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1Kwasnik, B.H.: Changing perspectives on classification as a knowledge-representation process.
In: Knowledge organization. 46(2019) no.8, S.656-667.
(Research trajectories in knowledge organization)
Abstract: No matter how immutable a classification may seem, it is, after all, an artifact of the human imagination and functions in a particular place and time. The author describes her personal inquiry into classification as a knowledge-representation process. She traces her changing perspectives on how classifications should be viewed and evaluated by posing the following questions: 1) How does the classification process enable or constrain knowing about something or discovering something we did not already know?; 2) In what ways might we develop classifications that enhance our ability to discover meaningful information in the information stores that form a part of our scholarly as well as our everyday lives?; and 3) How might classifications mask or distort knowledge, and how might they serve to disenfranchise people and ideas? These questions are considered through a discussion of classification structures, personal classification, the link of classification to theory, everyday working classifications, translation of classifications, cognitive aspects, browsing, genres, warrant, and the difficulties of navigating complex ontological commitments. The through thread is the importance of context, because classifications can only be seen with respect to the human endeavors that generate them.
Inhalt: DOI:10.5771/0943-7444- 2019-8-656.
2Kwasnik, B.H.: Approaches to providing context in knowledge representation structures.
In: Classification and ontology: formal approaches and access to knowledge: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar, 19-20 September 2011, The Hague, The Netherlands. Eds.: A. Slavic u. E. Civallero. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2011. S.9-23.
Abstract: The power of knowledge structures is to represent, to contextualize, to communicate, and to help structure knowledge in a useful way. Traditional classifications tackle the challenges of creating knowledge structures for a wide-ranging set of concepts and are set up to reflect cumulated literary and scientific warrant for many purposes, but especially the useful ordering of knowledge. Ontologies focus on modelling domains with a vigorous dedication to eliciting the most useful entities and relationships for that domain. Both leverage structure and relationships to provide a way of representing not only the entities under consideration but also the way they work in a network of meaning. At the same time the foundation of many knowledge structures is bounded by a given perspective reflecting the purposes of that structure. This paper examines two cases, the structure of knowledge as expressed in the curriculum at an American university, and the notion of "cohabitation" as a construct that shifts in meaning over time and situations. In both cases context helps define meaning.
3Kwasnik, B.H.: Semantic warrant : a pivotal concept for our field.
In: Knowledge organization. 37(2010) no.2, S.106-110.
Abstract: Through its focus on the semantic, rather than the syntactic axis of bibliographic classification systems, Beghtol's 1986 article on four perspectives of warrant provides us with a set of conceptual tools that can be used to understand, analyze, evaluate and design any knowledge-representation system. In this way warrant, as a concept, joins the ranks of relevance as a pivotal notion, offering a lens for contextualizing the meanings and uses to which ever-evolving classifications are put. With reference to examples, this paper concludes by invoking Beghtol's warrant as a means for systematically evaluating how legacy and emerging classification systems measure up to their mandates. Bezugnahme auf: Beghtol, C.: Semantic validity: concepts of warrants in bibliographic classification systems. In: Library resources and technical services. 30(1986), S.109-125.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Special issue: A Festschrift for Clare Beghtol
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko372c.pdf.
4Kwasnik, B.H. ; Chun, Y.L. ; Crowston, K. ; D'Ignazio, J. ; Rubleske, J.: Challenges in ceating a taxonomy of genres of digital documents.
In: Knowledge organization for a global learning society: Proceedings of the 9th International ISKO Conference, 4-7 July 2006, Vienna, Austria. Hrsg.: G. Budin, C. Swertz u. K. Mitgutsch. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2006. S.225-231.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.10)
Abstract: We report on the process and difficulties of building a taxonomy of genres of digital documents. The taxonomy is being created to be used in the experimental phase of an ongoing study to learn about the usefulness of providing genre information to support information-seeking tasks. To build the taxonomy, we conducted field studies to collect webpage-genre information from 55 respondents: K-12 teachers, journalists, and engineers, who routinely use the web for information seeking. Challenges described in this paper include the difficulties respondents experienced in identifying and naming genres and that the researchers faced in unambiguously linking the genre identifications with clues to genre attributes and purposes.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/tocs/0497f79b0c0b3ed06/0497f79b0c0c7c33f/index.php.
