Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Wu, Z. ; Li, R. ; Zhou, Z. ; Guo, J. ; Jiang, J. ; Su, X.: ¬A user sensitive subject protection approach for book search service.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.2, S.183-195.
Abstract: In a digital library, book search is one of the most important information services. However, with the rapid development of network technologies such as cloud computing, the server-side of a digital library is becoming more and more untrusted; thus, how to prevent the disclosure of users' book query privacy is causing people's increasingly extensive concern. In this article, we propose to construct a group of plausible fake queries for each user book query to cover up the sensitive subjects behind users' queries. First, we propose a basic framework for the privacy protection in book search, which requires no change to the book search algorithm running on the server-side, and no compromise to the accuracy of book search. Second, we present a privacy protection model for book search to formulate the constraints that ideal fake queries should satisfy, that is, (i) the feature similarity, which measures the confusion effect of fake queries on users' queries, and (ii) the privacy exposure, which measures the cover-up effect of fake queries on users' sensitive subjects. Third, we discuss the algorithm implementation for the privacy model. Finally, the effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24227.
2Li, R.: ¬The influence of geospatial factors on democracy : its representation on web interface design.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.2, S.313-333.
Abstract: Democracy is represented on web interface design (Li, 2010). Wittfogel's (1957) Eastern autocracy states that 2 environmental dimensions, rainfall and sea border, influence the origin of democracy. This study examined Wittfogel's Eastern autocracy theory through statistical analysis of average annual precipitation, land boundaries, latitudes, and annual temperature of 196 countries and territories with their freedom levels defined by Freedom House, to find out the correlations between these geospatial factors and democracy. In addition, this study extended its investigation to web interface design by examining democracy represented on college/university websites in correlations with these geospatial factors. A total of 130 college/university websites selected from 65 countries were coded and examined systematically in linear and multiple regression analyses. This study concluded that democracy correlates positively with annual precipitation and latitude, but negatively with land boundaries and annual temperature. Furthermore, this study indicated that these 4 geospatial variables associate with democracy represented on web interface design, although the associations are not statistically significant. This study also suggested that it is more accurate to predict democracy if the 4 geospatial factors are considered together as dependent variables. By examining Wittfogel's theory of hydraulic civilization on web interface design, this study not only extended its sociological perspective to the information science arena, but also provided a better understanding of the functionality of the Internet in information dissemination and its cultural and sociological aspects.
3Li, R. ; Chambers, T. ; Ding, Y. ; Zhang, G. ; Meng, L.: Patent citation analysis : calculating science linkage based on citing motivation.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.5, S.1007-1017.
Abstract: Science linkage is a widely used patent bibliometric indicator to measure patent linkage to scientific research based on the frequency of citations to scientific papers within the patent. Science linkage is also regarded as noisy because the subject of patent citation behavior varies from inventors/applicants to examiners. In order to identify and ultimately reduce this noise, we analyzed the different citing motivations of examiners and inventors/applicants. We built 4 hypotheses based upon our study of patent law, the unique economic nature of a patent, and a patent citation's market effect. To test our hypotheses, we conducted an expert survey based on our science linkage calculation in the domain of catalyst from U.S. patent data (2006-2009) over 3 types of citations: self-citation by inventor/applicant, non-self-citation by inventor/applicant, and citation by examiner. According to our results, evaluated by domain experts, we conclude that the non-self-citation by inventor/applicant is quite noisy and cannot indicate science linkage and that self-citation by inventor/applicant, although limited, is more appropriate for understanding science linkage.
4Raieli, R.: ¬The semantic hole : enthusiasm and caution around multimedia information retrieval.
In: Knowledge organization. 39(2012) no.1, S.13-22.
Abstract: This paper centres on the tools for the management of new digital documents, which are not only textual, but also visual-video, audio or multimedia in the full sense. Among the aims is to demonstrate that operating within the terms of generic Information Retrieval through textual language only is limiting, and it is instead necessary to consider ampler criteria, such as those of MultiMedia Information Retrieval, according to which, every type of digital document can be analyzed and searched by the proper elements of language for its proper nature. MMIR is presented as the organic complex of the systems of Text Retrieval, Visual Retrieval, Video Retrieval, and Audio Retrieval, each of which has an approach to information management that handles the concrete textual, visual, audio, or video content of the documents directly, here defined as content-based. In conclusion, the limits of this content-based objective access to documents is underlined. The discrepancy known as the semantic gap is that which occurs between semantic-interpretive access and content-based access. Finally, the integration of these conceptions is explained, gathering and composing the merits and the advantages of each of the approaches and of the systems to access to information.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_39_2012_1_b.pdf.
Anmerkung: Bezugnahme auf: Enser, P.G.B.: Visual image retrieval. In: Annual review of information science and technology. 42(2008), S.3-42.
Themenfeld: Multimedia ; Inhaltsanalyse
5Poli, R.: Ontology as categorial analysis.
In: Classification and ontology: formal approaches and access to knowledge: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar, 19-20 September 2011, The Hague, The Netherlands. Eds.: A. Slavic u. E. Civallero. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2011. S.145-157.
