Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Hara, N. ; Sanfilippo, M.R.: Analysis of roles in engaging contentious online discussions in science.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.8, S.1953-1966.
Abstract: The prevalence of sites in which users can contribute content increases ordinary citizens' participation in emerging forms of knowledge sharing. This article investigates the practices associated with the roles of participants who actively contribute to the coproduction of knowledge in three online communities and how these roles differ in controversial and noncontroversial threads. The Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine was selected as a contentious scientific topic because of persistent belief about an alleged link between the vaccine and autism. Contributions to three online communities that engage mothers with young children were analyzed to identify participant roles. No consistent roles were evident in noncontroversial threads, but the role of mediator consistently appeared in controversial threads in all three communities. This study helps to articulate the roles played in online communities that engage in knowledge collaboration. The variety of roles in online communities has implications for both the study for practice and the design of information technologies.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23850/full.
2Hara, N. ; Shachaf, P. ; Hew, K.F.: Cross-cultural analysis of the Wikipedia community.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.10, S.2097-2108.
Abstract: This article reports a cross-cultural analysis of four Wikipedias in different languages and demonstrates their roles as communities of practice (CoPs). Prior research on CoPs and on the Wikipedia community often lacks cross-cultural analysis. Despite the fact that over 75% of Wikipedia is written in languages other than English, research on Wikipedia primarily focuses on the English Wikipedia and tends to overlook Wikipedias in other languages. This article first argues that Wikipedia communities can be analyzed and understood as CoPs. Second, norms of behaviors are examined in four Wikipedia languages (English, Hebrew, Japanese, and Malay), and the similarities and differences across these four languages are reported. Specifically, typical behaviors on three types of discussion spaces (talk, user talk, and Wikipedia talk) are identified and examined across languages. Hofstede's dimensions of cultural diversity as well as the size of the community and the function of each discussion area provide lenses for understanding the similarities and differences. As such, this article expands the research on online CoPs through an examination of cultural variations across multiple CoPs and increases our understanding of Wikipedia communities in various languages.
3Hara, N.: Information technology support for communities of practice : how public defenders learn about winning and losing in court.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.1, S.76-87.
Abstract: The aim of this article is to examine the role of information technologies (IT) in supporting practice and professional identity formation, both major axes for communities of practice. The article uses an ethnographic case study to understand how public defenders learn to improve their court performance. The concept of "communities of practice" helps to illuminate how the attorneys in a public defender's office share knowledge in order to practice effectively in court. This article presents findings that a community of practice serves as effective scaffolding to support professional development; this is especially true for the practice component. Further, this case study indicates that information technologies, such as listservs, are not very effective social integrators for professionals who work at different sites. In particular, today's IT forums are most effective when used for sharing technical information about work, and least effective for sharing important cultural meanings about how professionals should approach their work and develop professional identities. This research advances our understanding of the complexity of organizing communities of practice to support professional groups of colleagues and of organizing IT-enabled support for various activities of the community.
4Hew, K.F. ; Hara, N.: Knowledge sharing in online environments : a qualitative case study.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.14, S.2310-2324.
Abstract: This study expands the perspective of knowledge sharing by categorizing the different types of knowledge that individuals shared with one another and examining the patterns of motivators and barriers of knowledge sharing across three online environments pertaining to the following professional practices - advanced nursing practice, Web development, and literacy education. The patterns indicate the different possible combinations of motivators or barriers that may exist in individuals. Data were gathered through online observations and semistructured interviews with 54 participants. The cross-case analysis shows that the most common type of knowledge shared across all three environments was practical knowledge. Overall, seven motivators were found. Analysis also suggests that the most common combination of motivators for knowledge sharing was collectivism and reciprocity. A total of eight barriers were identified. The most common combination of barriers varied in each online environment. Discussions as to how the types of professional practices may contribute to the different results are provided, along with implications and future possible research directions.
5Hara, N. ; Solomon, P. ; Kim, S.-L. ; Sonnenwald, D.H.: ¬An emerging view of scientific collaboration : scientists' perspectives on collaboration and factors that impact collaboration.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 54(2003) no.10, S.952-965.
Abstract: Collaboration is often a critical aspect of scientific research, which is dominated by complex problems, rapidly changing technology, dynamic growth of knowledge, and highly specialized areas of expertise. An individual scientist can seldom provide all of the expertise and resources necessary to address complex research problems. This paper describes collaboration among a group of scientists, and considers how their experiences are socially shaped. The scientists were members of a newly formed distributed, multi-disciplinary academic research center that was organized into four multi-disciplinary research groups. Each group had 14 to 34 members, including faculty, postdoctoral fellows and students, at four geographically dispersed universities. To investigate challenges that emerge in establishing scientific collaboration, data were collected about members' previous and current collaborative experiences, perceptions regarding collaboration, and work practices during the center's first year of operation. The data for the study includes interviews with members of the Center, observations of videoconferences and meetings, and a Center-wide sociometric survey. Data analysis has led to the development of a framework that identifies forms of collaboration that emerged among scientists (e.g., complementary and integrative collaboration) and associated factors, which influenced collaboration including personal compatibility, work connections, incentives, and infrastructure. These results may inform the specification of social and organizational practices, which are needed to establish collaboration in distributed, multi-disciplinary research centers.