Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Simoes, G. ; Machado, L. ; Gnoli, C. ; Souza, R.: Can an ontologically-oriented KO do without concepts?.
In: Knowledge Organization at the Interface. Proceedings of the Sixteenth International ISKO Conference, 2020 Aalborg, Denmark. Ed.: M. Lykke et al. Baden-Baden : Ergon, 2020. S.502-506.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.17)
Abstract: The ontological approach in the development of KOS is an attempt to overcome the limitations of the traditional epistemological approach. Questions raise about the representation and organization of ontologically-oriented KO units, such as BFO universals or ILC phenomena. The study aims to compare the ontological approaches of BFO and ILC using a hermeneutic approach. We found that the differences between the units of the two systems are primarily due to the formal level of abstraction of BFO and the different organizations, namely the grouping of phenomena into ILC classes that represent complex compounds of entities in the BFO approach. In both systems the use of concepts is considered instrumental, although in the ILC they constitute the intersubjective component of the phenomena whereas in BFO they serve to access the entities of reality but are not part of them.
Inhalt: 10.5771/9783956507762-502. Vgl. auch: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/347283092_Can_an_Ontologically-Oriented_KO_Do_Without_Concepts.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Begriffstheorie
2Gnoli, C.: Classifying phenomena : part 4: themes and rhemes.
In: Knowledge organization. 45(2018) no.1, S.43-53.
Abstract: This is the fourth in a series of papers on classification based on phenomena instead of disciplines. Together with types, levels and facets that have been discussed in the previous parts, themes and rhemes are further structural components of such a classification. In a statement or in a longer document, a base theme and several particular themes can be identified. Base theme should be cited first in a classmark, followed by particular themes, each with its own facets. In some cases, rhemes can also be expressed, that is new information provided about a theme, converting an abstract statement ("wolves, affected by cervids") into a claim that some thing actually occurs ("wolves are affected by cervids"). In the Integrative Levels Classification rhemes can be expressed by special deictic classes, including those for actual specimens, anaphoras, unknown values, conjunctions and spans, whole universe, anthropocentric favoured classes, and favoured host classes. These features, together with rules for pronounciation, make a classification of phenomena a true language, that may be suitable for many uses.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
3Gnoli, C.: Mentefacts as a missing level in theory of information science.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.6, S.1226-1242.
Abstract: Purpose The current debate between two theoretical approaches in library and information science and knowledge organization (KO), the cognitive one and the sociological one, is addressed in view of their possible integration in a more general model. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach Personal knowledge of individual users, as focused in the cognitive approach, and social production and use of knowledge, as focused in the sociological approach, are reconnected to the theory of levels of reality, particularly in the versions of Nicolai Hartmann and Karl R. Popper (three worlds). The notions of artefact and mentefact, as proposed in anthropological literature and applied in some KO systems, are also examined as further contributions to the generalized framework. Some criticisms to these models are reviewed and discussed. Findings Both the cognitive approach and the sociological approach, if taken in isolation, prove to be cases of philosophical monism as they emphasize a single level over the others. On the other hand, each of them can be considered as a component of a pluralist ontology and epistemology, where individual minds and social communities are but two successive levels in knowledge production and use, and are followed by a further level of "objectivated spirit"; this can in turn be analyzed into artefacts and mentefacts. While all these levels are relevant to information science, mentefacts and their properties are its most peculiar objects of study, which make it distinct from such other disciplines as psychology and sociology. Originality/value This analysis shows how existing approaches can benefit from additional notions contributed by levels theory, to develop more complete and accurate models of information and knowledge phenomena.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-04-2018-0054. Vgl. auch den Folgeartikel von B. Hjoerland: The foundation of information science: one world or three? A discussion of Gnoli (2018). In: Journal of documentation. 74(2019) no.1, S.164-171.
4Gnoli, C.: Notation.
In: Knowledge organization. 45(2018) no.8, S.667-684.
