Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Leydesdorff, L. ; Ivanova, I.: ¬The measurement of "interdisciplinarity" and "synergy" in scientific and extra-scientific collaborations.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 72(2021) no.4, S.387-402.
Abstract: Problem solving often requires crossing boundaries, such as those between disciplines. When policy-makers call for "interdisciplinarity," however, they often mean "synergy." Synergy is generated when the whole offers more possibilities than the sum of its parts. An increase in the number of options above the sum of the options in subsets can be measured as redundancy; that is, the number of not-yet-realized options. The number of options available to an innovation system for realization can be as decisive for the system's survival as the historically already-realized innovations. Unlike "interdisciplinarity," "synergy" can also be generated in sectorial or geographical collaborations. The measurement of "synergy," however, requires a methodology different from the measurement of "interdisciplinarity." In this study, we discuss recent advances in the operationalization and measurement of "interdisciplinarity," and propose a methodology for measuring "synergy" based on information theory. The sharing of meanings attributed to information from different perspectives can increase redundancy. Increasing redundancy reduces the relative uncertainty, for example, in niches. The operationalization of the two concepts-"interdisciplinarity" and "synergy"-as different and partly overlapping indicators allows for distinguishing between the effects and the effectiveness of science-policy interventions in research priorities.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24416.
2Hellsten, I. ; Leydesdorff, L.: Automated analysis of actor-topic networks on twitter : new approaches to the analysis of socio-semantic networks.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.1, S.3-15.
Abstract: Social media data provide increasing opportunities for the automated analysis of large sets of textual documents. So far, automated tools have been developed either to account for the social networks among participants in the debates, or to analyze the content of these debates. Less attention has been paid to mapping co-occurrences of actors (participants) and topics (content) in online debates that can be considered as socio-semantic networks. We propose a new, automated approach that uses the whole matrix of co-addressed topics and actors for understanding and visualizing online debates. We show the advantages of the new approach with the analysis of two data sets: first, a large set of English-language Twitter messages at the Rio?+?20 meeting, in June 2012 (72,077 tweets), and second, a smaller data set of Dutch-language Twitter messages on bird flu related to poultry farming in 2015-2017 (2,139 tweets). We discuss the theoretical, methodological, and substantive implications of our approach, also for the analysis of other social media data.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24207.
3Leydesdorff, L. ; Bornmann, L. ; Wagner, C.S.: ¬The relative influences of government funding and international collaboration on citation impact.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.2, S.198-201.
Abstract: A recent publication in Nature reports that public R&D funding is only weakly correlated with the citation impact of a nation's articles as measured by the field-weighted citation index (FWCI; defined by Scopus). On the basis of the supplementary data, we up-scaled the design using Web of Science data for the decade 2003-2013 and OECD funding data for the corresponding decade assuming a 2-year delay (2001-2011). Using negative binomial regression analysis, we found very small coefficients, but the effects of international collaboration are positive and statistically significant, whereas the effects of government funding are negative, an order of magnitude smaller, and statistically nonsignificant (in two of three analyses). In other words, international collaboration improves the impact of research articles, whereas more government funding tends to have a small adverse effect when comparing OECD countries.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24109.
4Leydesdorff, L. ; Bornmann, L. ; Mingers, J.: Statistical significance and effect sizes of differences among research universities at the level of nations and worldwide based on the Leiden rankings.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.5, S.509-525.
Abstract: The Leiden Rankings can be used for grouping research universities by considering universities which are not statistically significantly different as homogeneous sets. The groups and intergroup relations can be analyzed and visualized using tools from network analysis. Using the so-called "excellence indicator" PPtop-10%-the proportion of the top-10% most-highly-cited papers assigned to a university-we pursue a classification using (a) overlapping stability intervals, (b) statistical-significance tests, and (c) effect sizes of differences among 902 universities in 54 countries; we focus on the UK, Germany, Brazil, and the USA as national examples. Although the groupings remain largely the same using different statistical significance levels or overlapping stability intervals, these classifications are uncorrelated with those based on effect sizes. Effect sizes for the differences between universities are small (w < .2). The more detailed analysis of universities at the country level suggests that distinctions beyond three or perhaps four groups of universities (high, middle, low) may not be meaningful. Given similar institutional incentives, isomorphism within each eco-system of universities should not be underestimated. Our results suggest that networks based on overlapping stability intervals can provide a first impression of the relevant groupings among universities. However, the clusters are not well-defined divisions between groups of universities.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24130.
