Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1MacFarlane, A. ; Missaoui, S. ; Frankowska-Takhari, S.: On machine learning and knowledge organization in multimedia information retrieval.
In: Knowledge organization. 47(2020) no.1, S.45-55.
Abstract: Recent technological developments have increased the use of machine learning to solve many problems, including many in information retrieval. Multimedia information retrieval as a problem represents a significant challenge to machine learning as a technological solution, but some problems can still be addressed by using appropriate AI techniques. We review the technological developments and provide a perspective on the use of machine learning in conjunction with knowledge organization to address multimedia IR needs. The semantic gap in multimedia IR remains a significant problem in the field, and solutions to them are many years off. However, new technological developments allow the use of knowledge organization and machine learning in multimedia search systems and services. Specifically, we argue that, the improvement of detection of some classes of lowlevel features in images music and video can be used in conjunction with knowledge organization to tag or label multimedia content for better retrieval performance. We provide an overview of the use of knowledge organization schemes in machine learning and make recommendations to information professionals on the use of this technology with knowledge organization techniques to solve multimedia IR problems. We introduce a five-step process model that extracts features from multimedia objects (Step 1) from both knowledge organization (Step 1a) and machine learning (Step 1b), merging them together (Step 2) to create an index of those multimedia objects (Step 3). We also overview further steps in creating an application to utilize the multimedia objects (Step 4) and maintaining and updating the database of features on those objects (Step 5).
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Multimedia
2Berget, G. ; MacFarlane, A.: What Is known about the impact of impairments on information seeking and searching?.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.5, S.596-611.
Abstract: Information seeking and access are essential for users in all walks of life, from addressing personal needs such as finding flights to locating information needed to complete work tasks. Over the past decade or so, the general needs of people with impairments have increasingly been recognized as something to be addressed, an issue embedded both in international treaties and in state legislation. The same tendency can be found in research, where a growing number of user studies including people with impairments have been conducted. The purpose of these studies is typically to uncover potential barriers for access to information, especially in the context of inaccessible search user interfaces. This literature review provides an overview of research on the information seeking and searching of users with impairments. The aim is to provide an overview to both researchers and practitioners who work with any of the user groups identified. Some diagnoses are relatively well represented in the literature (for instance, visual impairment), but there is very little work in other areas (for instance, autism) and in some cases no work at all (for instance, aphasia). Gaps are identified in the research, and suggestions are made regarding areas where further research is needed.
3Konkova, E. ; MacFarlane, A. ; Göker, A.: Analysing creative image search information needs.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.1, S.13-21.
Abstract: Creative professionals in advertising, marketing, design and journalism search for images to visually represent a concept for their project. The main purpose of this paper is to present search facets derived from an analysis of documents known as briefs, which are widely used in creative industries as requirement documents describing information needs. The briefs specify the type of image required, such as the content and context of use for the image and represent the topic from which the searcher builds an image query. We take three main sources-user image search behaviour, briefs, and image search engine search facets-to examine the search facets for image searching in order to examine the following research question-are search facet schemes for image search engines sufficient for user needs, or is revision needed? We found that there are three main classes of user search facet, which include business, contextual and image related information. The key argument in the paper is that the facet "keyword/tag" is ambiguous and does not support user needs for more generic descriptions to broaden search or specific descriptions to narrow their search-we suggest that a more detailed search facet scheme would be appropriate.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_43_2016_1_b.pdf.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
4MacFarlane, A.: Knowledge organisation and its role in multimedia information retrieval.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.3, S.180-183.