(Reviews of concepts in knowledge organization)
Abstract: Notations are systems of symbols that can be combined according to syntactical rules to represent meanings in a specialized domain. In knowledge organization, they are systems of numerals, letters and punctuation marks associated to a concept that mechanically produce helpful sequences of them for arranging books on shelves, browsing subjects in directories and displaying items in catalogues. Most bibliographic classification systems, like Dewey Decimal Classification, use a positional notation allowing for expression of increasingly specific subjects by additional digits. However, some notations like that of Bliss Bibliographic Classification are purely ordinal and do not reflect the hierarchical degree of a subject. Notations can also be expressive of the syntactical structure of compound subjects (common auxiliaries, facets etc.) in various ways. In the digital media, notation can be recorded and managed in databases and exploited to provide appropriate search and display functionalities.
Themenfeld: Notationen / Signaturen
5Gnoli, C. ; Ledl, A. ; Park, Z. ; Trzmielewski, M.: Phenomenon-based vs. disciplinary classification : possibilities for evaluating and for mapping.
In: Challenges and opportunities for knowledge organization in the digital age: proceedings of the Fifteenth International ISKO Conference, 9-11 July 2018, Porto, Portugal / organized by: International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), ISKO Spain and Portugal Chapter, University of Porto - Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Research Centre in Communication, Information and Digital Culture (CIC.digital) - Porto. Eds.: F. Ribeiro u. M.E. Cerveira. Baden-Baden : Ergon Verlag, 2018. S.653-661.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.16)
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
6Gnoli, C.: Classifying phenomena : Part 2: Types and levels.
In: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.1, S.37-54.
Abstract: After making the case that phenomena can be the primary unit of classification (Part 1), some basic principles to group and sort phenomena are considered. Entities can be grouped together on the basis of both their similarity (morphology) and their common origin (phylogeny). The resulting groups will form the classical hierarchical chains of types and subtypes. At every hierarchical degree, phenomena can form ordered sets (arrays), where their sorting can reflect levels of increasing organization, corresponding to an evolutionary order of appearance (emergence). The theory of levels of reality has been investigated by many philosophers and applied to knowledge organization systems by various authors, which are briefly reviewed. At the broadest degree, it allows to identify some major strata of phenomena (forms, matter, life, minds, societies and culture) in turn divided into layers. A list of twenty-six layers is proposed to form the main classes of the Integrative Levels Classification system. A combination of morphology and phylogeny can determine whether a given phenomenon should be a type of an existing level, or a level on its own.
Anmerkung: Part 1 in: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.6, S.403-415.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
7Lardera, M. ; Gnoli, C. ; Rolandi, C. ; Trzmielewski, M.: Developing SciGator, a DDC-based library browsing tool.
In: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.8, S.638-643.
Abstract: Exploring collections by their subject matter is an important functionality for library users. We developed an online tool called SciGator in order to allow users to browse the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) classes used in different libraries at the University of Pavia and to perform different types of search in the OPAC. Besides navigation of DDC hierarchies, SciGator suggests "see-also" relationships with related classes and maps equivalent classes in local shelving schemes, thus allowing the expansion of search queries to include subjects contiguous to the initial one. We are developing new features, including the possibility to expand searches even more to national and international catalogues.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Special Issue: ISKO-Italy: 8' Incontro ISKO Italia, Università di Bologna, 22 maggio 2017, Bologna, Italia.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationssysteme im Online-Retrieval
Objekt: DDC ; SciGator
9Gnoli, C. ; Pusterla, L. ; Bendiscioli, A. ; Recinella, C.: Classification for collections mapping and query expansion.
In: Proceedings of the 15th European Networked Knowledge Organization Systems Workshop (NKOS 2016) co-located with the 20th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries 2016 (TPDL 2016), Hannover, Germany, September 9, 2016. Edi. by Philipp Mayr et al. [http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1676/=urn:nbn:de:0074-1676-5].
(CEUR workshop proceedings; vol. 1676)
Abstract: Dewey Decimal Classification has been used to organize materials owned by the three scientific libraries at the University of Pavia, and to allow integrated browsing in their union catalogue through SciGator, a home built web-based user interface. Classification acts as a bridge between collections located in different places and shelved according to different local schemes. Furthermore, cross-discipline relationships recorded in the system allow for expanded queries that increase recall. Advantages and possible improvements of such a system are discussed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1676/paper3.pdf. Other workshop material incl. presentations are available on the website < https://at-web1.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/research/hypermedia/nkos/nkos2016/programme.html>.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationssysteme im Online-Retrieval ; OPAC ; Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
Objekt: DDC ; SciGator
Land/Ort: I ; Pavia
10Gnoli, C.: Classifying phenomena : Part 1: dimensions.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.6, S.403-415.