5Leydesdorff, L. ; Wagner, C.S. ; Porto-Gomez, I. ; Comins, J.A. ; Phillips, F.: Synergy in the knowledge base of U.S. innovation systems at national, state, and regional levels : the contributions of high-tech manufacturing and knowledge-intensive services.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.10, S.1108-1123.
Abstract: Using information theory, we measure innovation systemness as synergy among size-classes, ZIP Codes, and technological classes (NACE-codes) for 8.5 million American companies. The synergy at the national level is decomposed at the level of states, Core-Based Statistical Areas (CBSA), and Combined Statistical Areas (CSA). We zoom in to the state of California and in more detail to Silicon Valley. Our results do not support the assumption of a national system of innovations in the U.S.A. Innovation systems appear to operate at the level of the states; the CBSA are too small, so that systemness spills across their borders. Decomposition of the sample in terms of high-tech manufacturing (HTM), medium-high-tech manufacturing (MHTM), knowledge-intensive services (KIS), and high-tech services (HTKIS) does not change this pattern, but refines it. The East Coast-New Jersey, Boston, and New York-and California are the major players, with Texas a third one in the case of HTKIS. Chicago and industrial centers in the Midwest also contribute synergy. Within California, Los Angeles contributes synergy in the sectors of manufacturing, the San Francisco area in KIS. KIS in Silicon Valley and the Bay Area-a CSA composed of seven CBSA-spill over to other regions and even globally.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24182.
6Leydesdorff, L. ; Johnson, M.W. ; Ivanova, I.: Toward a calculus of redundancy : signification, codification, and anticipation in cultural evolution.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.10, S.1181-1192.
Abstract: This article considers the relationships among meaning generation, selection, and the dynamics of discourse from a variety of perspectives ranging from information theory and biology to sociology. Following Husserl's idea of a horizon of meanings in intersubjective communication, we propose a way in which, using Shannon's equations, the generation and selection of meanings from a horizon of possibilities can be considered probabilistically. The information-theoretical dynamics we articulate considers a process of meaning generation within cultural evolution: information is imbued with meaning, and through this process, the number of options for the selection of meaning in discourse proliferates. The redundancy of possible meanings contributes to a codification of expectations within the discourse. Unlike hardwired DNA, the codes of nonbiological systems can coevolve with the variations. Spanning horizons of meaning, the codes structure the communications as selection environments that shape discourses. Discursive knowledge can be considered as meta-coded communication that enables us to translate among differently coded communications. The dynamics of discursive knowledge production can thus infuse the historical dynamics with a cultural evolution by adding options, that is, by increasing redundancy. A calculus of redundancy is presented as an indicator whereby these dynamics of discourse and meaning may be explored empirically.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24052.
7Rotolo, D. ; Rafols, I. ; Hopkins, M.M. ; Leydesdorff, L.: Strategic intelligence on emerging technologies : scientometric overlay mapping.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.214-233.
Abstract: This paper examines the use of scientometric overlay mapping as a tool of "strategic intelligence" to aid the governing of emerging technologies. We develop an integrative synthesis of different overlay mapping techniques and associated perspectives on technological emergence across geographical, social, and cognitive spaces. To do so, we longitudinally analyze (with publication and patent data) three case studies of emerging technologies in the medical domain. These are RNA interference (RNAi), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing technologies for cervical cancer, and thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) genetic testing. Given the flexibility (i.e., adaptability to different sources of data) and granularity (i.e., applicability across multiple levels of data aggregation) of overlay mapping techniques, we argue that these techniques can favor the integration and comparison of results from different contexts and cases, thus potentially functioning as a platform for "distributed" strategic intelligence for analysts and decision makers.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23631/full.
8Leydesdorff, L. ; Nooy, W. de: Can "hot spots" in the sciences be mapped using the dynamics of aggregated journal-journal citation relations.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.197-213.
