of evolutionary psychologist Merlin Donald, who visualized the development of human cognition in four phases, with three transitions. According to Donald's Theory of Mind, preceding types of cognition do not cease to exist after human cognition transitions to a new phase, but exist as four layers within the modern consciousness. Cole's narrative in the first part of the book recounts Donald's model of human cognition, categorizing episodic, mimetic, mythic, and theoretic phases of cognition. The second half of the book sets up a particular situation of consciousness using the frame theory of Marvin Minsky, uses Meno's paradox (how can we come to know that which we don't already know?) in a critique of framing as Minsky conceived it, and presents group and national level framing and shows their inherent danger in allowing information avoidance and sanctioning immoral actions. Cole concludes with a solution of information need being sparked or triggered that takes the human consciousness out of a closed information loop, driving the consciousness to seek new information. ; Cole's reliance upon Donald's Theory of Mind is limiting; it represents a major weakness of the book. Donald's Theory of Mind has been an influential model in evolutionary psychology, appearing in his 1991 book Origins of the Modern Mind: Three Stages in the Evolution of Culture and Cognition (Harvard University Press). Donald's approach is a top-down, conceptual model that explicates what makes the human mind different and exceptional from other animal intelligences. However, there are other alternative, useful, science-based models of animal and human cognition that begin with a bottom-up approach to understanding the building blocks of cognition shared in common by humans and other "intelligent" animals. For example, in "A Bottom-Up Approach to the Primate Mind," Frans B.M. de Waal and Pier Francesco Ferrari note that neurophysiological studies show that specific neuron assemblies in the rat hippocampus are active during memory retrieval and that those same assemblies predict future choices. This would suggest that episodic memory and future orientation aren't as advanced a process as Donald posits in his Theory of Mind. Also, neuroimaging studies in humans show that the cortical areas active during observations of another's actions are related in position and structure to those areas identified as containing mirror neurons in macaques. Could this point to a physiological basis for imitation? ... (Scott Curtis)"
LCSH: Computers and Society ; Information Storage and Retrieval ; Cognitive Psychology ; User Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction ; Consciousness
3Beheshti, J. ; Cole, C. ; Abuhimed, D. ; Lamoureux, I.: Tracking middle school students' information behavior via Kuhlthau's ISP Model : temporality.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.5, S.943-960.
Abstract: The article reports a field study investigating the temporality of the information behavior of 44 grade 8 students from initiation to completion of their school inquiry-based history project. The conceptual framework for the study is Kuhlthau's 6-stage information-search process (ISP) model. The objective of the study is to test and extend ISP model concepts. As per other ISP model studies, our study measured the evolution of the feelings, thoughts, and actions of the study participants over the 3-month period of their class project. The unique feature of this study is the unlimited access the researchers had to a real-life history class, resulting in 12 separate measuring periods. We report 2 important findings of the study. First, through factor analysis, we determined 5 factors that define the temporality of completing an inquiry-based project for these grade 8 students. The second main finding is the importance of the students' consultations with their classmates, siblings, parents, and teachers in the construction of the knowledge necessary to complete their project.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23230/abstract.
4Cole, C. ; Beheshti, J. ; Abuhimed, D. ; Lamoureux, I.: ¬The end game in Kuhlthau's ISP Model : knowledge construction for grade 8 students researching an inquiry-based history project.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.11, S.2249-2266.
Abstract: This article reports on a field study of the information behavior of Grade 8 students researching an inquiry-based class history project. Kuhlthau's 7-stage Information Search Process (ISP) model forms the conceptual framework for the study. The aim of the study was to define an end game for the ISP model by answering the following question: How do the student participants' feelings, thoughts, and information behavior lead to the construction of new knowledge? Study findings tentatively indicate that knowledge construction results from an iterative process between the student and information, which can be divided into 3 phases. In the first phase, the students formulate questions from their previous knowledge to start knowledge construction; in the second phase, newly found topic information causes students to ask questions; and in the third phase, the students answer the questions asked by this newly found topic information. Based on these results and Kuhlthau's own ISP stage 7 assessment definition of the ISP model end game, we propose a model of knowledge construction inserted as an extra row in the ISP model framework.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23300/abstract.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Benutzerstudien
5Cole, C. ; Behesthi, J. ; Large, A. ; Lamoureux, I. ; Abuhimed, D. ; AlGhamdi, M.: Seeking information for a middle school history project : the concept of implicit knowledge in the students' transition from Kuhlthau's Stage 3 to Stage 4.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.3, S.558-573.