Abstract: This is the first part of a study on the classification of phenomena. It starts by addressing the status of classification schemes among knowledge organization systems (KOSs), as some features of them have been overlooked in recent reviews of KOS types. It then considers the different dimensions implied in a KOS, which include: the observed phenomena, the cultural and disciplinary perspective under which they are treated, the features of documents carrying such treatment, the collections of such documents as managed in libraries, archives or museums, the information needs prompting to search and use these collections and the people experiencing such different information needs. Until now, most library classification schemes have given priority to the perspective dimension as they first list disciplines. However, an increasing number of voices are now considering the possibility of classification schemes giving priority to phenomena as advocated in the León Manifesto. Although these schemes first list phenomena as their main classes, they can as well express perspective or the other relevant dimensions that occur in a classified item. The independence of a phenomenon-based classification from the institutional divisions into disciplines contributes to giving knowledge organization a more proactive and influential role.
Anmerkung: Part 2 in: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.1, S.37-54.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
11Santis, R. de ; Gnoli, C.: Expressing dependence relationships in the Integrative Levels Classification using OWL.
In: Knowledge organization for a sustainable world: challenges and perspectives for cultural, scientific, and technological sharing in a connected society : proceedings of the Fourteenth International ISKO Conference 27-29 September 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil / organized by International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), ISKO-Brazil, São Paulo State University ; edited by José Augusto Chaves Guimarães, Suellen Oliveira Milani, Vera Dodebei. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2016. S.368-375.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.15)
12Gnoli, C. ; Santis, R. de ; Pusterla, L.: Commerce, see also Rhetoric : cross-discipline relationships as authority data for enhanced retrieval.
In: Classification and authority control: expanding resource discovery: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar 2015, 29-30 October 2015, Lisbon, Portugal. Eds.: Slavic, A. u. M.I. Cordeiro. Würzburg : Ergon-Verlag, 2015. S.151-162.
Abstract: Subjects in a classification scheme are often related to other subjects belonging to different hierarchies. This problem was identified already by Hugh of Saint Victor (1096?-1141). Still with present-time bibliographic classifications, a user browsing the class of architecture under the hierarchy of arts may miss relevant items classified in building or in civil engineering under the hierarchy of applied sciences. To face these limitations we have developed SciGator, a browsable interface to explore the collections of all scientific libraries at the University of Pavia. Besides showing subclasses of a given class, the interface points users to related classes in the Dewey Decimal Classification, or in other local schemes, and allows for expanded queries that include them. This is made possible by using a special field for related classes in the database structure which models classification authority data. Ontologically, many relationships between classes in different hierarchies are cases of existential dependence. Dependence can occur between disciplines in such disciplinary classifications as Dewey (e.g. architecture existentially depends on building), or between phenomena in such phenomenon-based classifications as the Integrative Levels Classification (e.g. fishing as a human activity existentially depends on fish as a class of organisms). We provide an example of its representation in OWL and discuss some details of it.
Inhalt: Präsentation unter: http://www.udcds.com/seminar/2015/media/slides/Gnoli_InternationalUDCSeminar2015.pdf.
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
13Gnoli, C.: Boundaries and overlaps of disciplines in Bloch's methodology of historical knowledge.
In: Knowledge organization in the 21st century: between historical patterns and future prospects. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference 19-22 May 2014, Kraków, Poland. Ed.: Wieslaw Babik. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2014. S.129-135.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol. 14)
Abstract: Marc Bloch's famous methodological essay, The Historian's Craft, contains many relevant considerations on knowledge organization. These have been selected and grouped into four main themes: terminology problems in history; principles for the organization of historical knowledge, with special reference to the genetic principle; sources of historical information, to be found not only in archives but also in very different media and contexts; and the nature and boundaries of history as a discipline. Analysis of them shows that knowledge organization is an important part of historians' work, and suggests that it can be especially fruitful when a cross-medial, interdisciplinary approach is adopted.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/aiko_vol_14_2014_19.pdf.