Abstract: Various kinds of knowledge organisation, such as thesauri, are routinely used to label or tag multimedia content such as images and music and to support information retrieval, i.e. user search for such content. In this paper, we outline why this is the case, in particular focusing on the semantic gap between content and concept based multimedia retrieval. We survey some indexing vocabularies used for multimedia retrieval, and argue that techniques such as thesauri will be needed for the foreseeable future in order to support users in their need for multimedia content. In particular, we argue that artificial intelligence techniques are not mature enough to solve the problem of indexing multimedia conceptually and will not be able to replace human indexers for the foreseeable future.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Special issue: The Great Debate: "This House Believes that the Traditional Thesaurus has no Place in Modern Information Retrieval." [19 February 2015, 14:00-17:30 preceded by ISKO UK AGM and followed by networking, wine and nibbles; vgl.: http://www.iskouk.org/content/great-debate].
Themenfeld: Konzeption und Anwendung des Prinzips Thesaurus ; Multimedia
5Konkova, E. ; Göker, A. ; Butterworth, R. ; MacFarlane, A.: Social tagging: exploring the image, the tags, and the game.
In: Knowledge organization. 41(2014) no.1, S.57-65.
Abstract: Large image collections on the Web need to be organized for effective retrieval. Metadata has a key role in image retrieval but rely on professionally assigned tags which is not a viable option. Current content-based image retrieval systems have not demonstrated sufficient utility on large-scale image sources on the web, and are usually used as a supplement to existing text-based image retrieval systems. We present two social tagging alternatives in the form of photo-sharing networks and image labeling games. Here we analyze these applications to evaluate their usefulness from the semantic point of view, investigating the management of social tagging for indexing. The findings of the study have shown that social tagging can generate a sizeable number of tags that can be classified as in terpretive for an image, and that tagging behaviour has a manageable and adjustable nature depending on tagging guidelines.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_41_2014_1_e.pdf. ; Papers from the ISKO-UK Biennial Conference, "Knowledge Organization: Pushing the Boundaries," United Kingdom, 8-9 July, 2013, London.
Themenfeld: Social tagging
Behandelte Form: Bilder
6MacFarlane, A. ; Al-Wabil, A. ; Marshall, C.R. ; Albrair, A. ; Jones, S.A. ; Zaphiris, P.: ¬The effect of dyslexia on information retrieval : a pilot study.
In: Journal of documentation. 66(2010) no.3, S.307-326.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to resolve a gap in the knowledge of how people with dyslexia interact with information retrieval (IR) systems, specifically an understanding of their information-searching behaviour. Design/methodology/approach - The dyslexia cognitive profile is used to design a logging system, recording the difference between two sets of participants: dyslexic and control users. A standard Okapi interface is used - together with two standard TREC topics - in order to record the information searching behaviour of these users. Findings - Using the log data, the differences in information-searching behaviour of control and dyslexic users, i.e. in the way the two groups interact with Okapi, are established and it also established that qualitative information collected (such as experience etc.) may not be able to account for these differences. Evidence from query variables was unable to distinguish between groups, but differences on topic for the same variables were recorded. Users who view more documents tended to judge more documents as being relevant, in terms of either the user group or topic. Session data indicated that there may be an important difference between the number of iterations used in a search between the user groups, as there may be little effect from the topic on this variable. Originality/value - This is the first study of the effect of dyslexia on information search behaviour, and it provides some evidence to take the field forward.
7Inskip, C. ; MacFarlane, A. ; Rafferty, P.: Organising music for movies.
In: Aslib proceedings. 62(2010) nos.4/5, S.489-501.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine and discuss the classification of commercial popular music when large digital collections are organised for use in films. Design/methodology/approach - A range of systems are investigated and their organization is discussed, focusing on an analysis of the metadata used by the systems and choices given to the end-user to construct a query. The indexing of the music is compared with a check-list of music facets which has been derived from recent musicological literature on semiotic analysis of popular music. These facets include aspects of communication, cultural and musical expression, codes and competences. Findings - In addition to bibliographic detail, descriptive metadata are used to organise music in these systems. Genre, subject and mood are used widely; some musical facets also appear. The extent to which attempts are being made to reflect these facets in the organization of these systems is discussed. A number of recommendations are made which may help to improve this process. Originality/value - The paper discusses an area of creative music search which has not previously been investigated in any depth and makes recommendations based on findings and the literature which may be used in the development of commercial systems as well as making a contribution to the literature.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Special Issue: Content architecture: exploiting and managing diverse resources: proceedings of the first national conference of the United Kingdom chapter of the International Society for Knowedge Organization (ISKO)
Behandelte Form: Musik-Tonträger
8MacFarlane, A. ; Tuson, A.: Local search : a guide for the information retrieval practitioner.
