Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Liu, J. ; Zhao, J.: More than plain text : censorship deletion in the Chinese social media.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 72(2021) no.1, S.18-31.
Abstract: Although the Internet allows people to circulate messages using different media, most censorship studies discuss the removal of text content. This article presents a systematic study regarding the censorship of both plain text and multimedia content on the Chinese Internet. By analyzing both censored and surviving posts on the Chinese social media platform Weibo during the 2014 Hong Kong Umbrella Movement, we find that multimedia posts suffered more intensive censorship deletion than plain text posts, with censorship programs being oriented more toward multimedia content like images than the text content of multimedia posts. Our analysis has significant implications for censorship studies, information control, and politics in the "post-text" era.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24390.
2Belkin, N.J. (Hrsg.): Liu, J. ; Liu, C.: Personalization in text information retrieval : a survey.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.3, S.349-369.
Abstract: Personalization of information retrieval (PIR) is aimed at tailoring a search toward individual users and user groups by taking account of additional information about users besides their queries. In the past two decades or so, PIR has received extensive attention in both academia and industry. This article surveys the literature of personalization in text retrieval, following a framework for aspects or factors that can be used for personalization. The framework consists of additional information about users that can be explicitly obtained by asking users for their preferences, or implicitly inferred from users' search behaviors. Users' characteristics and contextual factors such as tasks, time, location, etc., can be helpful for personalization. This article also addresses various issues including when to personalize, the evaluation of PIR, privacy, usability, etc. Based on the extensive review, challenges are discussed and directions for future effort are suggested.
3Liu, J. ; Li, Y. ; Hastings, S.K.: Simplified scheme of search task difficulty reasons.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.5, S.526-529.
Abstract: This article reports on a study that aimed at simplifying a search task difficulty reason scheme. Liu, Kim, and Creel (2015) (denoted LKC15) developed a 21-item search task difficulty reason scheme using a controlled laboratory experiment. The current study simplified the scheme through another experiment that followed the same design as LKC15 and involved 32 university students. The study had one added questionnaire item that provided a list of the 21 difficulty reasons in the multiple-choice format. By comparing the current study with LKC15, a concept of primary top difficulty reasons was proposed, which reasonably simplified the 21-item scheme to an 8-item top reason list. This limited number of reasons is more manageable and makes it feasible for search systems to predict task difficulty reasons from observable user behaviors, which builds the basis for systems to improve user satisfaction based on predicted search difficulty reasons.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24125.
4Liu, J. ; Zhang, X.: ¬The role of domain knowledge in document selection from search results.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.11, S.1236-1247.
Abstract: It is a frequently seen scenario that when people are not familiar with their search topics, they use a simple keyword search, which leads to a large amount of search results in multiple pages. This makes it difficult for users to pick relevant documents, especially given that they are not knowledgeable of the topics. To explore how systems can better help users find relevant documents from search results, the current research analyzed document selection behaviors of users with different levels of domain knowledge (DK). Data were collected in a laboratory study with 35 participants each searching on four tasks in the genomics domain. The results show that users with high and low DK levels selected different sets of documents to view; those high in DK read more documents and gave higher relevance ratings for the viewed documents than those low in DK did. Users with low DK tended to select documents ranking toward the top of the search result lists, and those with high in DK tended to also select documents ranking down the search result lists. The findings help design search systems that can personalize search results to users with different levels of DK.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24199
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Benutzerstudien
5Kuan, C.-H. ; Liu, J.S.: ¬A new approach for main path analysis : decay in knowledge diffusion.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.2, S.465-476.
Abstract: Main path analysis is a powerful tool for extracting the backbones of a directed network and has been applied widely in bibliometric studies. In contrast to the no-decay assumption in the traditional approach, this study proposes a novel technique by assuming that the strength of knowledge decays when knowledge contained in one document is passed on to another document down the citation chain. We propose three decay models, arithmetic decay, geometric decay, and harmonic decay, along with their theoretical properties. In general, results of the proposed decay models depend largely on the local structure of a citation network as opposed to the global structure in the traditional approach. Thus, the significance of citation links and the associated documents that are overemphasized by the global structure in the traditional no-decay approach is treated more properly. For example, the traditional approach commonly assigns high value to documents that heavily reference others, such as review articles. Specifically in the geometric and harmonic decay models, only truly significant review articles will be included in the resulting main paths. We demonstrate this new approach and its properties through the DNA literature citation network.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23384/abstract.
6Liu, J. ; Liu, C. ; Belkin, N.J.: Predicting information searchers' topic knowledge at different search stages.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.11, S.2652-2666.
Abstract: As a significant contextual factor in information search, topic knowledge has been gaining increased research attention. We report on a study of the relationship between information searchers' topic knowledge and their search behaviors, and on an attempt to predict searchers' topic knowledge from their behaviors during the search. Data were collected in a controlled laboratory experiment with 32 undergraduate journalism student participants, each searching on 4 tasks of different types. In general, behavioral variables were not found to have significant differences between users with high and low levels of topic knowledge, except the mean first dwell time on search result pages. Several models were built to predict topic knowledge using behavioral variables calculated at 3 different stages of search episodes: the first-query-round, the middle point of the search, and the end point. It was found that a model using some search behaviors observed in the first query round led to satisfactory prediction results. The results suggest that early-session search behaviors can be used to predict users' topic knowledge levels, allowing personalization of search for users with different levels of topic knowledge, especially in order to assist users with low topic knowledge.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23606/full.
