Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
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1Fidel, R: Human information interaction : an ecological approach to information behavior.
Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2012. XIV, 348 S.
Abstract: Human information interaction (HII) is an emerging area of study that investigates how people interact with information; its subfield human information behavior (HIB) is a flourishing, active discipline. Yet despite their obvious relevance to the design of information systems, these research areas have had almost no impact on systems design. One issue may be the contextual complexity of human interaction with information; another may be the difficulty in translating real-life and unstructured HII complexity into formal, linear structures necessary for systems design. In this book, Raya Fidel proposes a research approach that bridges the study of human information interaction and the design of information systems: cognitive work analysis (CWA). Developed by Jens Rasmussen and his colleagues, CWA embraces complexity and provides a conceptual framework and analytical tools that can harness it to create design requirements. CWA offers an ecological approach to design, analyzing the forces in the environment that shape human interaction with information. Fidel reviews research in HIB, focusing on its contribution to systems design, and then presents the CWA framework. She shows that CWA, with its ecological approach, can be used to overcome design challenges and lead to the development of effective systems. Researchers and designers who use CWA can increase the diversity of their analytical tools, providing them with an alternative approach when they plan research and design projects. The CWA framework enables a collaboration between design and HII that can create information systems tailored to fit human lives. Human Information Interaction constructs an elegant argument for an ecological approach to information behavior. Professor Raya Fidel's cogent exposition of foundational theoretical concepts including cognitive work analysis delivers thoughtful guidance for future work in information interaction. Raya Fidel provides the human information interaction field with a manifesto for studying human information behavior from a holistic perspective, arguing that context dominates human action and we are obligated to study it. She provides a tutorial on cognitive work analysis as a technique for such study. This book is an important contribution to the Information field. Raya Fidel presents a nuanced picture of research on human information interaction, and advocates for Cognitive Work Analysis as the holistic approach to the study and evaluation of human information interaction.
Inhalt: Inhalt: Basic concepts -- What is human information interaction? -- Theoretical constructs and models in information seeking behavior -- The information need -- The search strategy -- Two generations of research -- In-context -- Theoretical traditions in human information behavior -- Interlude : models and their contribution to design -- Human information behavior and information retrieval : is collaboration possible? -- Cognitive work analysis : dimensions for analysis -- Cognitive work analysis : harnessing complexity -- Enhancing the impact of research in human information interaction.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 63(2013) no.1, S.213-214 (D.E. Agosto)
LCSH: Information behavior ; Information storage and retrieval systems ; Information retrieval
RSWK: Wissensextraktion ; Anthropologie / Information Retrieval / Informationsverhalten (BVB) ; Informationsverhalten / Information Retrieval / Mensch-Maschine-Kommunikation
BK: 06.35 (Informationsmanagement)
RVK: ST 670 ; QP 345
2Fidel, R.: Approaches to investigating information interaction and behaviour.
In: Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval. Eds.: Ruthven, I. u. D. Kelly. London : Facet Publ., 2011. S.61-75.
3Fidel, R. ; Pejtersen, A.M. ; Cleal, B. ; Bruce, H.: ¬A multidimensional approach to the study of human-information interaction : a case study of collaborative information retrieval.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 55(2004) no.11, S.939-953.
Abstract: While most research in the area of human-information behavior has focused an a single dimension-either the psychological or the social-this case study demonstrated the importance of a multidimensional approach. The Cognitive Work Analysis framework guided this field study of one event of collaborative information retrieval (CIR) carried out by design engineers at Microsoft, including observations and interviews. Various dimensions explained the motives for this CIR event and the challenges the participants encountered: the cognitive dimension, the specific task and decision, the organization of the teamwork, and the organizational culture. Even though it is difficult at times to separate one dimension from another, and all are interdependent, the analysis uncovered several reasons for design engineers to engage in CIR, such as when they are new to the organization or the team, when the information lends itself to various interpretations, or when most of the needed information is not documented. Similar multidimensional studies will enhance our understanding of human-information behavior.
4Fidel, R.: ¬The user-centered approach.
In: Saving the time of the library user through subject access innovation: Papers in honor of Pauline Atherton Cochrane. Ed.: W.J. Wheeler. Urbana-Champaign, IL : Illinois University at Urbana-Champaign, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 2000. S.79-99.