Abstract: The article reports the findings of a content analysis study of 16 student-group proposals for a grade eight history project. The students listed their topic and thesis in the proposal, and information in support of their thesis. The study's focus is this topic-to-thesis transition. The study's conceptual framework is Kuhlthau's six stage ISP Model's transition from exploring information in Stage 3 to formulating a focus or personal perspective on the assignment topic in Stage 4. Our study coding scheme identifies elements of the students' implicit knowledge in the 16 proposals. To validate implicit knowledge as a predictor of successful student performance, implicit knowledge was coded, scored, and then the correlation coefficient was established between the score and the students' instructors' marks. In Part 2 of the study we found strong and significant association between the McGill coding scores and the instructors' marks for the 16 proposals. This study is a first step in identifying, operationalizing, and testing user-centered implicit knowledge elements for future implementation in interactive information systems designed for middle school students researching a thesis-objective history assignment.
6Cole, C.: Information need : a theory connecting information search to knowledge formation.
Medford, NJ : ASIST, 2012. XIII, 224 S.
(ASIS&T monograph series)
Inhalt: Inhalt: The importance of information need -- The history of information need -- The framework for our discussion -- Modeling the user in information search -- Information seeking's conceptualization of information need during information search -- Information use -- Adaptation : internal information flows and knowledge generation -- A theory of information need -- How information need works -- The user's situation in the pre-focus search -- The situation of user's information need in pre-focus information search -- The selection concept -- A review of the user's pre-focus information search -- How information need works in a focusing search -- Circles 1 to 5 : how information need works -- Corroborating research -- Applying information need -- The astrolabe : an information system for stage 3 information exploration -- Conclusion.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 64(2013) no.12, S.2595-2596 (N. Ford)
LCSH: Information behavior ; Information retrieval ; Information storage and retrieval systems ; Human information processing ; Knowledge, Theory of ; Information theory
RSWK: Informationsverhalten / Information Retrieval / Informationstheorie
BK: 06.74 Informationssysteme
7Cole, C.: ¬A theory of information need for information retrieval that connects information to knowledge.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 62(2011) no.7, S.1216-1231.
Abstract: This article proposes a theory of information need for information retrieval (IR). Information need traditionally denotes the start state for someone seeking information, which includes information search using an IR system. There are two perspectives on information need. The dominant, computer science perspective is that the user needs to find an answer to a well-defined question which is easy for the user to formulate into a query to the system. Ironically, information science's best known model of information need (Taylor, 1968) deems it to be a "black box"-unknowable and nonspecifiable by the user in a query to the information system. Information science has instead devoted itself to studying eight adjacent or surrogate concepts (information seeking, search and use; problem, problematic situation and task; sense making and evolutionary adaptation/information foraging). Based on an analysis of these eight adjacent/surrogate concepts, we create six testable propositions for a theory of information need. The central assumption of the theory is that while computer science sees IR as an information- or answer-finding system, focused on the user finding an answer, an information science or user-oriented theory of information need envisages a knowledge formulation/acquisition system.
Themenfeld: Information ; Suchtaktik
8Cole, C.: ¬A socio-cognitive framework for designing interactive IR systems : lessons from the Neanderthals.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.5, S.1784-1793.
Abstract: The article analyzes user-IR system interaction from the broad, socio-cognitive perspective of lessons we can learn about human brain evolution when we compare the Neanderthal brain to the human brain before and after a small human brain mutation is hypothesized to have occurred 35,000-75,000 years ago. The enhanced working memory mutation enabled modern humans (i) to decode unfamiliar environmental stimuli with greater focusing power on adaptive solutions to environmental changes and problems, and (ii) to encode environmental stimuli in more efficient, generative knowledge structures. A sociological theory of these evolving, more efficient encoding knowledge structures is given. These new knowledge structures instilled in humans not only the ability to adapt to and survive novelty and/or changing conditions in the environment, but they also instilled an imperative to do so. Present day IR systems ignore the encoding imperative in their design framework. To correct for this lacuna, we propose the evolutionary-based socio-cognitive framework model for designing interactive IR systems. A case study is given to illustrate the functioning of the model.
9Leide, J.E. ; Cole, C. ; Beheshti, J. ; Large, A. ; Lin, Y.: Task-based information retrieval : structuring undergraduate history essays for better course evaluation using essay-type visualizations.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.9, S.1227-1241.