In: Information processing and management. 45(2009) no.1, S.159-174.
Abstract: There are a number of combinatorial optimisation problems in information retrieval in which the use of local search methods are worthwhile. The purpose of this paper is to show how local search can be used to solve some well known tasks in information retrieval (IR), how previous research in the field is piecemeal, bereft of a structure and methodologically flawed, and to suggest more rigorous ways of applying local search methods to solve IR problems. We provide a query based taxonomy for analysing the use of local search in IR tasks and an overview of issues such as fitness functions, statistical significance and test collections when conducting experiments on combinatorial optimisation problems. The paper gives a guide on the pitfalls and problems for IR practitioners who wish to use local search to solve their research issues, and gives practical advice on the use of such methods. The query based taxonomy is a novel structure which can be used by the IR practitioner in order to examine the use of local search in IR.
9Lu, W. ; MacFarlane, A. ; Venuti, F.: Okapi-based XML indexing.
In: Aslib proceedings. 61(2009) no.5, S.483-499.
Abstract: Purpose - Being an important data exchange and information storage standard, XML has generated a great deal of interest and particular attention has been paid to the issue of XML indexing. Clear use cases for structured search in XML have been established. However, most of the research in the area is either based on relational database systems or specialized semi-structured data management systems. This paper aims to propose a method for XML indexing based on the information retrieval (IR) system Okapi. Design/methodology/approach - First, the paper reviews the structure of inverted files and gives an overview of the issues of why this indexing mechanism cannot properly support XML retrieval, using the underlying data structures of Okapi as an example. Then the paper explores a revised method implemented on Okapi using path indexing structures. The paper evaluates these index structures through the metrics of indexing run time, path search run time and space costs using the INEX and Reuters RVC1 collections. Findings - Initial results on the INEX collections show that there is a substantial overhead in space costs for the method, but this increase does not affect run time adversely. Indexing results on differing sized Reuters RVC1 sub-collections show that the increase in space costs with increasing the size of a collection is significant, but in terms of run time the increase is linear. Path search results show sub-millisecond run times, demonstrating minimal overhead for XML search. Practical implications - Overall, the results show the method implemented to support XML search in a traditional IR system such as Okapi is viable. Originality/value - The paper provides useful information on a method for XML indexing based on the IR system Okapi.
Objekt: Okapi ; XML
10Inskip, C. ; Butterworth, R. ; MacFarlane, A.: ¬A study of the information needs of the users of a folk music library and the implications for the design of a digital library system.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.2, S.647-662.
Abstract: A qualitative study of user information needs is reported, based on a purposive sample of users and potential users of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, a small specialist folk music library in North London. The study set out to establish what the users' (both existing and potential) information needs are, so that the library's online service may take them into account with its design. The information needs framework proposed by Nicholas [Nicholas, D. (2000) Assessing information needs: tools, techniques and concepts for the internet age. London: ASLIB] is used as an analytical tool to achieve this end. The demographics of the users were examined in order to establish four user groups: Performer, Academic, Professional and Enthusiast. Important information needs were found to be based on social interaction, and key resources of the library were its staff, the concentration of the collection and the library's social nature. A collection of broad design requirements are proposed based on the analysis and this study also provides some insights into the issue of musical relevance, which are discussed.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes "Digital libraries in the context of users' broader activities"
11Inskip, C. ; MacFarlane, A. ; Rafferty, P.: Meaning, communication, music : towards a revised communication model.
