Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Simoes, G. ; Machado, L. ; Gnoli, C. ; Souza, R.: Can an ontologically-oriented KO do without concepts?.
In: Knowledge Organization at the Interface. Proceedings of the Sixteenth International ISKO Conference, 2020 Aalborg, Denmark. Ed.: M. Lykke et al. Baden-Baden : Ergon, 2020. S.502-506.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.17)
Abstract: The ontological approach in the development of KOS is an attempt to overcome the limitations of the traditional epistemological approach. Questions raise about the representation and organization of ontologically-oriented KO units, such as BFO universals or ILC phenomena. The study aims to compare the ontological approaches of BFO and ILC using a hermeneutic approach. We found that the differences between the units of the two systems are primarily due to the formal level of abstraction of BFO and the different organizations, namely the grouping of phenomena into ILC classes that represent complex compounds of entities in the BFO approach. In both systems the use of concepts is considered instrumental, although in the ILC they constitute the intersubjective component of the phenomena whereas in BFO they serve to access the entities of reality but are not part of them.
Inhalt: 10.5771/9783956507762-502. Vgl. auch: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/347283092_Can_an_Ontologically-Oriented_KO_Do_Without_Concepts.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Begriffstheorie
2Li, C. ; Sugimoto, S.: Provenance description of metadata application profiles for long-term maintenance of metadata schemas : Luciano Floridi's philosophy of information as the foundation for library and information science.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.1, S.36-61.
Abstract: Purpose Provenance information is crucial for consistent maintenance of metadata schemas over time. The purpose of this paper is to propose a provenance model named DSP-PROV to keep track of structural changes of metadata schemas. Design/methodology/approach The DSP-PROV model is developed through applying the general provenance description standard PROV of the World Wide Web Consortium to the Dublin Core Application Profile. Metadata Application Profile of Digital Public Library of America is selected as a case study to apply the DSP-PROV model. Finally, this paper evaluates the proposed model by comparison between formal provenance description in DSP-PROV and semi-formal change log description in English. Findings Formal provenance description in the DSP-PROV model has advantages over semi-formal provenance description in English to keep metadata schemas consistent over time. Research limitations/implications The DSP-PROV model is applicable to keep track of the structural changes of metadata schema over time. Provenance description of other features of metadata schema such as vocabulary and encoding syntax are not covered. Originality/value This study proposes a simple model for provenance description of structural features of metadata schemas based on a few standards widely accepted on the Web and shows the advantage of the proposed model to conventional semi-formal provenance description.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-03-2017-0042.
3Gnoli, C.: Classifying phenomena : part 4: themes and rhemes.
In: Knowledge organization. 45(2018) no.1, S.43-53.
Abstract: This is the fourth in a series of papers on classification based on phenomena instead of disciplines. Together with types, levels and facets that have been discussed in the previous parts, themes and rhemes are further structural components of such a classification. In a statement or in a longer document, a base theme and several particular themes can be identified. Base theme should be cited first in a classmark, followed by particular themes, each with its own facets. In some cases, rhemes can also be expressed, that is new information provided about a theme, converting an abstract statement ("wolves, affected by cervids") into a claim that some thing actually occurs ("wolves are affected by cervids"). In the Integrative Levels Classification rhemes can be expressed by special deictic classes, including those for actual specimens, anaphoras, unknown values, conjunctions and spans, whole universe, anthropocentric favoured classes, and favoured host classes. These features, together with rules for pronounciation, make a classification of phenomena a true language, that may be suitable for many uses.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
4Gnoli, C.: Mentefacts as a missing level in theory of information science.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.6, S.1226-1242.