Abstract: I started my professional career in library and information science because of my great interest in knowledge organization. The more experience I gained in the profession, the more I realized how crucial it is to understand which organization would be best for each group of users. This in turn requires an understanding of how users seek information. And so now my focus is an studying information seeking and searching behavior. Throughout the relatively long course of changing my focus, I followed Pauline Cochrane's writings. Now I can say that she has been among the first to have a "user-centered approach" to knowledge organization, and she has used the term three years before it became a mainstream phrase. The following is a short discussion about the usercentered approach which was presented in a workshop in 1997.
5Fidel, R. ; Davies, R.K. ; Douglass, M.H. ; Holder, J.K. ; Hopkins, C.J. ; Kushner, E.J. ; Miyagishimas, B.K. ; Toney, C.D.: ¬A visit to the information mall : Web searching behavior of high school students.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 50(1999) no.1, S.24-37.
Abstract: This article analyzes Web searching behavior for homework assignments of high school students through field observations in class and the terminal with students thinking alound, and through interviews with various participants, including the teacher and librarian. Students performed focused searching and progressed through a search swiftly and flexibly. They used landmarks and assumed that one can always start a new search and ask for help. They were satisfied with their searches and the results, but impatient with slow response. The students enjoyed searching the Web because it had a variety of formats, it showed pictures, it covered a multitude of subjects and it provided easy access to information. Difficulties and problems students encountered emphasize the need for training to all involved, and for a system design that is based on user seeking and searching behavior
Themenfeld: Internet ; Benutzerstudien
6Fidel, R. ; Crandall, M.: ¬The role of subject access in information filtering.
In: Visualizing subject access for 21st century information resources: Papers presented at the 1997 Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing, 2-4 Mar 1997, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Ed.: P.A. Cochrane et al. Urbana-Champaign, IL : Illinois University at Urbana-Champaign, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1998. S.16-27.
Abstract: The sheer amount of electronic information makes filtering a vital component of contemporary information work. Field observations of managers and engineers at the Boeing Company who received filtered information about computer-related topics revealed criteria they used to select, and those they used to reject, documents within their subject interest. Responses to a questionnaire indicated that some criteria are used more frequently and are more important than others. The few criteria that related to the subject matter of the documents were not limited to a subject domain. Other criteria addressed the form of the documents, their content, and writing style. In addition, some criteria were stable and somewhat objective and others were situational and subjective. An examination of these criteria shows that many of them could be used in filtering, in addition to subject-based mechanisms, and that they might be particularly useful for systems with multiple sources because they can provide a useful filter that is not based on the subject domain
7Fidel, R.: ¬The image retrieval task : implications for the design and evaluation of image databases.
In: New review of hypermedia and multimedia. 1997, no.3, S.181-199.
Abstract: A review of studies about searching beganiour in image retrieval suggests that retrieval tasks may affect searching behaviour. Retrieval tasks occur along a spectrum starting with the Data Pole, which involves retrieval of images for the information which the image include, and ending with the Objects Pole, which concerns the retrieval of images as objects. Each Pole generates a certain searching behaviour which has characteristics opposing those of the other pole. These characteristics suggest that: relevance feedback may not be useful for tasks on the Object Pole; measuring precision on the Data Pole should be replaced with another measurement of effort and time, while on the Objects Pole, the quality of browsing sets and the precision of the browsing process should be measured instead of precision; and recall is not useful for the Data Pole, and requires much exploration before it can be adopted for the Object Pole. Additional research in searching behaviour and about performance measurement will improve retrieval from image databases
Behandelte Form: Bilder
8Fidel, R. ; Efthimiadis, E.N.: Terminological knowledge structure for intermediary expert systems.
In: Information processing and management. 31(1995) no.1, S.15-27.
Abstract: To provide advice for online searching about term selection and query expansion, an intermediary expert system should indicate a terminological knowledge structure. Terminological attributes could provide the foundation of a knowledge base, and knowledge acquisition could rely on knowledge base techniques coupled with statistical techniques. The strategies of expert searchers would provide 1 source of knowledge. The knowledge structure would include 3 constructs for each term: frequency data, a hedge, and a position in a classification scheme. Switching vocabularies could provide a meta-scheme and facilitate the interoperability of databases in similar subjects. To develop such knowledge structure, research should focus on terminological attributes, word and phrase disambiguation, automated text processing, and the role of thesauri and classification schemes in indexing and retrieval. It should develop techniques that combine knowledge base and statistical methods and that consider user preferences
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
9Fidel, R.: User-centered indexing.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 45(1994) no.8, S.572-576.