Behandelte Form: Elektronische Dokumente
5Kwasnik, B.H. ; Chun, Y.-L.: Translation of classifications : issues and solutions as exemplified in the Korean Decimal Classification.
In: Knowledge organization and the global information society: Proceedings of the 8th International ISKO Conference 13-16 July 2004, London, UK. Ed.: I.C. McIlwaine. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2004. S.193-198.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.9)
Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe how the Korean Decimal Classification (KDC), which is based on the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), accommodated translation and adaptation issues in making the scheme culturally hospitable. We made a concept-by-concept comparison of terms in selected sections of the KDC with the analogous terms or sections in the DDC, noting the differences and similarities of terms and structure. Our analysis suggests that, overall, the KDC succeeded in this endeavor, and that the process of adaptation made good use of several adaptive strategies identified in previous work: adjustments to term specificity and term location in the classificatory structure, as well as the addition of uniquely Korean terms.
Inhalt: 1. Introduction We recognize that many difficulties arise in the process of translation of a classification system from the source to another language and culture. Clare Beghtol (2002) argues that making classifications culturally hospitable by including provisions for specific aspects of a culture will enhance its utility. In this paper we analyse orte instance of a classification translation, namely the Korean Decimal Classification (KDC) and compare it to the classification from which it emerged, the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). For a classification designed from orte perspective and for orte culture to be hospitable to a different culture and language it must take into account other possible relationships, and other possible way of identifying and labeling concepts. Among these are finding corresponding terminology and being able to reflect the relationship between terms in the target language correctly. The aim of this study was to describe how the KDC coped with such translation and adaptation issues. In a previous study (Kwasnik & Rubin, in press) we interviewed native speakers in fourteen languages and described the way in which common kinship terms, such as mother, grandparents, and children, differ from the English, not only lexically, but also in the way in which the terms are construed and related to each other. We compared the terms gathered from these Interviews with their position and use in the Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress classifications. We proceeded from concepts collected from individuals to the concepts already in place in an existing classification scheme. This provided us with a set of classification-translation issues that served as a framework for analysis in the present study. Using the framework, we explored the Situation where an existing scheme has already been adapted into another language and culture. By comparing sections of the KDC with the DDC, from which it was adapted, we could describe how and whether the potential problems identified in the earlier study are accommodated in this translated classification scheme.
6Crowston, K. ; Kwasnik, B.H.: Can document-genre metadata improve information access to large digital collections?.
In: Library trends. 52(2004) no.2, S.345-361.
Abstract: We discuss the issues of resolving the information-retrieval problem in large digital collections through the identification and use of document genres. Explicit identification of genre seems particularly important for such collections because any search usually retrieves documents with a diversity of genres that are undifferentiated by obvious clues as to their identity. Also, because most genres are characterized by both form and purpose, identifying the genre of a document provides information as to the document's purpose and its fit to the user's situation, which can be otherwise difficult to assess. We begin by outlining the possible role of genre identification in the information-retrieval process. Our assumption is that genre identification would enhance searching, first because we know that topic alone is not enough to define an information problem and, second, because search results containing genre information would be more easily understandable. Next, we discuss how information professionals have traditionally tackled the issues of representing genre in settings where topical representation is the norm. Finally, we address the issues of studying the efficacy of identifying genre in large digital collections. Because genre is often an implicit notion, studying it in a systematic way presents many problems. We outline a research protocol that would provide guidance for identifying Web document genres, for observing how genre is used in searching and evaluating search results, and finally for representing and visualizing genres.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Themenheft: Organizing the Internet
Themenfeld: Internet ; Metadaten
7Kwasnik, B.H.: Commercial Web sites and the use of classification schemes : the case of Amazon.Com.
In: Challenges in knowledge representation and organization for the 21st century: Integration of knowledge across boundaries. Proceedings of the 7th ISKO International Conference Granada, Spain, July 10-13, 2002. Ed.: M. López-Huertas. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2003. S.279-285.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.8)
Abstract: The structure and use of the classification for books on the amazon.com website are described and analyzed. The contents of this very large website are changing constantly and the access mechanisms have the main purpose of enabling searchers to find books for purchase. This includes finding books the searcher knows about at the start of the search, as well as those that might present themselves in the course of searching and that are related in some way. Underlying the many access paths to books is a classification scheme comprising a rich network of terms in an enumerative and multihierarchical structure.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationssysteme im Online-Retrieval
8Kwasnik, B.H. ; Rubin, V.L.: Stretching conceptual structures in classifications across languages and cultures.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 37(2003) nos.1/2, S.33-47.
