Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Li, D. ; Wang, Y. ; Madden, A. ; Ding, Y. ; Sun, G.G. ; Zhang, N. ; Zhou, E.: Analyzing stock market trends using social media user moods and social influence.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.9, S.1000-1013.
Abstract: Information from microblogs is gaining increasing attention from researchers interested in analyzing fluctuations in stock markets. Behavioral financial theory draws on social psychology to explain some of the irrational behaviors associated with financial decisions to help explain some of the fluctuations. In this study we argue that social media users who demonstrate an interest in finance can offer insights into ways in which irrational behaviors may affect a stock market. To test this, we analyzed all the data collected over a 3-month period in 2011 from Tencent Weibo (one of the largest microblogging websites in China). We designed a social influence (SI)-based Tencent finance-related moods model to simulate investors' irrational behaviors, and designed a Tencent Moods-based Stock Trend Analysis (TM_STA) model to detect correlations between Tencent moods and the Hushen-300 index (one of the most important financial indexes in China). Experimental results show that the proposed method can help explain the data fluctuation. The findings support the existing behavioral financial theory, and can help to understand short-term rises and falls in a stock market. We use behavioral financial theory to further explain our findings, and to propose a trading model to verify the proposed model.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24173.
2Madden, A.D. ; Webber, S. ; Ford, N. ; Crowder, M.: ¬The relationship between students' subject preferences and their information behaviour.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.4, S.692-721.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between preferred choice of school subject and student information behaviour (IB). Design/methodology/approach Mixed methods were employed. In all, 152 students, teachers and librarians participated in interviews or focus groups. In total, 1,375 students, key stage 3 (11-14 years) to postgraduate, responded to a questionnaire. The research population was drawn from eight schools, two further education colleges and three universities. Insights from the literature review and the qualitative research phase led to a hypothesis which was investigated using the questionnaire: that students studying hard subjects are less likely to engage in deep IB than students studying soft subjects. Findings Results support the hypothesis that preferences for subjects at school affect choice of university degree. The hypothesis that a preference for hard or soft subjects affects IB is supported by results of an analysis in which like or dislike of maths/ICT is correlated with responses to the survey. Interviewees' comments led to the proposal that academic subjects can be classified according to whether a subject helps students to acquire a "tool of the Mind" or to apply such a tool. A model suggesting how IB may differ depending on whether intellectual tools are being acquired or applied is proposed. Practical implications The "inner logic" of certain subjects and their pedagogies appears closely linked to IB. This should be considered when developing teaching programmes. Originality/value The findings offer a new perspective on subject classification and its association with IB, and a new model of the association between IB and tool acquisition or application is proposed, incorporating the perspectives of both teacher and student.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-07-2017-0097.
3Madden, A.D.: Interpreting the world across a boundary : the evolution of information from life's first decisions to the information society.
In: Journal of documentation. 70(2014) no.4, S.676-686.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between information and boundaries. Life depends on boundaries; but in order to survive an organism needs to make decisions based on an interpretation of the environment beyond its boundaries: it therefore needs information. Design/methodology/approach - The paper explores the evolution of physical, social and cultural boundaries and considers how they have shaped ways in which information is gathered and used. Findings - Several evolutionary developments are reviewed. The paper argues that each one has generated an additional boundary and that each new boundary has affected the information needs within it. The paper argues that all living things use information to help address three fundamental concerns: "Where can the energy needed to stay alive be found?", "How can it be stored?", and "How can use of energy be reduced?" Because these questions are fundamental at a biological level they are also fundamental at a societal level. One way to increase energy efficiency was for organisms to grow larger. This brought risks which were alleviated by the evolution of better information gathering and processing tools. Amongst these tools were the means to communicate, which afforded the evolution of social boundaries. Originality/value - This is a new perspective on a topic of growing interest in information science and demonstrates further the significance of information as a factor in the shaping of life.
4Gorrell, G. ; Eaglestone, B. ; Ford, N. ; Holdridge, P. ; Madden, A.: Towards "metacognitively aware" IR systems : an initial user study.
In: Journal of documentation. 65(2009) no.3, S.446-469.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe: a new taxonomy of metacognitive skills designed to support the study of metacognition in the context of web searching; a data collection instrument based on the taxonomy; and the results of testing the instrument on a sample of university students and staff. Design/methodology/approach - The taxonomy is based on a review of the literature, and is extended to cover web searching. This forms the basis for the design of the data collection instrument, which is tested with 405 students and staff of Sheffield University. Findings - Subjects regard the range of metacognitive skills focused on as broadly similar. However, a number of significant differences in reported metacognition usage relating to age, gender and discipline. Practical implications - These findings contribute to the long-term aims of the research which are to: develop a model of the actual and potential role of metacognition in web searching, and identify strategic "metacognitive interventions" that can be built into an intelligent information retrieval system, driven by the model, capable of enhancing retrieval effectiveness by compensating for metacognitive weaknesses on the part of the searcher. Originality/value - The value of the paper lies in: the consideration of metacognition in the context of web searching, the presentation of an extensible taxonomy of metacognitive skills, development and testing of a prototype metacognitive inventory, finding of significant differences in reported metacognition usage according to age, gender and discipline, and reflection of the implications of the results for future research into web searching.