7Zhou, D. ; Lawless, S. ; Wu, X. ; Zhao, W. ; Liu, J.: ¬A study of user profile representation for personalized cross-language information retrieval.
In: Aslib journal of information management. 68(2016) no.4, S.448-477.
Abstract: Purpose - With an increase in the amount of multilingual content on the World Wide Web, users are often striving to access information provided in a language of which they are non-native speakers. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive study of user profile representation techniques and investigate their use in personalized cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) systems through the means of personalized query expansion. Design/methodology/approach - The user profiles consist of weighted terms computed by using frequency-based methods such as tf-idf and BM25, as well as various latent semantic models trained on monolingual documents and cross-lingual comparable documents. This paper also proposes an automatic evaluation method for comparing various user profile generation techniques and query expansion methods. Findings - Experimental results suggest that latent semantic-weighted user profile representation techniques are superior to frequency-based methods, and are particularly suitable for users with a sufficient amount of historical data. The study also confirmed that user profiles represented by latent semantic models trained on a cross-lingual level gained better performance than the models trained on a monolingual level. Originality/value - Previous studies on personalized information retrieval systems have primarily investigated user profiles and personalization strategies on a monolingual level. The effect of utilizing such monolingual profiles for personalized CLIR remains unclear. The current study fills the gap by a comprehensive study of user profile representation for personalized CLIR and a novel personalized CLIR evaluation methodology to ensure repeatable and controlled experiments can be conducted.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/AJIM-06-2015-0091.
8Liu, J. ; Belkin, N.J.: Personalizing information retrieval for multi-session tasks : examining the roles of task stage, task type, and topic knowledge on the interpretation of dwell time as an indicator of document usefulness.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.1, S.58-81.
Abstract: Personalization of information retrieval tailors search towards individual users to meet their particular information needs by taking into account information about users and their contexts, often through implicit sources of evidence such as user behaviors. This study looks at users' dwelling behavior on documents and several contextual factors: the stage of users' work tasks, task type, and users' knowledge of task topics, to explore whether or not taking account contextual factors could help infer document usefulness from dwell time. A controlled laboratory experiment was conducted with 24 participants, each coming 3 times to work on 3 subtasks in a general work task. The results show that task stage could help interpret certain types of dwell time as reliable indicators of document usefulness in certain task types, as was topic knowledge, and the latter played a more significant role when both were available. This study contributes to a better understanding of how dwell time can be used as implicit evidence of document usefulness, as well as how contextual factors can help interpret dwell time as an indicator of usefulness. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications for using behaviors and contextual factors in the development of personalization systems.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23160/abstract.
9Zhang, X. ; Liu, J. ; Cole, M. ; Belkin, N.: Predicting users' domain knowledge in information retrieval using multiple regression analysis of search behaviors.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.5, S.980-1000.
Abstract: User domain knowledge affects search behaviors and search success. Predicting a user's knowledge level from implicit evidence such as search behaviors could allow an adaptive information retrieval system to better personalize its interaction with users. This study examines whether user domain knowledge can be predicted from search behaviors by applying a regression modeling analysis method. We identify behavioral features that contribute most to a successful prediction model. A user experiment was conducted with 40 participants searching on task topics in the domain of genomics. Participant domain knowledge level was assessed based on the users' familiarity with and expertise in the search topics and their knowledge of MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms in the categories that corresponded to the search topics. Users' search behaviors were captured by logging software, which includes querying behaviors, document selection behaviors, and general task interaction behaviors. Multiple regression analysis was run on the behavioral data using different variable selection methods. Four successful predictive models were identified, each involving a slightly different set of behavioral variables. The models were compared for the best on model fit, significance of the model, and contributions of individual predictors in each model. Each model was validated using the split sampling method. The final model highlights three behavioral variables as domain knowledge level predictors: the number of documents saved, the average query length, and the average ranking position of the documents opened. The results are discussed, study limitations are addressed, and future research directions are suggested.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23218/abstract.
10Liu, J.S. ; Chen, H.-H. ; Ho, M.H.-C. ; Li, Y.-C.: Citations with different levels of relevancy : tracing the main paths of legal opinions.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.12, S.2479-2488.
