Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Makri, S. ; Buckley, L.: Down the rabbit hole : investigating disruption of the information encountering process.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.2, S.127-142.
Abstract: Information encountering (IE) often occurs during active information seeking and involves passively finding unsought, unexpected information that is subjectively considered interesting, useful, or potentially useful. While the idealized IE process involves engaging with information after noticing it (for example, by examining it, conducting follow-up seeking to determine usefulness, then using or sharing it), the process can be disrupted-resulting in missed opportunities for knowledge and insight creation. This study provides a detailed understanding of when and why the process can be disrupted. Think-aloud observations and Critical Incident Interviews were conducted with 15 web users, focusing on examining when they encountered information but did not engage with it. Factors that discouraged engagement and simultaneously encouraged participants to return to active, goal-directed information seeking by disrupting the IE process were identified. These factors individually and collectively demonstrate that IE can instigate a highly uncertain cost-benefit trade-off, sometimes resulting in encounterers being cautious by returning to "less risky" active seeking. Design suggestions are made for reducing the uncertainty of deciding whether to engage with encountered information and making it easier to return to the active seeking task if disruption occurs.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24233.
2Makri, S. ; Turner, S.: "I can't express my thanks enough" : the "gratitude cycle" in online communities.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.5, S.503-515.
Abstract: Gratitude is a fundamental aspect of social interaction that positively influences emotional and social well-being. It is also crucial for promoting online community health by motivating participation. However, how gratitude occurs and can be encouraged in online communities is not yet well understood. This exploratory study investigated how online community users experience gratitude, focusing on how gratitude expression and acknowledgment occurs, can break down or can be reinforced. Semistructured Critical Incident interviews were conducted with 8 users of various online communities, including discussion and support groups, social Q&A sites, and review sites, eliciting 17 memorable examples of giving and receiving thanks online. The findings gave rise to a process model of gratitude in online communities-the "gratitude cycle," which provides a detailed, holistic understanding of the experience of gratitude online that can inform the design of online community platforms that aim to motivate users to perpetuate the cycle. An enriched understanding of gratitude in online communities can help ensure future platforms better support the expression and acknowledgment of thanks, encouraging participation.
3Erdelez, S. ; Makri, S.: Information encountering re-encountered : a conceptual re-examination of serendipity in the context of information acquisition.
In: Journal of documentation. 76(2020) no.3, S.731-751.
Abstract: Purpose In order to understand the totality, diversity and richness of human information behavior, increasing research attention has been paid to examining serendipity in the context of information acquisition. However, several issues have arisen as this research subfield has tried to find its feet; we have used different, inconsistent terminology to define this phenomenon (e.g. information encountering, accidental information discovery, incidental information acquisition), the scope of the phenomenon has not been clearly defined and its nature was not fully understood or fleshed-out. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, information encountering (IE) was proposed as the preferred term for serendipity in the context of information acquisition. Findings A reconceptualized definition and scope of IE was presented, a temporal model of IE and a refined model of IE that integrates the IE process with contextual factors and extends previous models of IE to include additional information acquisition activities pre- and postencounter. Originality/value By providing a more precise definition, clearer scope and richer theoretical description of the nature of IE, there was hope to make the phenomenon of serendipity in the context of information acquisition more accessible, encouraging future research consistency and thereby promoting deeper, more unified theoretical development.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-08-2019-0151.
4Makri, S.: Information informing design : Information Science research with implications for the design of digital information environments.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.11, S.1402-1412.
Abstract: This debut curated "virtual special issue" of JASIST is on the theme of "information informing design." It comprises several excellent scholarly research articles previously published in JASIST with important implications for the design of digital information environments. It covers articles that motivate the need for Information Science research to inform design and those that have empirically examined information-related concepts such as information behavior, practices, interaction, and experience and, based on their findings, proposed recommendations or posed questions for design. This article argues that as JASIST exists at the intersection between information, systems, and users, it is natural to want to understand how people engage with information to inform design and, by doing so, Information Science research can build bridges between Information Science and computing disciplines and make contributions that transcend its discipline boundaries. It argues that Information Science research not only has the potential but also the duty to inform the design of future digital information environments.
5Makri, S. ; Hsueh, T.-L. ; Jones, S.: Ideation as an intellectual information acquisition and use context : investigating game designers' information-based ideation behavior.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.8, S.775-787.