5Ford, N. ; Eaglestone, B. ; Madden, A. ; Whittle, M.: Web searching by the "general public" : an individual differences perspective.
In: Journal of documentation. 65(2009) no.4, S.632-667.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of a number of human individual differences on the web searching of a sample of the general public. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 91 members of the general public performed 195 controlled searches. Search activity and ratings of search difficulty and success were recorded and statistically analysed. The study was exploratory, and sought to establish whether there is a prima facie case for further systematic investigation of the selection and combination of variables studied here. Findings - Results revealed a number of interactions between individual differences, the use of different search strategies, and levels of perceived search difficulty and success. The findings also suggest that the open and closed nature of searches may affect these interactions. A conceptual model of these relationships is presented. Practical implications - Better understanding of factors affecting searching may help one to develop more effective search support, whether in the form of personalised search interfaces and mechanisms, adaptive systems, training or help systems. However, the findings reveal a complexity and variability suggesting that there is little immediate prospect of developing any simple model capable of driving such systems. Originality/value - There are several areas of this research that make it unique: the study's focus on a sample of the general public; its use of search logs linked to personal data; its development of a novel search strategy classifier; its temporal modelling of how searches are transformed over time; and its illumination of four different types of experienced searcher, linked to different search behaviours and outcomes.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Internet
6Whittle, M. ; Eaglestone, B. ; Ford, N. ; Gillet, V.J. ; Madden, A.: Data mining of search engine logs.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.14, S.2382-2400.
Abstract: This article reports on the development of a novel method for the analysis of Web logs. The method uses techniques that look for similarities between queries and identify sequences of query transformation. It allows sequences of query transformations to be represented as graphical networks, thereby giving a richer view of search behavior than is possible with the usual sequential descriptions. We also perform a basic analysis to study the correlations between observed transformation codes, with results that appear to show evidence of behavior habits. The method was developed using transaction logs from the Excite search engine to provide a tool for an ongoing research project that is endeavoring to develop a greater understanding of Web-based searching by the general public.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Data Mining
7Madden, A.D. ; Ford, N.J. ; Miller, D. ; Levy, P.: Children's use of the internet for information-seeking : what strategies do they use, and what factors affect their performance?.
In: Journal of documentation. 62(2006) no.6, S.744-761.
Abstract: Purpose - A common criticism of research into information seeking on the internet is that information seekers are restricted by the demands of the researcher. Another criticism is that the search topics, are often imposed by the researcher, and; particularly when working with children, domain knowledge could be as important as information-seeking skills. The research reported here attempts to address both these problems. Design/methodology/approach - A total of 15 children, aged 11 to 16, were each set three "think aloud" internet searches. In the first, they were asked to recall the last time they had sought information on the internet, and to repeat the search. For the second, they were given a word, asked to interpret it, then asked to search for their interpretation. For the third, they were asked to recall the last time they had been unsuccessful in a search, and to repeat the search. While performing each task, the children were encouraged to explain their actions. Findings - The paper finds that the factors that determined a child's ability to search successfully appeared to be: the amount of experience the child had of using the internet; the amount of guidance, both from adults and from peers; and the child's ability to explore the virtual environment, and to use the tools available for so doing. Originality/value - Many of the searches performed by participants in this paper were not related to schoolwork, and so some of the search approaches differed from those taught by teachers. Instead, they evolved through exploration and exchange of ideas. Further studies of this sort could provide insights of value to designers of web environments.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Internet ; Benutzerstudien
8Madden, A.D.: Evolution and information.
In: Journal of documentation. 60(2004) no.1, S.9-23.
Abstract: The association between life and information is discussed. Information is considered to be "a stimulus which expands or amends the World View of the informed". Using this definition, the standard chain of evolutionary development is reconsidered. It is proposed that information was derived from the environment as a direct result of the evolution of organisms that used other organisms as a food source. Only with the evolution of sexual reproduction did it become necessary for organisms to be aware of others of the same species. It is argued that one of the consequences of the evolution of different sexes is that often, prospective mates had to evolve means of communication, making it possible for animals to expand their World Views by other means. Such reinterpretation of evolutionary thinking has numerous implications for the information scientist. Some of these are discussed.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00220410410516626
9Madden, A.D.: ¬A definition of information.
In: Aslib proceedings. 52(2000) no.9, S.343-349.
Abstract: One difficulty faced by students on many information management courses is the lack of any attempt to teach concepts of information. Therefore, if a core module does not fit in with a student's existing concept of information, it can make it hard for the student to recognise the relevance of that module. This paper addresses that problem by summarising concepts of information, and by presenting a simple model that attempts to unite the various concepts listed. The model is based on the idea that the meaning in a message depends on the context in which the message originated (the authorial context), and the context in which it is interpreted (the readership context). Characteristics of authors, readers and messages are discussed. The impact of the 'knowledge' of 'information' users, and of their community, is considered. Implications of the model are discussed. A definition of information is suggested, which attempts to encapsulate the nature of information implied by the model.