Abstract: This study explores the effect from considering citation relevancy in the main path analysis. Traditional citation-based analyses treat all citations equally even though there can be various reasons and different levels of relevancy for one document to reference another. Taking the relevancy level into consideration is intuitively advantageous because it adopts more accurate information and will thus make the results of a citation-based analysis more trustworthy. This is nevertheless a challenging task. We are aware of no citation-based analysis that has taken the relevancy level into consideration. The difficulty lies in the fact that the existing patent or patent citation database provides no readily available relevancy level information. We overcome this issue by obtaining citation relevancy information from a legal database that has relevancy level ranked by legal experts. This paper selects trademark dilution, a legal concept that has been the subject of many lawsuit cases, as the target for exploration. We apply main path analysis, taking citation relevancy into consideration, and verify the results against a set of test cases that are mentioned in an authoritative trademark book. The findings show that relevancy information helps main path analysis uncover legal cases of higher importance. Nevertheless, in terms of the number of significant cases retrieved, relevancy information does not seem to make a noticeable difference.
11Liu, J.S. ; Lu, L.Y.Y.: ¬An integrated approach for main path analysis : development of the Hirsch index as an example.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 63(2012) no.3, S.528-542.
Abstract: This study enhances main path analysis by proposing several variants to the original approach. Main path analysis is a bibliometric method capable of tracing the most significant paths in a citation network and is commonly used to trace the development trajectory of a research field. We highlight several limitations of the original main path analysis and suggest new, complementary approaches to overcome these limitations. In contrast to the original local main path, the new approaches generate the global main path, the backward local main path, multiple main paths, and key-route main paths. Each of them is obtained via a perspective different from the original approach. By simultaneously conducting the new, complementary approaches, one uncovers the key development of the target discipline from a broader view. To demonstrate the value of these new approaches, we simultaneously apply them to a set of academic articles related to the Hirsch index. The results show that the integrated approach discovers several paths that are not captured by the original approach. Among these new approaches, the key-route approach is especially useful and hints at a divergence-convergence-divergence structure in the development of the Hirsch index.
12Zhang, X. ; Li, Y. ; Liu, J. ; Zhang, Y.: Effects of interaction design in digital libraries on user interactions.
In: Journal of documentation. 64(2008) no.3, S.438-463.
Abstract: Purpose - This study aims to investigate the effects of different search and browse features in digital libraries (DLs) on task interactions, and what features would lead to poor user experience. Design/methodology/approach - Three operational DLs: ACM, IEEE CS, and IEEE Xplore are used in this study. These three DLs present different features in their search and browsing designs. Two information-seeking tasks are constructed: one search task and one browsing task. An experiment was conducted in a usability laboratory. Data from 35 participants are collected on a set of measures for user interactions. Findings - The results demonstrate significant differences in many aspects of the user interactions between the three DLs. For both search and browse designs, the features that lead to poor user interactions are identified. Research limitations/implications - User interactions are affected by specific design features in DLs. Some of the design features may lead to poor user performance and should be improved. The study was limited mainly in the variety and the number of tasks used. Originality/value - The study provided empirical evidence to the effects of interaction design features in DLs on user interactions and performance. The results contribute to our knowledge about DL designs in general and about the three operational DLs in particular.
Themenfeld: Information Gateway ; Benutzerstudien ; Suchoberflächen
13Liu, J. ; Wu, Y. ; Zhou, L.: ¬A hybrid method for abstracting newspaper articles.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 50(1999) no.13, S.1234-1245.
Abstract: This paper introduces a hybrid method for abstracting Chinese text. It integrates the statistical approach with language understanding. Some linguistics heuristics and segmentation are also incorporated into the abstracting process. The prototype system is of a multipurpose type catering for various users with different reqirements. Initial responses show that the proposed method contributes much to the flexibility and accuracy of the automatic Chinese abstracting system. In practice, the present work provides a path to developing an intelligent Chinese system for automating the information
Themenfeld: Automatisches Abstracting
Behandelte Form: Zeitungen
14Liu, J.: Review and prospect for centralized cataloging in China.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 28(1999) no.2, S.57-64.
Abstract: With a long history, cataloging has developed gradually in China. Nowadays, both the content and method of cataloging have changed in many ways. As a type of organizing cataloging model, centralized cataloging came into being in 1936 in China. The history and the current status of centralized cataloging in China are described in the paper. The prospect for cataloging in the country is also discussed. In respect to resource building and sharing, cooperative cataloging is thought to be the best way to develop cataloging in the future.
15Liu, J.: Understanding WWW search tools.Update February 1996.
Abstract: Vorstellung von Hilfsmitteln zur inhaltlichen Suche von Angeboten im Internet
Anmerkung: First draft: September 1995
Objekt: WWW Worm ; WebCrawler ; Lycos ; OpenText ; Excite ; Inktomi ; Altavista ; SavvySearch ; InfoMarket ; MetaCrawler
16Liu, J.: CIP in China : the development and status quo.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 22(1996) no.1, S.69-76.
Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of the development and current status of the Cataloging-in-Publication (CIP) project in China. The China CIP project is a new one implemented in 1993. In the paper, the development of CIP in the world is described, followed by when and how it was introduced into China. The paper tells the significances of CIP in detail. The implementation of the CIP project and differences of CIP work in China from that in the United States are also reflected here. Finally, the contribution discusses the problems in implementing the project and suggests ways to solve them. The project combines the publishing house, library, and distributor into the document information system. CIP is not only a kind of cataloging, but also a bond among them. It is believed that the CIP project in China has a bright future.