Abstract: Human Information Behavior (HIB) research commonly examines behavior in the context of why information is acquired and how it will be used, but usually at the level of the work or everyday-life tasks the information will support. HIB has not been examined in detail at the broader contextual level of intellectual purpose (that is, the higher-order conceptual tasks the information was acquired to support). Examination at this level can enhance holistic understanding of HIB as a "means to an intellectual end" and inform the design of digital information environments that support information interaction for specific intellectual purposes. We investigate information-based ideation (IBI) as a specific intellectual information acquisition and use context by conducting Critical Incident-style interviews with 10 game designers, focusing on how they interact with information to generate and develop creative design ideas. Our findings give rise to a framework of their ideation-focused HIB, which systems designers can leverage to reason about how best to support certain behaviors to drive design ideation. These findings emphasize the importance of intellectual purpose as a driver for acquisition and desired outcome of use.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24169.
Behandelte Form: Spiele
6Pontis, S. ; Kefalidou, G. ; Blandford, A. ; Forth, J. ; Makri, S. ; Sharples, S. ; Wiggins, G. ; Woods, M.: Academics' responses to encountered information : context matters.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.8, S.1883-1903.
Abstract: An increasing number of tools are being developed to help academics interact with information, but little is known about the benefits of those tools for their users. This study evaluated academics' receptiveness to information proposed by a mobile app, the SerenA Notebook: information that is based in their inferred interests but does not relate directly to a prior recognized need. The evaluated app aimed at creating the experience of serendipitous encounters: generating ideas and inspiring thoughts, and potentially triggering follow-up actions, by providing users with suggestions related to their work and leisure interests. We studied how 20 academics interacted with messages sent by the mobile app (3 per day over 10 consecutive days). Collected data sets were analyzed using thematic analysis. We found that contextual factors (location, activity, and focus) strongly influenced their responses to messages. Academics described some unsolicited information as interesting but irrelevant when they could not make immediate use of it. They highlighted filtering information as their major struggle rather than finding information. Some messages that were positively received acted as reminders of activities participants were meant to be doing but were postponing, or were relevant to ongoing activities at the time the information was received.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23502/abstract.
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
7Makri, S. ; Blandford, A. ; Woods, M. ; Sharples, S. ; Maxwell, D.: "Making my own luck" : serendipity strategies and how to support them in digital information environments.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.11, S.2179-2194.
Abstract: Serendipity occurs when unexpected circumstances and an "aha" moment of insight result in a valuable, unanticipated outcome. Designing digital information environments to support serendipity can not only provide users with new knowledge, but also propel them in directions they might not otherwise have traveled in-surprising and delighting them along the way. As serendipity involves unexpected circumstances it cannot be directly controlled, but it can be potentially influenced. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous work has focused on providing a rich empirical understanding of how it might be influenced. We interviewed 14 creative professionals to identify their self-reported strategies aimed at increasing the likelihood of serendipity. These strategies form a framework for examining ways existing digital environments support serendipity and for considering how future environments can create opportunities for it. This is a new way of thinking about how to design for serendipity; by supporting the strategies found to increase its likelihood rather than attempting to support serendipity as a discrete phenomenon, digital environments not only have the potential to help users experience serendipity but also encourage them to adopt the strategies necessary to experience it more often.
8Makri, S. ; Blandford, A.: Coming across information serendipitously : Part 2: A classification framework.
In: Journal of documentation. 68(2012) no.5, S.706-724.
Abstract: Purpose - In "Coming across information serendipitously - Part 1: a process model" the authors identified common elements of researchers' experiences of "coming across information serendipitously". These experiences involve a mix of unexpectedness and insight and lead to a valuable, unanticipated outcome. In this article, the authors aim to show how the elements of unexpectedness, insight and value form a framework for subjectively classifying whether a particular experience might be considered serendipitous and, if so, just how serendipitous. Design/methodology/approach - The classification framework was constructed by analysing 46 experiences of coming across information serendipitously provided by 28 interdisciplinary researchers during critical incident interviews. "Serendipity stories" were written to summarise each experience and to facilitate their comparison. The common elements of unexpectedness, insight and value were identified in almost all the experiences. Findings - The presence of different mixes of unexpectedness, insight and value in the interviewees' experiences define a multi-dimensional conceptual space (which the authors call the "serendipity space"). In this space, different "strengths" of serendipity exist. The classification framework can be used to reason about whether an experience falls within the serendipity space and, if so, how "pure" or "dilute" it is. Originality/value - The framework provides researchers from various disciplines with a structured means of reasoning about and classifying potentially serendipitous experiences.