Abstract: Using 3 years of the Journal Citation Reports (2011, 2012, and 2013), indicators of transitions in 2012 (between 2011 and 2013) were studied using methodologies based on entropy statistics. Changes can be indicated at the level of journals using the margin totals of entropy production along the row or column vectors, but also at the level of links among journals by importing the transition matrices into network analysis and visualization programs (and using community-finding algorithms). Seventy-four journals were flagged in terms of discontinuous changes in their citations, but 3,114 journals were involved in "hot" links. Most of these links are embedded in a main component; 78 clusters (containing 172 journals) were flagged as potential "hot spots" emerging at the network level. An additional finding was that PLoS ONE introduced a new communication dynamic into the database. The limitations of the methodology were elaborated using an example. The results of the study indicate where developments in the citation dynamics can be considered as significantly unexpected. This can be used as heuristic information, but what a "hot spot" in terms of the entropy statistics of aggregated citation relations means substantively can be expected to vary from case to case.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23634/full.
9Leydesdorff, L. ; Nerghes, A.: Co-word maps and topic modeling : a comparison using small and medium-sized corpora (N?1.000).
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.4, S.1024-1035.
Abstract: Induced by "big data," "topic modeling" has become an attractive alternative to mapping co-words in terms of co-occurrences and co-absences using network techniques. Does topic modeling provide an alternative for co-word mapping in research practices using moderately sized document collections? We return to the word/document matrix using first a single text with a strong argument ("The Leiden Manifesto") and then upscale to a sample of moderate size (n?=?687) to study the pros and cons of the two approaches in terms of the resulting possibilities for making semantic maps that can serve an argument. The results from co-word mapping (using two different routines) versus topic modeling are significantly uncorrelated. Whereas components in the co-word maps can easily be designated, the topic models provide sets of words that are very differently organized. In these samples, the topic models seem to reveal similarities other than semantic ones (e.g., linguistic ones). In other words, topic modeling does not replace co-word mapping in small and medium-sized sets; but the paper leaves open the possibility that topic modeling would work well for the semantic mapping of large sets.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23740/full.
10Comins, J.A. ; Leydesdorff, L.: Identification of long-term concept-symbols among citations : do common intellectual histories structure citation behavior?.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.5, S.1224-1233.
Abstract: "Citation classics" are not only highly cited, but also cited during several decades. We explore whether the peaks in the spectrograms generated by Reference Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS) indicate such long-term impact by comparing across RPYS for subsequent time intervals. Multi-RPYS enables us to distinguish between short-term citation peaks at the research front that decay within 10 years versus historically constitutive (long-term) citations that function as concept symbols. Using these constitutive citations, one is able to cluster document sets (e.g., journals) in terms of intellectually shared histories. We test this premise by clustering 40 journals in the Web of Science Category of Information and Library Science using multi-RPYS. It follows that RPYS can not only be used for retrieving roots of sets under study (cited), but also for algorithmic historiography of the citing sets. Significant references are historically rooted symbols among other citations that function as currency.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23769/full.
11Leydesdorff, L. ; Bornmann, L.: ¬The operationalization of "fields" as WoS subject categories (WCs) in evaluative bibliometrics : the cases of "library and information science" and "science & technology studies".
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.3, S.707-714.
Abstract: Normalization of citation scores using reference sets based on Web of Science subject categories (WCs) has become an established ("best") practice in evaluative bibliometrics. For example, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings are, among other things, based on this operationalization. However, WCs were developed decades ago for the purpose of information retrieval and evolved incrementally with the database; the classification is machine-based and partially manually corrected. Using the WC "information science & library science" and the WCs attributed to journals in the field of "science and technology studies," we show that WCs do not provide sufficient analytical clarity to carry bibliometric normalization in evaluation practices because of "indexer effects." Can the compliance with "best practices" be replaced with an ambition to develop "best possible practices"? New research questions can then be envisaged.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23408/abstract.
Wissenschaftsfach: Bibliothekswesen ; Informationswissenschaft
Hilfsmittel: Web of Science
12Leydesdorff, L. ; Heimeriks, G. ; Rotolo, D.: Journal portfolio analysis for countries, cities, and organizations : maps and comparisons.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.3, S.741-748.
Abstract: Using Web of Science data, portfolio analysis in terms of journal coverage can be projected onto a base map for units of analysis such as countries, cities, universities, and firms. The units of analysis under study can be compared statistically across the 10,000+ journals. The interdisciplinarity of the portfolios is measured using Rao-Stirling diversity or Zhang et?al.'s improved measure 2D3. At the country level we find regional differentiation (e.g., Latin American or Asian countries), but also a major divide between advanced and less-developed countries. Israel and Israeli cities outperform other nations and cities in terms of diversity. Universities appear to be specifically related to firms when a number of these units are exploratively compared. The instrument is relatively simple and straightforward, and one can generalize the application to any document set retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS). Further instruction is provided online at http://www.leydesdorff.net/portfolio.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23551/abstract.