In: Journal of documentation. 64(2008) no.5, S.687-706.
Abstract: Purpose - If an information retrieval system is going to be of value to the user then it must give meaning to the information which matches the meaning given to it by the user. The meaning given to music varies according to who is interpreting it - the author/composer, the performer, cataloguer or the listener - and this affects how music is organized and retrieved. This paper aims to examine the meaning of music, how meaning is communicated and suggests this may affect music retrieval. Design/methodology/approach - Musicology is used to define music and examine its functions leading to a discussion of how music has been organised and described. Various ways of establishing the meaning of music are reviewed, focussing on established musical analysis techniques. It is suggested that traditional methods are of limited use with digitised popular music. A discussion of semiotics and a review of semiotic analysis in western art music leads to a discussion of semiotics of popular music and examines ideas of Middleton, Stefani and Tagg. Findings - Agreeing that music exists when communication takes place, a discussion of selected communication models leads to the proposal of a revised version of Tagg's model, adjusting it to include listener feedback. Originality/value - The outcome of the analysis is a revised version of Tagg's communication model, adapted to reflect user feedback. It is suggested that this revised communication model reflects the way in which meaning is given to music.
12MacFarlane, A.: Evaluation of web search for the information practitioner.
In: Aslib proceedings. 59(2007) no.4/5, S.352-366.
Abstract: Purpose - The aim of the paper is to put forward a structured mechanism for web search evaluation. The paper seeks to point to useful scientific research and show how information practitioners can use these methods in evaluation of search on the web for their users. Design/methodology/approach - The paper puts forward an approach which utilizes traditional laboratory-based evaluation measures such as average precision/precision at N documents, augmented with diagnostic measures such as link broken, etc., which are used to show why precision measures are depressed as well as the quality of the search engines crawling mechanism. Findings - The paper shows how to use diagnostic measures in conjunction with precision in order to evaluate web search. Practical implications - The methodology presented in this paper will be useful to any information professional who regularly uses web search as part of their information seeking and needs to evaluate web search services. Originality/value - The paper argues that the use of diagnostic measures is essential in web search, as precision measures on their own do not allow a searcher to understand why search results differ between search engines.
13MacFarlane, A. ; McCann, J.A. ; Robertson, S.E.: Parallel methods for the update of partitioned inverted files.
In: Aslib proceedings. 59(2007) no.4/5, S.367-396.
Abstract: Purpose - An issue that tends to be ignored in information retrieval is the issue of updating inverted files. This is largely because inverted files were devised to provide fast query service, and much work has been done with the emphasis strongly on queries. This paper aims to study the effect of using parallel methods for the update of inverted files in order to reduce costs, by looking at two types of partitioning for inverted files: document identifier and term identifier. Design/methodology/approach - Raw update service and update with query service are studied with these partitioning schemes using an incremental update strategy. The paper uses standard measures used in parallel computing such as speedup to examine the computing results and also the costs of reorganising indexes while servicing transactions. Findings - Empirical results show that for both transaction processing and index reorganisation the document identifier method is superior. However, there is evidence that the term identifier partitioning method could be useful in a concurrent transaction processing context. Practical implications - There is an increasing need to service updates, which is now becoming a requirement of inverted files (for dynamic collections such as the web), demonstrating that a shift in requirements of inverted file maintenance is needed from the past. Originality/value - The paper is of value to database administrators who manage large-scale and dynamic text collections, and who need to use parallel computing to implement their text retrieval services.
14Bhogal, J. ; Macfarlane, A. ; Smith, P.: ¬A review of ontology based query expansion.
In: Information processing and management. 43(2007) no.4, S.866-886.
Abstract: This paper examines the meaning of context in relation to ontology based query expansion and contains a review of query expansion approaches. The various query expansion approaches include relevance feedback, corpus dependent knowledge models and corpus independent knowledge models. Case studies detailing query expansion using domain-specific and domain-independent ontologies are also included. The penultimate section attempts to synthesise the information obtained from the review and provide success factors in using an ontology for query expansion. Finally the area of further research in applying context from an ontology to query expansion within a newswire domain is described.