14Gnoli, C. ; Ridi, C.R.: Unified Theory of Information, hypertextuality and levels of reality : without, within, and withal knowledge management.
In: Journal of documentation. 70(2014) no.3, S.443-460.
Abstract: Purpose - The different senses of the term information in physical, biological and social interpretations, and the possibility of connections between them, are addressed. Special attention is paid to Hofkirchner's Unified Theory of Information (UTI), proposing an integrated view in which the notion of information gets additional properties as one moves from the physical to the biological and the social realms. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - UTI is compared to other views of information, especially to two theories complementing several ideas of it: the theory of the hypertextual documental universe ("docuverse") and the theory of integrative levels of reality. Two alternative applications of the complex of these three theories are discussed: a pragmatical, hermeneutic one, and a more ambitious realist, ontological one. The latter can be extended until considering information ("bit") together with matter-energy ("it") as a fundamental element in the world. Problems and opportunities with each view are discussed. Findings - It is found that the common ground for all three theories is an evolutionary approach, paying attention to the phylogenetic connections between the different meanings of information. Research limitations/implications - Other theories of information, like Leontiev's, are not discussed as not especially related to the focus of the approach. Originality/value - The paper builds on previously unnoticed affinities between different families of information-related theories, showing how each of them can provide fruitful complements to the other ones in clarifying the nature of information.
15Gnoli, C.: Metadata about what? : distinguishing between ontic, epistemic, and documental dimensions in knowledge organization.
In: Knowledge organization. 39(2012) no.4, S.268-275.
Abstract: The spread of many new media and formats is changing the scenario faced by knowledge organizers: as printed monographs are not the only standard form of knowledge carrier anymore, the traditional kind of knowledge organization (KO) systems based on academic disciplines is put into question. A sounder foundation can be provided by an analysis of the different dimensions concurring to form the content of any knowledge item-what Brian Vickery described as the steps "from the world to the classifier." The ultimate referents of documents are the phenomena of the real world, that can be ordered by ontology, the study of what exists. Phenomena coexist in subjects with the perspectives by which they are considered, pertaining to epistemology, and with the formal features of knowledge carriers, adding a further, pragmatic layer. All these dimensions can be accounted for in metadata, but are often done so in mixed ways, making indexes less rigorous and interoperable. For example, while facet analysis was originally developed for subject indexing, many "faceted" interfaces today mix subject facets with form facets, and schemes presented as "ontologies" for the "semantic Web" also code for non-semantic information. In bibliographic classifications, phenomena are often confused with the disciplines dealing with them, the latter being assumed to be the most useful starting point, for users will have either one or another perspective. A general citation order of dimensions- phenomena, perspective, carrier-is recommended, helping to concentrate most relevant information at the beginning of headings.
Inhalt: Beitrag aus: Selected Papers from the 8th ISKO-France Conference, 27-28 June 2011, Lille, Université Charles-De-Gaulle Lille 3. Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_39_2012_4_d.pdf.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
16Gnoli, C. ; Pullman, T. ; Cousson, P. ; Merli, G. ; Szostak, R.: Representing the structural elements of a freely faceted classification.
In: Classification and ontology: formal approaches and access to knowledge: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar, 19-20 September 2011, The Hague, The Netherlands. Eds.: A. Slavic u. E. Civallero. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2011. S.193-205.
Abstract: Freely faceted classifications allow for free combination of concepts across all knowledge domains, and for sorting of the resulting compound classmarks. Starting from work by the Classification Research Group, the Integrative Levels Classification (ILC) project has produced a first edition of a general freely faceted scheme. The system is managed as a MySQL database, and can be browsed through a Web interface. The ILC database structure provides a case for identifying and representing the structural elements of any freely faceted classification. These belong to both the notational and the verbal planes. Notational elements include: arrays, chains, deictics, facets, foci, place of definition of foci, examples of combinations, subclasses of a faceted class, groupings, related classes; verbal elements include: main caption, synonyms, descriptions, included terms, related terms, notes. Encoding of some of these elements in an international mark-up format like SKOS can be problematic, especially as this does not provide for faceted structures, although approximate SKOS equivalents are identified for most of them.
Themenfeld: Universale Facettenklassifikationen ; Wissensrepräsentation
17Gnoli, C.: Animals belonging to the emperor : enabling viewpoint warrant in classification.