Abstract: Purpose The current debate between two theoretical approaches in library and information science and knowledge organization (KO), the cognitive one and the sociological one, is addressed in view of their possible integration in a more general model. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach Personal knowledge of individual users, as focused in the cognitive approach, and social production and use of knowledge, as focused in the sociological approach, are reconnected to the theory of levels of reality, particularly in the versions of Nicolai Hartmann and Karl R. Popper (three worlds). The notions of artefact and mentefact, as proposed in anthropological literature and applied in some KO systems, are also examined as further contributions to the generalized framework. Some criticisms to these models are reviewed and discussed. Findings Both the cognitive approach and the sociological approach, if taken in isolation, prove to be cases of philosophical monism as they emphasize a single level over the others. On the other hand, each of them can be considered as a component of a pluralist ontology and epistemology, where individual minds and social communities are but two successive levels in knowledge production and use, and are followed by a further level of "objectivated spirit"; this can in turn be analyzed into artefacts and mentefacts. While all these levels are relevant to information science, mentefacts and their properties are its most peculiar objects of study, which make it distinct from such other disciplines as psychology and sociology. Originality/value This analysis shows how existing approaches can benefit from additional notions contributed by levels theory, to develop more complete and accurate models of information and knowledge phenomena.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-04-2018-0054. Vgl. auch den Folgeartikel von B. Hjoerland: The foundation of information science: one world or three? A discussion of Gnoli (2018). In: Journal of documentation. 74(2019) no.1, S.164-171.
5Gnoli, C.: Notation.
In: Knowledge organization. 45(2018) no.8, S.667-684.
(Reviews of concepts in knowledge organization)
Abstract: Notations are systems of symbols that can be combined according to syntactical rules to represent meanings in a specialized domain. In knowledge organization, they are systems of numerals, letters and punctuation marks associated to a concept that mechanically produce helpful sequences of them for arranging books on shelves, browsing subjects in directories and displaying items in catalogues. Most bibliographic classification systems, like Dewey Decimal Classification, use a positional notation allowing for expression of increasingly specific subjects by additional digits. However, some notations like that of Bliss Bibliographic Classification are purely ordinal and do not reflect the hierarchical degree of a subject. Notations can also be expressive of the syntactical structure of compound subjects (common auxiliaries, facets etc.) in various ways. In the digital media, notation can be recorded and managed in databases and exploited to provide appropriate search and display functionalities.
Themenfeld: Notationen / Signaturen
6Gnoli, C. ; Ledl, A. ; Park, Z. ; Trzmielewski, M.: Phenomenon-based vs. disciplinary classification : possibilities for evaluating and for mapping.
In: Challenges and opportunities for knowledge organization in the digital age: proceedings of the Fifteenth International ISKO Conference, 9-11 July 2018, Porto, Portugal / organized by: International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), ISKO Spain and Portugal Chapter, University of Porto - Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Research Centre in Communication, Information and Digital Culture (CIC.digital) - Porto. Eds.: F. Ribeiro u. M.E. Cerveira. Baden-Baden : Ergon Verlag, 2018. S.653-661.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.16)
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
7Li, X. ; Zhang, A. ; Li, C. ; Ouyang, J. ; Cai, Y.: Exploring coherent topics by topic modeling with term weighting.
In: Information processing and management. 54(2018) no.6, S.1345-1358.
Abstract: Topic models often produce unexplainable topics that are filled with noisy words. The reason is that words in topic modeling have equal weights. High frequency words dominate the top topic word lists, but most of them are meaningless words, e.g., domain-specific stopwords. To address this issue, in this paper we aim to investigate how to weight words, and then develop a straightforward but effective term weighting scheme, namely entropy weighting (EW). The proposed EW scheme is based on conditional entropy measured by word co-occurrences. Compared with existing term weighting schemes, the highlight of EW is that it can automatically reward informative words. For more robust word weight, we further suggest a combination form of EW (CEW) with two existing weighting schemes. Basically, our CEW assigns meaningless words lower weights and informative words higher weights, leading to more coherent topics during topic modeling inference. We apply CEW to Dirichlet multinomial mixture and latent Dirichlet allocation, and evaluate it by topic quality, document clustering and classification tasks on 8 real world data sets. Experimental results show that weighting words can effectively improve the topic modeling performance over both short texts and normal long texts. More importantly, the proposed CEW significantly outperforms the existing term weighting schemes, since it further considers which words are informative.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2018.05.009.
Themenfeld: Automatisches Indexieren
8Gnoli, C.: Classifying phenomena : Part 2: Types and levels.
In: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.1, S.37-54.