Abstract: When domain novices are in C.C. Kuhlthau's (1993) Stage 3, the exploration stage of researching an assignment, they often do not know their information need; this causes them to go back to Stage 2, the topic-selection stage, when they are selecting keywords to formulate their query to an Information Retrieval (IR) system. Our hypothesis is that instead of going backward, they should be going forward toward a goal state-the performance of the task for which they are seeking the information. If they can somehow construct their goal state into a query, this forward-looking query better operationalizes their information need than does a topic-based query. For domain novice undergraduates seeking information for a course essay, we define their task as selecting a high-impact essay structure which will put the students' learning on display for the course instructor who will evaluate the essay. We report a study of first-year history undergraduate students which tested the use and effectiveness of "essay type" as a task-focused query-formulation device. We randomly assigned 78 history undergraduates to an intervention group and a control group. The dependent variable was essay quality, based on (a) an evaluation of the student's essay by a research team member, and (b) the marks given to the student's essay by the course instructor. We found that conscious or formal consideration of essay type is inconclusive as a basis of a task-focused query-formulation device for IR.
10Cole, C. ; Lin, Y. ; Leide, J. ; Large, A. ; Beheshti, J.: ¬A classification of mental models of undergraduates seeking information for a course essay in history and psychology : preliminary investigations into aligning their mental models with online thesauri.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.13, S.2092-2104.
Abstract: The article reports a field study which examined the mental models of 80 undergraduates seeking information for either a history or psychology course essay when they were in an early, exploration stage of researching their essay. This group is presently at a disadvantage when using thesaurus-type schemes in indexes and online search engines because there is a disconnect between how domain novice users of IR systems represent a topic space and how this space is represented in the standard IR system thesaurus. The study attempted to (a) ascertain the coding language used by the 80 undergraduates in the study to mentally represent their topic and then (b) align the mental models with the hierarchical structure found in many thesauri. The intervention focused the undergraduates' thinking about their topic from a topic statement to a thesis statement. The undergraduates were asked to produce three mental model diagrams for their real-life course essay at the beginning, middle, and end of the interview, for a total of 240 mental model diagrams, from which we created a 12-category mental model classification scheme. Findings indicate that at the end of the intervention, (a) the percentage of vertical mental models increased from 24 to 35% of all mental models; but that (b) 3rd-year students had fewer vertical mental models than did 1st-year undergraduates in the study, which is counterintuitive. The results indicate that there is justification for pursuing our research based on the hypothesis that rotating a domain novice's mental model into a vertical position would make it easier for him or her to cognitively connect with the thesaurus's hierarchical representation of the topic area.
Themenfeld: Benutzerstudien ; Informationsdienstleistungen
Wissenschaftsfach: Psychologie ; Geschichtswissenschaft
11Spink, A. ; Cole, C.: Human information behavior : integrating diverse approaches and information use.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.1, S.25-35.
Abstract: For millennia humans have sought, organized, and used information as they learned and evolved patterns of human information behaviors to resolve their human problems and survive. However, despite the current focus an living in an "information age," we have a limited evolutionary understanding of human information behavior. In this article the authors examine the current three interdisciplinary approaches to conceptualizing how humans have sought information including (a) the everyday life information seeking-sense-making approach, (b) the information foraging approach, and (c) the problem-solution perspective an information seeking approach. In addition, due to the lack of clarity regarding the rote of information use in information behavior, a fourth information approach is provided based an a theory of information use. The use theory proposed starts from an evolutionary psychology notion that humans are able to adapt to their environment and survive because of our modular cognitive architecture. Finally, the authors begin the process of conceptualizing these diverse approaches, and the various aspects or elements of these approaches, within an integrated model with consideration of information use. An initial integrated model of these different approaches with information use is proposed.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Information
12Yi, K. ; Beheshti, J. ; Cole, C. ; Leide, J.E. ; Large, A.: User search behavior of domain-specific information retrieval systems : an analysis of the query logs from PsycINFO and ABC-Clio's Historical Abstracts/America: History and Life.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.9, S.1208-1220.