Abstract: Ontological categories are organized along a number of different dimensions. The simplest is the distinction between categories that apply to all entities, both real and ideal, and categories that apply only to some families of entities. More complicated is the analysis of the relations that connect categories one to another. Two different exemplifications of the latter case are provided, i.e., the form of duality linking some paired categories and the relations of superformation and superconstruction that connect levels of reality. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis of the category of temporality is presented. Ideas previously advanced by Nicolai Hartmann are exploited throughout the paper.
6Poli, R.: Workshop on Levels of reality as a KO paradigm : Domain theory: a preliminary proposal.
In: Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Eleventh International ISKO Conference, 23-26 February 2010 Rome, Italy. Edited by Claudio Gnoli and Fulvio Mazzocchi. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2010. S.145-151.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.12)
Abstract: Identifying existing domains of reality is a basic task for knowledge organization. Intuitively, phenomena occurring in each class are more causally homogeneous than those in other classes. Domain theory can be built on both the theory of levels of reality and the theory of wholes. As a discussion example, the domain of biology is analyzed, and core entities and facets of it are identified.
7Li, R.: ¬The representation of national political freedom on Web interface design : the indicators.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.6, S.1222-1248.
Abstract: This study is designed to validate 10 Power Distance indicators identified from previous research on cultural dimensions to establish a measurement for determining a country's national political freedom represented on Web content and interface design. Two coders performed content analysis on 156 college/university Web sites selected from 39 countries. One-way analysis of variance was applied to analyze each of the proposed 10 indicators to detect statistical significant differences among means of the three freedom groups (free-country group, partly-free-country group, and not-free-country group). The results indicated that 6 of the 10 proposed indicators could be used to measure a country's national political freedom on Web interface design. The seventh indicator, symmetric layout, demonstrated a negative correlation between the freedom level and the Web representation of Power Distance. The last three proposed indicators failed to show any significant differences among the treatment means, and there are no clear trend patterns for the treatment means of the three freedom groups. By examining national political freedom represented on Web pages, this study not only provides an insight into cultural dimensions and Web interface design but also advances our knowledge in sociological and cultural studies of the Web.
8Poli, R.: Upper ontologies hold it together.
In: Kompatibilität, Medien und Ethik in der Wissensorganisation - Compatibility, Media and Ethics in Knowledge Organization: Proceedings der 10. Tagung der Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation Wien, 3.-5. Juli 2006 - Proceedings of the 10th Conference of the German Section of the International Society of Knowledge Organization Vienna, 3-5 July 2006. Ed.: H.P. Ohly, S. Netscher u. K. Mitgutsch. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2008. S.138-144.
(Fortschritte in der Wissensorganisation; Bd.10)
Abstract: After presenting some of the basic features of upper ontologies, the thesis is defended that all the relations needed by any concrete application can be generated by a small set of general relations, by adding proper ontological constraints to the general relations' arguments. This procedure provides an explicit and verifiable grounding to all forms of knowledge managements, including acquisition, interchange, integration, reuse, merging, aligning and updating knowledge. Upper ontologies therefore provide cues for developing both unification and decomposition methods. Finally, upper ontologies pave the ground for enhancing automatic reasoning and other machine-oriented procedures. I conclude by mentioning a difficulty in the theory of semantic fields.
9Poli, R.: Steps towards a synthetic methodology.
Abstract: Three of the principal theories which can be used to understand, categorize and organize the many aspects of reality prima facie have unexpected interdependencies. The theories to which I refer are those concerned with the causal connections among the items that make up the real world, the space and the time in which they grow, and the levels of reality. What matters most is the discovery that the difficulties internal to theories of causation and to theories of space and time can be understood better, and perhaps dealt with, in the categorial context furnished by the theory of the levels of reality. The structural condition for this development to be possible is that the first two theories be opportunely generalized. In other words, the thesis outlined in this position paper has two aspects. The first is the hypothesis that the theory of levels can function as a general categorial framework within which to recast our understanding of causal and spatio-temporal phenomena. The second aspect is that the best-known and most usual categorizations of causal, spatial and temporal dependencies are not sufficiently generic and are structurally constrained to express only some of the relevant phenomena. Explicit consideration of the theory of the levels of reality furnishes the keystone for generalization of both the theory of causes and the theory of times and spaces. To assert that a theory is not sufficiently generic is to say that the manner in which it is configured may hamper rather than help full understanding of the relevant phenomena. From this assertion follow two of the three obstructions mentioned in the title to this paper. The third obstruction is easier to specify. Whilst the theories of causality and space-time are robust and well-structured - whatever criticisms one might wish to make of them - the situation of the theory of the levels of reality is entirely different, in that it is not at all widely endorsed or thoroughly developed. On the contrary, it is a decidedly minority proposal, and it still has many obscure, or simply under-developed, aspects. The theory of levels is the third obstruction cited in the title. Nonetheless, the approach outlined in what follows seems to be the most promising route to follow.
Inhalt: This paper was prepared for "Continuity + Change: Perspectives on Science and Religion", June 3-7, 2006, in Philadelphia, PA, USA, a program of the Metanexus Institute (www.metanexus.net).
