Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Gorrell, G. ; Eaglestone, B. ; Ford, N. ; Holdridge, P. ; Madden, A.: Towards "metacognitively aware" IR systems : an initial user study.
In: Journal of documentation. 65(2009) no.3, S.446-469.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe: a new taxonomy of metacognitive skills designed to support the study of metacognition in the context of web searching; a data collection instrument based on the taxonomy; and the results of testing the instrument on a sample of university students and staff. Design/methodology/approach - The taxonomy is based on a review of the literature, and is extended to cover web searching. This forms the basis for the design of the data collection instrument, which is tested with 405 students and staff of Sheffield University. Findings - Subjects regard the range of metacognitive skills focused on as broadly similar. However, a number of significant differences in reported metacognition usage relating to age, gender and discipline. Practical implications - These findings contribute to the long-term aims of the research which are to: develop a model of the actual and potential role of metacognition in web searching, and identify strategic "metacognitive interventions" that can be built into an intelligent information retrieval system, driven by the model, capable of enhancing retrieval effectiveness by compensating for metacognitive weaknesses on the part of the searcher. Originality/value - The value of the paper lies in: the consideration of metacognition in the context of web searching, the presentation of an extensible taxonomy of metacognitive skills, development and testing of a prototype metacognitive inventory, finding of significant differences in reported metacognition usage according to age, gender and discipline, and reflection of the implications of the results for future research into web searching.
2Ford, N. ; Eaglestone, B. ; Madden, A. ; Whittle, M.: Web searching by the "general public" : an individual differences perspective.
In: Journal of documentation. 65(2009) no.4, S.632-667.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of a number of human individual differences on the web searching of a sample of the general public. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 91 members of the general public performed 195 controlled searches. Search activity and ratings of search difficulty and success were recorded and statistically analysed. The study was exploratory, and sought to establish whether there is a prima facie case for further systematic investigation of the selection and combination of variables studied here. Findings - Results revealed a number of interactions between individual differences, the use of different search strategies, and levels of perceived search difficulty and success. The findings also suggest that the open and closed nature of searches may affect these interactions. A conceptual model of these relationships is presented. Practical implications - Better understanding of factors affecting searching may help one to develop more effective search support, whether in the form of personalised search interfaces and mechanisms, adaptive systems, training or help systems. However, the findings reveal a complexity and variability suggesting that there is little immediate prospect of developing any simple model capable of driving such systems. Originality/value - There are several areas of this research that make it unique: the study's focus on a sample of the general public; its use of search logs linked to personal data; its development of a novel search strategy classifier; its temporal modelling of how searches are transformed over time; and its illumination of four different types of experienced searcher, linked to different search behaviours and outcomes.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Internet
3Eaglestone, B. ; Ford, N. ; Brown, G.J. ; Moore, A.: Information systems and creativity : an empirical study.
In: Journal of documentation. 63(2007) no.4, S.443-464.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to report research that sought to understand the requirements of information systems designed to support people engaged in creative intellectual activity. The research aimed to provide empirical evidence based on a case study of a particular arena of creativity, namely electro-acoustic music composition. However, it also sought to identify issues that may apply more widely to other arenas of human creativity. Design/methodology/approach - The research was based on a related series of three in-depth studies of electro-acoustic music composers at work. These studies entailed the collection of qualitative data from interviews, observations and "think aloud" protocols. These data were analysed inductively to reveal concepts and relationships that formed the basis for a model of interactions between the composers and the information systems with which they were working. Findings - The paper presents a model of relationships between information system features and use, and the resulting effects in terms of the extent to which creativity was perceived by the composers to have been facilitated and inhibited. In particular, a number of tensions were identified which suggest that conventional "best practice" in the design of data-intensive information systems may be fundamentally at odds with the requirements of such systems to support important aspects of creativity. Research limitations/implications - The limitations associated with in-depth qualitative research based on small samples is acknowledged, relating in particular to its lack of ability to generalise on the basis of statistical probability. However, such an approach arguably offers the complementary strength of being particularly suited to exploratory research aimed essentially at charting new territory and identifying rich and possibly unanticipated constructs rather than testing hypotheses based on existing theory. The resultant findings, however, must remain tentative and provisional pending further systematic investigation designed to establish the extent to which they are generalisable. Practical implications - As well as identifying limitations in conventional approaches to designing data-intensive information systems, an alternative architecture is proposed which seeks better to map onto the requirements of creativity support. It is hoped that both the criticisms of conventional approaches and the proposed novel architecture may be of practical use to those engaged in the design of data-intensive creativity support systems. Originality/value - The research reported here offers a novel perspective on the design of information systems in that it identifies a tension between conventional "best practice" in system design and the requirements of important aspects of creativity support. It has the advantage of being based on the in-depth observation of real composers in action over protracted periods of time. It also proposes a novel system architecture which seeks to avoid reduce such tensions.
4Whittle, M. ; Eaglestone, B. ; Ford, N. ; Gillet, V.J. ; Madden, A.: Data mining of search engine logs.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.14, S.2382-2400.
Abstract: This article reports on the development of a novel method for the analysis of Web logs. The method uses techniques that look for similarities between queries and identify sequences of query transformation. It allows sequences of query transformations to be represented as graphical networks, thereby giving a richer view of search behavior than is possible with the usual sequential descriptions. We also perform a basic analysis to study the correlations between observed transformation codes, with results that appear to show evidence of behavior habits. The method was developed using transaction logs from the Excite search engine to provide a tool for an ongoing research project that is endeavoring to develop a greater understanding of Web-based searching by the general public.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Data Mining
5Nunes, M.P. ; Annansingh, F. ; Eaglestone, B. ; Wakefield, R.: Knowledge management issues in knowledge-intensive SMEs.
In: Journal of documentation. 62(2006) no.1, S.101-119.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present a study of knowledge management understanding and usage in small and medium knowledge-intensive enterprises. Design/methodology/approach - The study has taken an interpretitivist approach, using two knowledge-intensive South Yorkshire (England) companies as case studies, both of which are characterised by the need to process and use knowledge on a daily basis in order to remain competitive. The case studies were analysed using qualitative research methodology, composed of interviews and concept mapping, thus deriving a characterisation of understandings, perceptions and requirements of SMEs in relation to knowledge management. Findings - The study provides evidence that, while SMEs, including knowledge intensive ones, acknowledge that adequately capturing, storing, sharing and disseminating knowledge can lead to greater innovation and productivity, their managers are not prepared to invest the relatively high effort on long term knowledge management goals for which they have difficulty in establishing the added value. Thus, knowledge management activities within SMEs tend to happen in an informal way, rarely supported by purposely designed ICT systems. Research limitations/implications - This paper proposes that further studies in this field are required that focus on organisational and practical issues in order to close the gap between theoretical propositions and the reality of practice. Practical implications - The study suggests that in order to implement an appropriate knowledge management strategy in SMEs cultural, behavioural, and organisational issues need to be tackled before even considering technical issues. Originality/value - KM seems to have been successfully applied in large companies, but it is largely disregarded by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). This has been attributed primarily to a lack of a formal approach to the sharing, recording, transferring, auditing and exploiting of organisational knowledge, together with a lack of utilisation of available information technologies. This paper debates these concepts from a research findings point of view.