Themenfeld: Retrievalalgorithmen ; Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
15MacFarlane, A. ; McCann, J.A. ; Robertson, S.E.: Parallel methods for the generation of partitioned inverted files.
In: Aslib proceedings. 57(2005) no.5, S.434-459.
Abstract: Purpose - The generation of inverted indexes is one of the most computationally intensive activities for information retrieval systems: indexing large multi-gigabyte text databases can take many hours or even days to complete. We examine the generation of partitioned inverted files in order to speed up the process of indexing. Two types of index partitions are investigated: TermId and DocId. Design/methodology/approach - We use standard measures used in parallel computing such as speedup and efficiency to examine the computing results and also the space costs of our trial indexing experiments. Findings - The results from runs on both partitioning methods are compared and contrasted, concluding that DocId is the more efficient method. Practical implications - The practical implications are that the DocId partitioning method would in most circumstances be used for distributing inverted file data in a parallel computer, particularly if indexing speed is the primary consideration. Originality/value - The paper is of value to database administrators who manage large-scale text collections, and who need to use parallel computing to implement their text retrieval services.
Inhalt: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00012530510621888.
16MacFarlane, A. ; Robertson, S.E. ; McCann, J.A.: Parallel computing for passage retrieval.
In: Aslib proceedings. 56(2004) no.4, S.201-211.
Abstract: In this paper methods for both speeding up passage processing and examining more passages using parallel computers are explored. The number of passages processed are varied in order to examine the effect on retrieval effectiveness and efficiency. The particular algorithm applied has previously been used to good effect in Okapi experiments at TREC. This algorithm and the mechanism for applying parallel computing to speed up processing are described.
Objekt: Okapi ; TREC
17Vakkari, P. ; Jones, S. ; MacFarlane, A. ; Sormunen, E.: Query exhaustivity, relevance feedback and search success in automatic and interactive query expansion.
In: Journal of documentation. 60(2004) no.2, S.109-127.
Abstract: This study explored how the expression of search facets and relevance feedback (RF) by users was related to search success in interactive and automatic query expansion in the course of the search process. Search success was measured both in the number of relevant documents retrieved, whether identified by users or not. Research design consisted of 26 users searching for four TREC topics in Okapi IR system, half of the searchers using interactive and half automatic query expansion based on RF. The search logs were recorded, and the users filled in questionnaires for each topic concerning various features of searching. The results showed that the exhaustivity of the query was the most significant predictor of search success. Interactive expansion led to better search success than automatic expansion if all retrieved relevant items were counted, but there was no difference between the methods if only those items recognised relevant by users were observed. The analysis showed that the difference was facilitated by the liberal relevance criterion used in TREC not favouring highly relevant documents in evaluation.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00220410410522016
18MacFarlane, A.: On open source IR.
In: Aslib proceedings. 55(2003) no.4, S.217-222.
Abstract: Open source software development is becoming increasingly popular as a way of producing software, due to a number of factors. It is argued in this paper that these factors may have a significant impact on the future of information retrieval (IR) systems, and that it is desirable that these systems are made open to all. Some problems are outlined that may prevent the uptake of open source IR systems and a number of open source IR systems are described.
19MacFarlane, A. ; Robertson, S.E. ; McCann, J.A.: Parallel computing in information retrieval : an updated review.
In: Journal of documentation. 53(1997) no.3, S.274-315.
Abstract: Reviews the progress of parallel computing in information retrieval. Stresses the importance of the motivation is using parallel computing for text retrieval. Analyzes parallel IR systems using a classification defined by Rasmussen and describes some parallel IR systems. Gives a description of the retrieval models used in parallel information processing and notes areas where research is needed
Inhalt: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/EUM0000000007201.