Abstract: The authors report the findings of a study that analyzes and compares the query logs of PsycINFO for psychology and the two history databases of ABC-Clio: Historical Abstracts and America: History and Life to establish the sociological nature of information need, searching, and seeking in history versus psychology. Two problems are addressed: (a) What level of query log analysis - by individual query terms, by co-occurrence of word pairs, or by multiword terms (MWTs) - best serves as data for categorizing the queries to these two subject-bound databases; and (b) how can the differences in the nature of the queries to history versus psychology databases aid in our understanding of user search behavior and the information needs of their respective users. The authors conclude that MWTs provide the most effective snapshot of user searching behavior for query categorization. The MWTs to ABC-Clio indicate specific instances of historical events, people, and regions, whereas the MWTs to PsycINFO indicate concepts roughly equivalent to descriptors used by PsycINFO's own classification scheme. The average length of queries is 3.16 terms for PsycINFO and 3.42 for ABC-Clio, which breaks from findings for other reference and scholarly search engine studies, bringing query length closer in line to findings for general Web search engines like Excite.
Wissenschaftsfach: Psychologie ; Geschichtswissenschaft
Objekt: PsycINFO ; Historical Abstracts ; America: History and Life
13Cole, C. ; Leide, J.E. ; Large, A, ; Beheshti, J. ; Brooks, M.: Putting it together online : information need identification for the domain novice user.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.7, S.684-694.
Abstract: Domain novice users in the beginning stages of researching a topic find themselves searching for information via information retrieval (IR) systems before they have identified their information need. Pre-Internet access technologies adapted by current IR systems poorly serve these domain novice users, whose behavior might be characterized as rudderless and without a compass. In this article we describe a conceptual design for an information retrieval system that incorporates standard information need identification classification and subject cataloging schemes, called the INIIReye System, and a study that tests the efficacy of the innovative part of the INIIReye System, called the Associative Index. The Associative Index helps the user put together his or her associative thoughts-Vannevar Bush's idea of associative indexing for his Memex machine that he never actually described. For the first time, data from the study reported here quantitatively supports the theoretical notion that the information seeker's information need is identified through transformation of his/her knowledge structure (i.e., the seeker's cognitive map or perspective an the task far which information is being sought).
14Cole, C. ; Leide, J. ; Beheshti, J. ; Large, A. ; Brooks, M.: Investigating the Anomalous States of Knowledge hypothesis in a real-life problem situation : a study of history and psychology undergraduates seeking information for a course essay.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.14, S.1544-1554.
Abstract: The authors present a study of the real-life information needs of 59 McGill University undergraduates researching essay topics for either a history or psychology course, interviewed just after they had selected their essay topic. The interview's purpose was to transform the undergraduate's query from general topic terms, based an vague conceptions of their essay topic, to an information need-based query. To chart the transformation, the authors investigate N. J. Belkin, R. N. Oddy, and H. M. Brooks' Anomalous States of Knowledge (ASK) hypothesis (1982a, 1982b), which links the user's ASK to a relevant document set via a common code based an structural facets. In the present study an interoperable structural code based an eight essay styles is created, then notions of structural facets compatible with a highimpact essay structure are presented. The important findings of the study are: (a) the undergraduates' topic statements and terms derived from it do not constitute an effective information need statement because for most of the subjects in the study the topic terms conformed to a low-impact essay style; (b) essay style is an effective interoperable structural code for charting the evolution of the undergraduate's knowledge state from ASK to partial resolution of the ASK in an information need statement.
15Cole, C. ; Beheshti, J. ; Leide, J. E. ; Large, A.: Interactive information retrieval : bringing the user to a selection state.
In: New directions in cognitive information retrieval. Eds.: A. Spink, C. Cole. Dordrecht : Springer Netherland, 2005. S.13-41.
(The information retrieval series, vol. 19)
Abstract: There have been various approaches to conceptualizing interactive information retrieval (IR), which can be generally divided into system and user approaches (Hearst, 1999; cf. also Spink, 1997). Both system and user approaches define user-system interaction in terms of the system and the user reacting to the actions or behaviors of the other: the system reacts to the user's input; the user to the output of the system (Spink, 1997). In system approach models of the interaction, e.g., Moran (1981), "[T]he user initiates an action or operation and the system responds in some way which in turn leads the user to initiate another action and so on" (Beaulieu, 2000, p. 433). In its purest form, the system approach models the user as a reactive part of the interaction, with the system taking the lead (Bates, 1990). User approaches, on the other hand, in their purest form wish to insert a model of the user in all its socio-cognitive dimensions, to the extent that system designers consider such approaches impractical (Vakkari and Jarvelin, 2005, Chap. 7, this volume). The cognitive approach to IR interaction attempts to overcome this divide (Ruthven, 2005, Chap. 4, this volume; Vakkari and Jarvelin, 2005 Chap. 7, this volume) by representing the cognitive elements of both system designers and the user in the interaction model (Larsen and Ingwersen, 2005 Chap. 3, this volume). There are cognitive approach researchers meeting in a central ground from both the system and user side. On the system side, are computer scientists employing cognitive research to design more effective IR systems from the point of view of the user's task (Nathan, 1990; Fischer, Henninger, and Redmiles, 1991; O'Day and Jeffries, 1993; Russell et al., 1993; Kitajima and Polson, 1996; Terwilliger and Polson, 1997). On the user side are cognitive approach researchers applying methods, concepts and models from psychology to design systems that are more in tune with how users acquire information (e.g., Belkin, 1980; Ford (2005, Chap. 5, this volume); Ingwersen (Larsen and Ingwersen, 2005, Chap. 3, this volume); Saracevic, 1996; Vakkari (Vakkari and Jarvelin, 2005, Chap. 7, this volume)).