Hilfsmittel: Web of Science
14Hellsten, I. ; Leydesdorff, L.: ¬The construction of interdisciplinarity : the development of the knowledge base and programmatic focus of the journal Climatic Change, 1977-2013.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.9, S.2181-2193.
Abstract: Climate change as a complex physical and social issue has gained increasing attention in the natural as well as the social sciences. Climate change research has become more interdisciplinary and even transdisciplinary as a typical Mode-2 science that is also dependent on an application context for its further development. We propose to approach interdisciplinarity as a co-construction of the knowledge base in the reference patterns and the programmatic focus in the editorials in the core journal of the climate-change sciences-Climatic Change-during the period 1977-2013. First, we analyze the knowledge base of the journal and map journal-journal relations on the basis of the references in the articles. Second, we follow the development of the programmatic focus by analyzing the semantics in the editorials. We argue that interdisciplinarity is a result of the co-construction between different agendas: The selection of publications into the knowledge base of the journal, and the adjustment of the programmatic focus to the political context in the editorials. Our results show a widening of the knowledge base from referencing the multidisciplinary journals Nature and Science to citing journals from specialist fields. The programmatic focus follows policy-oriented issues and incorporates public metaphors.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23528/full.
15Leydesdorff, L. ; Moya-Anegón, F. de ; Nooy, W. de: Aggregated journal-journal citation relations in scopus and web of science matched and compared in terms of networks, maps, and interactive overlays.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.9, S.2194-2211.
Abstract: We compare the network of aggregated journal-journal citation relations provided by the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2012 of the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) with similar data based on Scopus 2012. First, global and overlay maps were developed for the 2 sets separately. Using fuzzy-string matching and ISSN numbers, we were able to match 10,524 journal names between the 2 sets: 96.4% of the 10,936 journals contained in JCR, or 51.2% of the 20,554 journals covered by Scopus. Network analysis was pursued on the set of journals shared between the 2 databases and the 2 sets of unique journals. Citations among the shared journals are more comprehensively covered in JCR than in Scopus, so the network in JCR is denser and more connected than in Scopus. The ranking of shared journals in terms of indegree (i.e., numbers of citing journals) or total citations is similar in both databases overall (Spearman rank correlation ??>?0.97), but some individual journals rank very differently. Journals that are unique to Scopus seem to be less important-they are citing shared journals rather than being cited by them-but the humanities are covered better in Scopus than in JCR.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23372/full.
Objekt: Scopus ; Web of science
16Zhou, Q. ; Leydesdorff, L.: ¬The normalization of occurrence and co-occurrence matrices in bibliometrics using Cosine similarities and Ochiai coefficients.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.11, S.2805-2814.
Abstract: We prove that Ochiai similarity of the co-occurrence matrix is equal to cosine similarity in the underlying occurrence matrix. Neither the cosine nor the Pearson correlation should be used for the normalization of co-occurrence matrices because the similarity is then normalized twice, and therefore overestimated; the Ochiai coefficient can be used instead. Results are shown using a small matrix (5 cases, 4 variables) for didactic reasons, and also Ahlgren et?al.'s (2003) co-occurrence matrix of 24 authors in library and information sciences. The overestimation is shown numerically and will be illustrated using multidimensional scaling and cluster dendograms. If the occurrence matrix is not available (such as in internet research or author cocitation analysis) using Ochiai for the normalization is preferable to using the cosine.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23603/full.
17Bauer, J. ; Leydesdorff, L. ; Bornmann, L.: Highly cited papers in Library and Information Science (LIS) : authors, institutions, and network structures.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.12, S.3095-3100.