Abstract: After making the case that phenomena can be the primary unit of classification (Part 1), some basic principles to group and sort phenomena are considered. Entities can be grouped together on the basis of both their similarity (morphology) and their common origin (phylogeny). The resulting groups will form the classical hierarchical chains of types and subtypes. At every hierarchical degree, phenomena can form ordered sets (arrays), where their sorting can reflect levels of increasing organization, corresponding to an evolutionary order of appearance (emergence). The theory of levels of reality has been investigated by many philosophers and applied to knowledge organization systems by various authors, which are briefly reviewed. At the broadest degree, it allows to identify some major strata of phenomena (forms, matter, life, minds, societies and culture) in turn divided into layers. A list of twenty-six layers is proposed to form the main classes of the Integrative Levels Classification system. A combination of morphology and phylogeny can determine whether a given phenomenon should be a type of an existing level, or a level on its own.
Anmerkung: Part 1 in: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.6, S.403-415.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
9Li, C. ; Sun, A.: Extracting fine-grained location with temporal awareness in tweets : a two-stage approach.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.7, S.1652-1670.
Abstract: Twitter has attracted billions of users for life logging and sharing activities and opinions. In their tweets, users often reveal their location information and short-term visiting histories or plans. Capturing user's short-term activities could benefit many applications for providing the right context at the right time and location. In this paper we are interested in extracting locations mentioned in tweets at fine-grained granularity, with temporal awareness. Specifically, we recognize the points-of-interest (POIs) mentioned in a tweet and predict whether the user has visited, is currently at, or will soon visit the mentioned POIs. A POI can be a restaurant, a shopping mall, a bookstore, or any other fine-grained location. Our proposed framework, named TS-Petar (Two-Stage POI Extractor with Temporal Awareness), consists of two main components: a POI inventory and a two-stage time-aware POI tagger. The POI inventory is built by exploiting the crowd wisdom of the Foursquare community. It contains both POIs' formal names and their informal abbreviations, commonly observed in Foursquare check-ins. The time-aware POI tagger, based on the Conditional Random Field (CRF) model, is devised to disambiguate the POI mentions and to resolve their associated temporal awareness accordingly. Three sets of contextual features (linguistic, temporal, and inventory features) and two labeling schema features (OP and BILOU schemas) are explored for the time-aware POI extraction task. Our empirical study shows that the subtask of POI disambiguation and the subtask of temporal awareness resolution call for different feature settings for best performance. We have also evaluated the proposed TS-Petar against several strong baseline methods. The experimental results demonstrate that the two-stage approach achieves the best accuracy and outperforms all baseline methods in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23816/full.
10Klic, L. ; Miller, M. ; Nelson, J.K. ; Pattuelli, C. ; Provo, A.: ¬The drawings of the Florentine painters : from print catalog to linked open data.
In: Code4Lib journal. Issue 38(2017), [http://journal.code4lib.org].
Abstract: The Drawings of The Florentine Painters project created the first online database of Florentine Renaissance drawings by applying Linked Open Data (LOD) techniques to a foundational text of the same name, first published by Bernard Berenson in 1903 (revised and expanded editions, 1938 and 1961). The goal was to make Berenson's catalog information-still an essential information resource today-available in a machine-readable format, allowing researchers to access the source content through open data services. This paper provides a technical overview of the methods and processes applied in the conversion of Berenson's catalog to LOD using the CIDOC-CRM ontology; it also discusses the different phases of the project, focusing on the challenges and issues of data transformation and publishing. The project was funded by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation and organized by Villa I Tatti, The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies. Catalog: http://florentinedrawings.itatti.harvard.edu. Data Endpoint: http://data.itatti.harvard.edu.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/12902.
Themenfeld: Katalogfragen allgemein
11Lardera, M. ; Gnoli, C. ; Rolandi, C. ; Trzmielewski, M.: Developing SciGator, a DDC-based library browsing tool.
In: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.8, S.638-643.
Abstract: Exploring collections by their subject matter is an important functionality for library users. We developed an online tool called SciGator in order to allow users to browse the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) classes used in different libraries at the University of Pavia and to perform different types of search in the OPAC. Besides navigation of DDC hierarchies, SciGator suggests "see-also" relationships with related classes and maps equivalent classes in local shelving schemes, thus allowing the expansion of search queries to include subjects contiguous to the initial one. We are developing new features, including the possibility to expand searches even more to national and international catalogues.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Special Issue: ISKO-Italy: 8' Incontro ISKO Italia, Università di Bologna, 22 maggio 2017, Bologna, Italia.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationssysteme im Online-Retrieval
Objekt: DDC ; SciGator
13Gnoli, C. ; Pusterla, L. ; Bendiscioli, A. ; Recinella, C.: Classification for collections mapping and query expansion.