16Spink, A. ; Cole, C.: New directions in cognitive information retrieval : conclusion and further research.
In: New directions in cognitive information retrieval. Eds.: A. Spink, C. Cole. Dordrecht : Springer Netherland, 2005. S.229-233.
(The information retrieval series, vol. 19)
Abstract: New Directions in Cognitive Information Retrieval (IR) gathers user or cognitive approaches to IR research into one volume. The group of researchers focus on a middleground perspective between system and user. They ask the question: What is the nexus between the wider context of why and how humans behave when seeking information and the technological and other constraints that determine the interaction between user and machine? These researchers' concern for the application of user/cognitive-oriented research to IR system design thus serves as a meeting ground linking computer scientists with their largely system performance concerns and the social science research that examines human information behavior in the wider context of how human perception and cognitive mechanisms function, and the work and social frameworks in which we live. The researchers in this volume provide an in-depth revaluation of the concepts that form the basis of current IR retrieval system design. Current IR systems are in a certain sense based on design conceptualizations that view - the user's role in the user-system interaction as an input and monitoring mechanism for system performance; - the system's role in the user-system interaction as a data acquisition system, not an information retrieval system; and - the central issue in the user-system interaction as the efficacy of the system's matching algorithms, matching the user request statement to representations of the document set contained in the system's database. But the era of matching-focused approaches to interactive IR appears to be giving way to a concern for developing interactive systems to facilitate collaboration between users in the performance of their work and social tasks. There is room for cognitive approaches to interaction to break in here.
17Spink, A. ; Cole, C.: ¬A multitasking framework for cognitive information retrieval.
In: New directions in cognitive information retrieval. Eds.: A. Spink, C. Cole. Dordrecht : Springer Netherland, 2005. S.99-112.
(The information retrieval series, vol. 19)
Abstract: Information retrieval (IR) research has developed considerably since the 1950's to include consideration of more cognitive, interactive and iterative processes during the interaction between humans and IR or Web systems (Ingwersen, 1992, 1996). Interactive search sessions by humans with IR systems have been depicted as interactive IR models (Saracevic, 1997). Human-IR system interaction is also modeled as taking place within the context of broader human information behavior (HIB) processes (Spink et al., 2002). Research into the human or cognitive (user modeling) aspects of IR is a growing body of research on user interactivity, task performance and measures for observing user interactivity. The task context and situational characteristics of users' searches and evaluation have also been identified as key elements in a user's interaction with an IR system (Cool and Spink, 2002; Vakkari, 2003). Major theorized interactive IR models have been proposed relating to the single search episode, including Ingwersen's (1992,1996) Cognitive Model of IR Interaction, Belkin et al.'s (1995) Episodic Interaction Model, and Saracevic's (1996,1997) Stratified Model of IR Interaction. In this chapter we examine Saracevic's Stratified Model of IR Interaction and extend the model within the framework of cognitive IR (CIR) to depict CIR as a multitasking process. This chapter provides a new direction for CIR research by conceptualizing IR with a multitasking context. The next section of the chapter defines the concept of multitasking in the cognitive sciences and Section 3 discusses the emerging understanding of multitasking information behavior. In Section 4, cognitive IR is depicted within a multitasking framework using Saracevic's (1996, 1997) Stratified Model of IR Interaction. In Section 5, we link information searching and seeking models together, via Saracevic's Stratified Model of IR Interaction, but starting with a unitask model of HIB. We begin to model multitasking in cognitive IR in Section 6. In Sections 7 and 8, we increase the complexity of our developing multitasking model of cognitive IR by adding coordinating mechanisms, including feedback loops. Finally, in Section 9, we conclude the chapter and indicate future directions for further research.