Abstract: As a follow-up to the highly cited authors list published by Thomson Reuters in June 2014, we analyzed the top 1% most frequently cited papers published between 2002 and 2012 included in the Web of Science (WoS) subject category "Information Science & Library Science." In all, 798 authors contributed to 305 top 1% publications; these authors were employed at 275 institutions. The authors at Harvard University contributed the largest number of papers, when the addresses are whole-number counted. However, Leiden University leads the ranking if fractional counting is used. Twenty-three of the 798 authors were also listed as most highly cited authors by Thomson Reuters in June 2014 (http://highlycited.com/). Twelve of these 23 authors were involved in publishing 4 or more of the 305 papers under study. Analysis of coauthorship relations among the 798 highly cited scientists shows that coauthorships are based on common interests in a specific topic. Three topics were important between 2002 and 2012: (a) collection and exploitation of information in clinical practices; (b) use of the Internet in public communication and commerce; and (c) scientometrics.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23568/full.
Wissenschaftsfach: Bibliothekswesen ; Informationswissenschaft
18Leydesdorff, L. ; Moya-Anegón, F. de ; Guerrero-Bote, V.P.: Journal maps, interactive overlays, and the measurement of interdisciplinarity on the basis of Scopus data (1996-2012).
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.5, S.1001-1016.
Abstract: Using Scopus data, we construct a global map of science based on aggregated journal-journal citations from 1996-2012 (N of journals?=?20,554). This base map enables users to overlay downloads from Scopus interactively. Using a single year (e.g., 2012), results can be compared with mappings based on the Journal Citation Reports at the Web of Science (N?=?10,936). The Scopus maps are more detailed at both the local and global levels because of their greater coverage, including, for example, the arts and humanities. The base maps can be interactively overlaid with journal distributions in sets downloaded from Scopus, for example, for the purpose of portfolio analysis. Rao-Stirling diversity can be used as a measure of interdisciplinarity in the sets under study. Maps at the global and the local level, however, can be very different because of the different levels of aggregation involved. Two journals, for example, can both belong to the humanities in the global map, but participate in different specialty structures locally. The base map and interactive tools are available online (with instructions) at http://www.leydesdorff.net/scopus_ovl.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23243/abstract.
19Leydesdorff, L. ; Perevodchikov, E. ; Uvarov, A.: Measuring triple-helix synergy in the Russian innovation systems at regional, provincial, and national levels.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.6, S.1229-1238.
Abstract: We measure synergy for the Russian national, provincial, and regional innovation systems as reduction of uncertainty using mutual information among the 3 distributions of firm sizes, technological knowledge bases of firms, and geographical locations. Half a million units of data at firm level in 2011 were obtained from the OrbisT database of Bureau Van Dijk. The firm level data were aggregated at the levels of 8 Federal Districts, the regional level of 83 Federal Subjects, and the single level of the Russian Federation. Not surprisingly, the knowledge base of the economy is concentrated in the Moscow region (22.8%) and Saint Petersburg (4.0%). Except in Moscow itself, high-tech manufacturing does not add synergy to any other unit at any of the various levels of geographical granularity; instead it disturbs regional coordination. Knowledge-intensive services (KIS; including laboratories) contribute to the synergy in all Federal Districts (except the North-Caucasian Federal District), but only in 30 of the 83 Federal Subjects. The synergy in KIS is concentrated in centers of administration. The knowledge-intensive services (which are often state affiliated) provide backbone to an emerging knowledge-based economy at the level of Federal Districts, but the economy is otherwise not knowledge based (except for the Moscow region).
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23258/abstract.
20Bornmann, L. ; Wagner, C. ; Leydesdorff, L.: BRICS countries and scientific excellence : a bibliometric analysis of most frequently cited papers.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.7, S.1507-1513.
Abstract: The BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) are notable for their increasing participation in science and technology. The governments of these countries have been boosting their investments in research and development to become part of the group of nations doing research at a world-class level. This study investigates the development of the BRICS countries in the domain of top-cited papers (top 10% and 1% most frequently cited papers) between 1990 and 2010. To assess the extent to which these countries have become important players at the top level, we compare the BRICS countries with the top-performing countries worldwide. As the analyses of the (annual) growth rates show, with the exception of Russia, the BRICS countries have increased their output in terms of most frequently cited papers at a higher rate than the top-cited countries worldwide. By way of additional analysis, we generate coauthorship networks among authors of highly cited papers for 4 time points to view changes in BRICS participation (1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). Here, the results show that all BRICS countries succeeded in becoming part of this network, whereby the Chinese collaboration activities focus on the US.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23333/abstract.
Land/Ort: Brasilien ; Russland ; Indien ; China ; Südafrika