10Gnoli, C. ; Poli, R.: Levels of reality and levels of representation.
In: Knowledge organization. 31(2004) no.3, S.151-160.
Abstract: Ontology, in its philosophical meaning, is the discipline investigating the structure of reality. Its findings can be relevant to knowledge organization, and models of knowledge can, in turn, offer relevant ontological suggestions. Several philosophers in time have pointed out that reality is structured into a series of integrative levels, like the physical, the biological, the mental, and the cultural, and that each level plays as a base for the emergence of more complex levels. More detailed theories of levels have been developed by Nicolai Hartmann and James K. Feibleman, and these have been considered as a source for structuring principles in bibliographic classification by both the Classification Research Group (CRG) and Ingetraut Dahlberg. CRG's analysis of levels and of their possible application to a new general classification scheme based an phenomena instead of disciplines, as it was formulated by Derek Austin in 1969, is examined in detail. Both benefits and open problems in applying integrative levels to bibliographic classification are pointed out.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
11Poli, R.: Framing information.
In: Challenges in knowledge representation and organization for the 21st century: Integration of knowledge across boundaries. Proceedings of the 7th ISKO International Conference Granada, Spain, July 10-13, 2002. Ed.: M. López-Huertas. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2003. S.225-231.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.8)
Abstract: The distinction between semiotic, semantic and ontological classifications is introduced. A few examples of semantic and ontological categories are then provided and discussed. The thesis is defended that semantic categories depend an ontological categories.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
12Basili, R. ; Pazienza, M.T. ; Velardi, P.: ¬An empirical symbolic approach to natural language processing.
In: Artificial intelligence. 85(1996) nos.1/2, S.59-99.
Abstract: Describes and evaluates the results of a large scale lexical learning system, ARISTO-LEX, that uses a combination of probabilisitc and knowledge based methods for the acquisition of selectional restrictions of words in sublanguages. Presents experimental data obtained from different corpora in different doamins and languages, and shows that the acquired lexical data not only have practical applications in natural language processing, but they are useful for a comparative analysis of sublanguages
13Chemelli, R.: Unvereinbarkeit zwischen DK und RSWK?.
In: Erschließen, Suchen, Finden: Vorträge aus den bibliothekarischen Arbeitsgruppen der 19. und 20. Jahrestagungen (Basel 1995 / Freiburg 1996) der Gesellschaft für Klassifikation. Hrsg.: H.-J. Hermes u. H.-J. Wätjen. Oldenburg : Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem der Universität, 1996. S.43-64.
Themenfeld: Regeln für den Schlagwortkatalog (RSWK)
Objekt: DK ; RSWK
14Poli, R.: Ontology for knowledge organization.
In: Knowledge organization and change: Proceedings of the Fourth International ISKO Conference, 15-18 July 1996, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Ed.: R. Green. Frankfurt : INDEKS, 1996. S.313-319.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.5)
Abstract: The first main thesis of the paper is that an ontology is not a catalogue of the world, a taxonomy, or a terminology. If anything, an ontology is the general framework within which catalogues, taxonomies, and terminologies may be given suitable organization. The second main thesis is that reality is organized into diverse levels and the are sophisticated dependencies among these levels and within them. An acceptable ontology should be able to model all these relations of dependence
Inhalt: Vgl. auch: http://www.mitteleuropafoundation.org/Papers/RP/Ontology%20for%20knowledge%20organization.pdf
15Cardinali, R.: ¬The emerging technology : an overview of the impact of CD-ROM on offline services.
In: Journal of educational media and library sciences. 30(1993) no.2, S.122-138.
Abstract: Examines the possibility of CD-ROM databases supplanting traditional online database searching methods as a result of greater cost effectiveness, speed and ease of use. Concludes that CD-ROMs will not replace online databases in the near future because of the greater variety and amount of information which is available online. Points to the lack of standardization running through many aspects of CD-ROM technology
16Cardinali, R.: ¬An analysis of productivity improvements through the use of graphic user interfaces.
In: Journal of educational media and library sciences. 30(1993) no.4, S.311-324.
Abstract: Reports the findings of a study, conducted by Temple, Barker and Sloane Inc., MA, which identified 7 measurable benefits of graphic user interfaces to computerized information retrieval systems; higher speed; more accurate work; higher productivity; less frustration; less fatigue, more facilities to self teach and explore system; greater facilities for novices to learn more about the system's capabilities. Concludes that, when compared with character based user interfaces, graphic user interfaces generate higher work outputs per work hour through higher productivity; higher work output per employee through lower levels of frustration and fatigue; and greater returns on information technology investment through reduced demand for user training
17Chemelli, R.: DK-Code : Neue Aufstellungssystematik der Universitätsbibliothek der Technischen Universität Graz.
In: Mitteilungen der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekare. 46(1993) H.3/4, S.26-33.
Abstract: An der UB der TU Graz wurde am 1.6.1993 eine neue Aufstellungssystematik nach DK-Codes eingeführt
Themenfeld: Aufstellungssysteme Wissenschaftl. Bibliotheken