18Spink, A. ; Cole, C.: New directions in cognitive information retrieval : introduction.
In: New directions in cognitive information retrieval. Eds.: A. Spink, C. Cole. Dordrecht : Springer Netherland, 2005. S.3-10.
(The information retrieval series, vol. 19)
Abstract: Humans have used electronic information retrieval (IR) systems for more than 50 years as they evolved from experimental systems to full-scale Web search engines and digital libraries. The fields of library and information science (LIS), cognitive science, human factors and computer science have historically been the leading disciplines in conducting research that seeks to model human interaction with IR systems for all kinds of information related behaviors. As technology problems have been mastered, the theoretical and applied framework for studying human interaction with IR systems has evolved from systems-centered to more user-centered, or cognitive-centered approaches. However, cognitive information retrieval (CIR) research that focuses on user interaction with IR systems is still largely under-funded and is often not included at computing and systems design oriented conferences. But CIR-focused research continues, and there are signs that some IR systems designers in academia and the Web search business are realizing that user behavior research can provide valuable insights into systems design and evaluation. The goal of our book is to provide an overview of new CIR research directions. This book does not provide a history of the research field of CIR. Instead, the book confronts new ways of looking at the human information condition with regard to our increasing need to interact with IR systems. The need has grown due to a number of factors, including the increased importance of information to more people in this information age. Also, IR was once considered document-oriented, but has now evolved to include multimedia, text, and other information objects. As a result, IR systems and their complexity have proliferated as users and user purposes for using them have also proliferated. Human interaction with IR systems can often be frustrating as people often lack an understanding of IR system functionality.
19Spink, A. ; Cole, C.: Introduction.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 55(2004) no.9, S.767-768.
Abstract: This is the second part of a two-part special topic JASIST issue an information seeking. The first part presented papers an the topics of health information seeking and everyday life information seeking or ELIS (i.e., information seeking outside of work or school). This second issue presents papers an the topics of information retrieval and information seeking in industry environments. Information retrieval involves a specific kind of information seeking, as the user is in direct contact with an information interface and with potential sources of information from the system's database. The user conducts the search using various strategies, tactics, etc., but there is also the possibility that information processes will occur resulting in a change in the way the user thinks about the topic of the search. If this occurs, the user is, in effect, using the found data, turning it into an informational element of some kind. Such processes can be facilitated in the design of the information retrieval system. Information seeking in industry environments takes up more and more of our working day. Even companies producing industrial products are in fact mainly producing informational elements of some kind, often for the purpose of making decisions or as starting positions for further information seeking. While there may be company mechanisms in place to aid such information seeking, and to make it more efficient, if better information seeking structures were in place, not only would workers waste less time in informational pursuits, but they would also find things, discover new processes, etc., that would benefit the corporation's bottom line. In Figure l, we plot the six papers in this issue an an information behavior continuum, following a taxonomy of information behavior terms from Spink and Cole (2001). Information Behavior is a broad term covering all aspects of information seeking, including passive or undetermined information behavior. Information-Seeking Behavior is usually thought of as active or conscious information behavior. Information-Searching Behavior describes the interactive elements between a user and an information system. Information-Use Behavior is about the user's acquisition and incorporation of data in some kind of information process. This leads to the production of information, but also back to the broad range of Information Behavior in the first part of the continuum. Though we plot all papers in this issue along this continuum, they take into account more than their general framework. The three information retrieval reports veer from the traditional information-searching approach of usersystem interaction, while the three industry environment articles veer from the traditional information-seeking approach of specific context information-seeking studies.
Anmerkung: Einführung zum Themenheft: Information seeking research
20Spink, A. ; Cole, C.: ¬A human information behavior approach to a philosophy of information.
In: Library trends. 52(2004) no.3, S.617-628.
Abstract: This paper outlines the relation between philosophy of information (PI) and human information behavior (HIB). In this paper, we first briefly outline the basic constructs and approaches of PI and HIB. We argue that a strong relation exists between PI and HIB, as both are exploring the concept of information and premise information as a fundamental concept basic to human existence. We then exemplify that a heuristic approach to PI integrates the HIB view of information as a cognitive human-initiated process by presenting a specific cognitive architecture for information initiation based on modular notion from HIB/evolutionary psychology and the vacuum mechanism from PI.
Anmerkung: Artikel in einem Themenheft: The philosophy of information