In: Proceedings of the 15th European Networked Knowledge Organization Systems Workshop (NKOS 2016) co-located with the 20th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries 2016 (TPDL 2016), Hannover, Germany, September 9, 2016. Edi. by Philipp Mayr et al. [http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1676/=urn:nbn:de:0074-1676-5].
(CEUR workshop proceedings; vol. 1676)
Abstract: Dewey Decimal Classification has been used to organize materials owned by the three scientific libraries at the University of Pavia, and to allow integrated browsing in their union catalogue through SciGator, a home built web-based user interface. Classification acts as a bridge between collections located in different places and shelved according to different local schemes. Furthermore, cross-discipline relationships recorded in the system allow for expanded queries that increase recall. Advantages and possible improvements of such a system are discussed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1676/paper3.pdf. Other workshop material incl. presentations are available on the website < https://at-web1.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/research/hypermedia/nkos/nkos2016/programme.html>.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationssysteme im Online-Retrieval ; OPAC ; Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
Objekt: DDC ; SciGator
Land/Ort: I ; Pavia
14Gnoli, C.: Classifying phenomena : Part 1: dimensions.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.6, S.403-415.
Abstract: This is the first part of a study on the classification of phenomena. It starts by addressing the status of classification schemes among knowledge organization systems (KOSs), as some features of them have been overlooked in recent reviews of KOS types. It then considers the different dimensions implied in a KOS, which include: the observed phenomena, the cultural and disciplinary perspective under which they are treated, the features of documents carrying such treatment, the collections of such documents as managed in libraries, archives or museums, the information needs prompting to search and use these collections and the people experiencing such different information needs. Until now, most library classification schemes have given priority to the perspective dimension as they first list disciplines. However, an increasing number of voices are now considering the possibility of classification schemes giving priority to phenomena as advocated in the León Manifesto. Although these schemes first list phenomena as their main classes, they can as well express perspective or the other relevant dimensions that occur in a classified item. The independence of a phenomenon-based classification from the institutional divisions into disciplines contributes to giving knowledge organization a more proactive and influential role.
Anmerkung: Part 2 in: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.1, S.37-54.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
15Santis, R. de ; Gnoli, C.: Expressing dependence relationships in the Integrative Levels Classification using OWL.
In: Knowledge organization for a sustainable world: challenges and perspectives for cultural, scientific, and technological sharing in a connected society : proceedings of the Fourteenth International ISKO Conference 27-29 September 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil / organized by International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), ISKO-Brazil, São Paulo State University ; edited by José Augusto Chaves Guimarães, Suellen Oliveira Milani, Vera Dodebei. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2016. S.368-375.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.15)
16Mesgari, M. ; Okoli, C. ; Mehdi, M. ; Nielsen, F.A. ; Lanamäki, A.: ¬"The sum of all human knowledge" : a systematic review of scholarly research on the content of Wikipedia.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.2, S.219-245.
(Advances in information science)
Abstract: Wikipedia may be the best-developed attempt thus far to gather all human knowledge in one place. Its accomplishments in this regard have made it a point of inquiry for researchers from different fields of knowledge. A decade of research has thrown light on many aspects of the Wikipedia community, its processes, and its content. However, due to the variety of fields inquiring about Wikipedia and the limited synthesis of the extensive research, there is little consensus on many aspects of Wikipedia's content as an encyclopedic collection of human knowledge. This study addresses the issue by systematically reviewing 110 peer-reviewed publications on Wikipedia content, summarizing the current findings, and highlighting the major research trends. Two major streams of research are identified: the quality of Wikipedia content (including comprehensiveness, currency, readability, and reliability) and the size of Wikipedia. Moreover, we present the key research trends in terms of the domains of inquiry, research design, data source, and data gathering methods. This review synthesizes scholarly understanding of Wikipedia content and paves the way for future studies.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23172/abstract.