Abstract: The authors describe the difficulties of translating classifications from a source language and culture to another language and culture. To demonstrate these problems, kinship terms and concepts from native speakers of fourteen languages were collected and analyzed to find differences between their terms and structures and those used in English. Using the representations of kinship terms in the Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) as examples, the authors identified the source of possible lack of mapping between the domain of kinship in the fourteen languages studied and the LCC and DDC. Finally, some preliminary suggestions for how to make translated classifications more linguistically and culturally hospitable are offered.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Themenheftes "Knowledge organization and classification in international information retrieval"
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch: http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/
Themenfeld: Multilinguale Probleme ; Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
Objekt: DDC ; LCC
9Kwasnik, B.H. ; Liu, X.: Classification structures in the changing environment of active commercial websites : the case of eBay.com.
In: Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the 6th International ISKO-Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada. Ed.: C. Beghtol et al. Würzburg : Ergon, 2000. S.372-377.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.7)
Abstract: This paper reports on a portion of a larger ongoing project. We address the issues of information organization and retrieval in large, active commercial websites. More specifically, we address the use of classification for providing access to the contents of such sites. We approach this analysis by describing the functionality and structure of the classification scheme of one such representative, large, active, commercial websites: eBay.com, a web-based auction site for millions of users and items. We compare eBay's classification scheme with the Art & Architecture Thesaurus, which is a tool for describing and providing access to material culture.
Themenfeld: Information Resources Management
10Kwasnik, B.H.: ¬The role of classification in knowledge representation.
In: Library trends. 48(1999) no.1, S.22-47.
Abstract: A fascinating, broad-ranging article about classification, knowledge, and how they relate. Hierarchies, trees, paradigms (a two-dimensional classification that can look something like a spreadsheet), and facets are covered, with descriptions of how they work and how they can be used for knowledge discovery and creation. Kwasnick outlines how to make a faceted classification: choose facets, develop facets, analyze entities using the facets, and make a citation order. Facets are useful for many reasons: they do not require complete knowledge of the entire body of material; they are hospitable, flexible, and expressive; they do not require a rigid background theory; they can mix theoretical structures and models; and they allow users to view things from many perspectives. Facets do have faults: it can be hard to pick the right ones; it is hard to show relations between them; and it is difficult to visualize them. The coverage of the other methods is equally thorough and there is much to consider for anyone putting a classification on the web.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationssysteme im Online-Retrieval ; Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
11Dubin, D. ; Kwasnik, B.H. ; Tangmanee, C.: Elicitation techniques for classification research : pt.1: ordered trees; pt.2: repertory grids; pt.3: q-methodology.
In: Proceedings of the 5th ASIS SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop, Oct. 16, 1994, Alexandria, VA. Ed.: R. Fidel u.a. Silver Springs, MD : ASIS, 1994. S. -.
12Kwasnik, B.H. ; Flaherty, M.G.: Harmonizing professional and non-professional classifications for enhanced knowledge representation.
In: Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Eleventh International ISKO conference, Rome, 23-26 February 2010, ed. Claudio Gnoli, Indeks, Frankfurt M. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, S.229-235.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.12)
Abstract: We compare two separate but related classification schemes in the area of medical information in order to better understand how they might be used together and inform one another. First we examine a "professional" scheme, the thesaurus of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) produced by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. We contrast this with the "naïve" scheme used by the consumer health website, WebMD.com. Using the term autism we compared the strengths and limitations from the perspective of vocabulary, syntax and classificatory structure, context, and warrant. We conclude that in terms of vocabulary and concepts, MeSH may benefit from WebMD's approach to ongoing updates and currency as well as the contextualization of terms. At the same time, WebMD may benefit from some form of vocabulary control for richer expansion of terms and archival retrieval.
Objekt: MeSH ; WebMD.com