Abstract: Two distinct approaches describe the process of indexing. The document-oriented approach claims that indexing summarizes or represents the content of a document. The user-oriented approach requires that indexing reflect the requests for which a document might be relevant. Most indexing, in practice as well as in theory, subscribe to both, but the document-oriented approach has enjoyed most viability. While request-oriented indexing is a user-centered approach, it is very difficult to implement with human, a priori indexing. Automated indexing with its dynamic and flexible nature is most fit to tailor indexing to requirements of individual users and requests, yet most of current research in the area focuses on the development of global methods. Regardless of the method, user-centered indexing cannot be developed before searching behavior is understood better
10Fidel, R.: Qualitative methods in information retrieval research.
In: Library and information science research. 15(1993) no.3, S.219-247.
Abstract: This review of the literature shows that the number of research projects in information retrieval (IR) that employ qualitative methods is on the rise. Although no agreed-upon definition exists for the concept qualitative research, a number of typical characteristics describe its nature. Qualitative research is noncontrolling, holistic and case oriented, about processes, open and flexible, diverse in methods, humanistic, inductive, and scientific. Although these characteristics make qualitative methods the best for exploring human behavior in depth, and thus of great relevance to IR research, only a few studies present all of them. Doctoral students, librarians, and others who are intersted in qualitative methods have many sources for gaining support and guidance: methodological writings, textbooks and handbooks, and several deprtments at academic institutions
11Fidel, R.: Thesaurus requirements for an intermediary expert system.
In: Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Proc. 5th Int. Study Conf. on Classification Research, Toronto, Canada, 24.-28.6.1991. Ed. by N.J. Williamson u. M. Hudon. Amsterdam : Elsevier, 1992. S.209-213.
Abstract: Direct observations and analysis of searching behaviour of professional online searchers shed light on thesaurus requirements for an intermediary expert system - a system that mediates between online databases and end users. Examination of searchers' decisions about the selection of search keys, and of the knowledge about terminological and subject properties that are employed, illuminated the requirements for a thesaurus that will facilitate the selection of search keys. Expert knowledge is needed when: a term occurs very frequently in the database; it has many synonyms; it is ambiguous; it is vague; or its meaning is context dependent. To diagnose such terms and to give advice, a thesaurus would be used together with a variety of text sources such as databases' thesauri, machine-readable dictionaries and glossaries and the databases' text. The thesaurus would be a knowledge structure that indicates frequency data, hedges, and a classificatory structure; both intellectual and automated procedures would be used to create it. Such a knowledge structure in place would require a new approach to text analysis and to the construction of controlled vocabularies
12Fidel, R.: Who needs controlled vocabulary?.
In: Special libraries. 83(1992) no.1, S.1-9.
16Fidel, R.: Online searching styles.
In: ASIS'90: Proc. 53rd ASIS Ann. Meeting, Toronto, 4.-8.11.1990. Medford, NJ : Learned Information, 1990. S.95-103.
18Fidel, R.: What is missing in research about online searching behaviour?.
In: Canadian journal of information science. 12(1987) nos.3/4, S.54-61.
Abstract: Experiments in online searching behaviour have failed to explain the phenomena they were designed to study. An examination of the variables used in research to data finds the most commonly used independent variables are searcher characteristics. Search-process and search outcome variables are the most commonly dependent variables. The search process variables are inadequate because they are situational and subject to constant change. Significantly, these variables measure the cost of a search rather than the intellectual processes involved in answering a request. While these experiments could support the discovery of the 'productive searcher', they cannot uncover searching behaviour. Only in-depth analyses of the search process itself can lead to productive research
19Fidel, R.: Writing abstracts for free-text searching.
In: Journal of documentation. 42(1986), S.11-21.
Abstract: A survey of abstracting policies by producers of bibliographical databases examined abstracting guidelines which aim to enhance free- text retrieval. Of the 123 database policies examined, fifty-seven (46 per cent) included such instructions. Editors consider contents of abstracts and their language as a primary factor in retrieval enhancement. Most recommend that once abstractors decide which concepts to include in abstracts and in which form to represent them, these terms should be co-ordinated with index terms assigned from a controlled vocabulary. Guidelines about the type of abstracts, i.e., informative or indicative, and about their length are not affected by the capability of free-text retrieval
20Fidel, R.: Toward expert systems for the selection of search keys.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 37(1986) no.1, S.37-44.