Themenfeld: Informationsmittel ; Internet
17Gnoli, C. ; Santis, R. de ; Pusterla, L.: Commerce, see also Rhetoric : cross-discipline relationships as authority data for enhanced retrieval.
In: Classification and authority control: expanding resource discovery: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar 2015, 29-30 October 2015, Lisbon, Portugal. Eds.: Slavic, A. u. M.I. Cordeiro. Würzburg : Ergon-Verlag, 2015. S.151-162.
Abstract: Subjects in a classification scheme are often related to other subjects belonging to different hierarchies. This problem was identified already by Hugh of Saint Victor (1096?-1141). Still with present-time bibliographic classifications, a user browsing the class of architecture under the hierarchy of arts may miss relevant items classified in building or in civil engineering under the hierarchy of applied sciences. To face these limitations we have developed SciGator, a browsable interface to explore the collections of all scientific libraries at the University of Pavia. Besides showing subclasses of a given class, the interface points users to related classes in the Dewey Decimal Classification, or in other local schemes, and allows for expanded queries that include them. This is made possible by using a special field for related classes in the database structure which models classification authority data. Ontologically, many relationships between classes in different hierarchies are cases of existential dependence. Dependence can occur between disciplines in such disciplinary classifications as Dewey (e.g. architecture existentially depends on building), or between phenomena in such phenomenon-based classifications as the Integrative Levels Classification (e.g. fishing as a human activity existentially depends on fish as a class of organisms). We provide an example of its representation in OWL and discuss some details of it.
Inhalt: Präsentation unter: http://www.udcds.com/seminar/2015/media/slides/Gnoli_InternationalUDCSeminar2015.pdf.
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
18Gnoli, C.: Boundaries and overlaps of disciplines in Bloch's methodology of historical knowledge.
In: Knowledge organization in the 21st century: between historical patterns and future prospects. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference 19-22 May 2014, Kraków, Poland. Ed.: Wieslaw Babik. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2014. S.129-135.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol. 14)
Abstract: Marc Bloch's famous methodological essay, The Historian's Craft, contains many relevant considerations on knowledge organization. These have been selected and grouped into four main themes: terminology problems in history; principles for the organization of historical knowledge, with special reference to the genetic principle; sources of historical information, to be found not only in archives but also in very different media and contexts; and the nature and boundaries of history as a discipline. Analysis of them shows that knowledge organization is an important part of historians' work, and suggests that it can be especially fruitful when a cross-medial, interdisciplinary approach is adopted.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/aiko_vol_14_2014_19.pdf.
19Okoli, C. ; Mehdi, M. ; Mesgari, M. ; Nielsen, F.A. ; Lanamäki, A.: Wikipedia in the eyes of its beholders : a systematic review of scholarly research on Wikipedia readers and readership.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.12, S.2381-2403.
(Advances in information science)
Abstract: Hundreds of scholarly studies have investigated various aspects of Wikipedia. Although a number of literature reviews have provided overviews of this vast body of research, none has specifically focused on the readers of Wikipedia and issues concerning its readership. In this systematic literature review, we review 99 studies to synthesize current knowledge regarding the readership of Wikipedia and provide an analysis of research methods employed. The scholarly research has found that Wikipedia is popular not only for lighter topics such as entertainment but also for more serious topics such as health and legal information. Scholars, librarians, and students are common users, and Wikipedia provides a unique opportunity for educating students in digital literacy. We conclude with a summary of key findings, implications for researchers, and implications for the Wikipedia community.
Themenfeld: Informationsmittel ; Internet ; Benutzerstudien
20Cheang, B. ; Chu, S.K.W. ; Li, C. ; Lim, A.: ¬A multidimensional approach to evaluating management journals : refining pagerank via the differentiation of citation types and identifying the roles that management journals play.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.12, S.2581-2591.
Abstract: In this article, the authors introduce two citation-based approaches to facilitate a multidimensional evaluation of 39 selected management journals. The first is a refined application of PageRank via the differentiation of citation types. The second is a form of mathematical manipulation to identify the roles that the selected management journals play. Their findings reveal that Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, and Administrative Science Quarterly are the top three management journals, respectively. They also discovered that these three journals play the role of a knowledge hub in the domain. Finally, when compared with Journal Citation Reports (Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, PA), their results closely match expert opinions.