In: Subject access: preparing for the future. Conference on August 20 - 21, 2009 in Florence, the IFLA Classification and Indexing Section sponsored an IFLA satellite conference entitled "Looking at the Past and Preparing for the Future". Eds.: P. Landry et al. Berlin : DeGruyter Saur, 2011. S.91-100.
(IFLA series on bibliographic control; vol. 42)
18Gnoli, C.: Fundamentos ontológicos de la organización del conocimiento : la teoría de los niveles integrativos aplicada al orden de cita.
In: Scire. 17(2011) no.1, S.29-34.
Abstract: The field of knowledge organization (KO) can be described as composed of the four distinct but connected layers of theory, systems, representation, and application. This paper focuses on the relations between KO theory and KO systems. It is acknowledged how the structure of KO systems is the product of a mixture of ontological, epistemological, and pragmatical factors. However, different systems give different priorities to each factor. A more ontologically-oriented approach, though not offering quick solutions for any particular group of users, will produce systems of wide and long-lasting application as they are based on general, shareable principles. I take the case of the ontological theory of integrative levels, which has been considered as a useful source for general classifications for several decades, and is currently implemented in the Integrative Levels Classification system. The theory produces a sequence of main classes modelling a natural order between phenomena. This order has interesting effects also on other features of the system, like the citation order of concepts within compounds. As it has been shown by facet analytical theory, it is useful that citation order follow a principle of inversion, as compared to the order of the same concepts in the schedules. In the light of integrative levels theory, this principle also acquires an ontological meaning: phenomena of lower level should be cited first, as most often they act as specifications of higher-level ones. This ontological principle should be complemented by consideration of the epistemological treatment of phenomena: in case a lower-level phenomenon is the main theme, it can be promoted to the leading position in the compound subject heading. The integration of these principles is believed to produce optimal results in the ordering of knowledge contents.
Anmerkung: Übers. des Titels: Ontological foundations in knowledge organization: the theory of integrative levels applied in citation order.
19Gnoli, C.: Workshop on Levels of reality as a KO paradigm : levels, types, facets: three structural principles for KO.
In: Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Eleventh International ISKO Conference, 23-26 February 2010 Rome, Italy. Edited by Claudio Gnoli and Fulvio Mazzocchi. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2010. S.129-137.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.12)
Abstract: Three major principles in the structure of knowledge organization systems are identified and discussed: hierarchical trees of types, sets of facets conforming to general categories, and series of levels of reality. Each principle can be present at various degrees in different systems. The three principles can interact between them in various ways, depending on priority choices in system construction. Examples are reviewed of different priority options adopted in classifications and thesauri, both special and general, and their effects are critically examined. It is found that levels of reality, although less often explicitly acknowledged than other principles, contribute an important tool for knowledge organization.
20Gnoli, C.: Classification transcends library business : the case of BiblioPhil.
In: Knowledge organization. 37(2010) no.3, S.223-229.
Abstract: Although bibliographic classifications usually adopt a perspective different from that of object classifications, the two have obvious relationships. These become especially relevant when users are looking for knowledge scattered in a wide variety of forms and media. This is an increasingly common situation, as library catalogues now coexist in the global digital environment with catalogues of archives, of museums, of commercial products, and many other information resources. In order to make the subject content of all these resources searchable, a broader conception of classification is needed, that can be applied to an knowledge item, rather than only bibliographic materials. To illustrate this we take an example of the research on bagpipes in Northern Italian folklore. For this kind of research, the most effective search strategy is a cross-media one, looking for many different knowledge sources such as published documents, police archives, painting details, museum specimens, organizations devoted to related subjects. To provide satisfying results for this kind of search, the traditional disciplinary approach to classification is not sufficient. Tools are needed in which knowledge items dealing with a phenomenon of interest can be retrieved independently from the other topics with which it is combined, the disciplinary context, and the medium where it occurs. This can be made possible if the basic units of classification are taken to be the phenomena treated, as recommended in the León Manifesto, rather than disciplines or other aspect features. The concept of bagpipes should be retrievable and browsable in any combination with other phenomena, disciplines, media etc. Examples are given of information sources that could be managed by this freely-faceted technique of classification.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko3720103h.pdf.