9Makri, S. ; Blandford, A.: Coming across information serendipitously : Part 1: A process model.
In: Journal of documentation. 68(2012) no.5, S.684-705.
Abstract: Purpose - This research seeks to gain a detailed understanding of how researchers come across information serendipitously, grounded in real-world examples. This research was undertaken to enrich the theoretical understanding of this slippery phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach - Semi-structured critical incident interviews were conducted with 28 interdisciplinary researchers. Interviewees were asked to discuss memorable examples of coming across information serendipitously from their research or everyday life. The data collection and analysis process followed many of the core principles of grounded theory methodology. Findings - The examples provided were varied, but shared common elements (they involved a mix of unexpectedness and insight and led to a valuable, unanticipated outcome). These elements form part of an empirically grounded process model of serendipity. In this model, a new connection is made that involves a mix of unexpectedness and insight and has the potential to lead to a valuable outcome. Projections are made on the potential value of the outcome and actions are taken to exploit the connection, leading to an (unanticipated) valuable outcome. Originality/value - The model provides researchers across disciplines with a structured means of understanding and describing serendipitous experiences.
10Makri, S. ; Warwick, C.: Information for inspiration : understanding architects' information seeking and use behaviors to inform design.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.9, S.1745-1770.
Abstract: Architectural design projects are heavily reliant on electronic information seeking. However, there have been few studies on how architects look for and use information on the Web. We examined the electronic information behavior of 9 postgraduate architectural design and urban design students. We observed them undertake a self-chosen, naturalistic information task related to one of their design projects and found that although the architectural students performed many similar interactive information behaviors to academics and practitioners in other disciplines, they also performed behaviors reflective of the nature of their domain. The included exploring and encountering information (in addition to searching and browsing for it) and visualizing/appropriating information. The observations also highlighted the importance of information use behaviors (such as editing and recording) and communication behaviors (such as sharing and distributing) as well as the importance of multimedia materials, particularly images, for architectural design projects. A key overarching theme was that inspiration was found to be both an important driver for and potential outcome of information work in the architecture domain, suggesting the need to design electronic information tools for architects that encourage and foster creativity. We make suggestions for the design of such tools based on our findings.
11Blandford, A. ; Adams, A. ; Attfield, S. ; Buchanan, G. ; Gow, J. ; Makri, S. ; Rimmer, J. ; Warwick, C.: ¬The PRET A Rapporter framework : evaluating digital libraries from the perspective of information work.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.1, S.4-21.
Abstract: The strongest tradition of IR systems evaluation has focused on system effectiveness; more recently, there has been a growing interest in evaluation of Interactive IR systems, balancing system and user-oriented evaluation criteria. In this paper we shift the focus to considering how IR systems, and particularly digital libraries, can be evaluated to assess (and improve) their fit with users' broader work activities. Taking this focus, we answer a different set of evaluation questions that reveal more about the design of interfaces, user-system interactions and how systems may be deployed in the information working context. The planning and conduct of such evaluation studies share some features with the established methods for conducting IR evaluation studies, but come with a shift in emphasis; for example, a greater range of ethical considerations may be pertinent. We present the PRET A Rapporter framework for structuring user-centred evaluation studies and illustrate its application to three evaluation studies of digital library systems.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenbereichs: Evaluation of Interactive Information Retrieval Systems
Themenfeld: Retrievalstudien ; Information Gateway
12Makri, S. ; Blandford, A. ; Cox, A.L.: Investigating the information-seeking behaviour of academic lawyers : from Ellis's model to design.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.2, S.613-634.
Abstract: Information-seeking is important for lawyers, who have access to many dedicated electronic resources. However there is considerable scope for improving the design of these resources to better support information-seeking. One way of informing design is to use information-seeking models as theoretical lenses to analyse users' behaviour with existing systems. However many models, including those informed by studying lawyers, analyse information-seeking at a high level of abstraction and are only likely to lead to broad-scoped design insights. We illustrate that one potentially useful (and lower-level) model is Ellis's - by using it as a lens to analyse and make design suggestions based on the information-seeking behaviour of 27 academic lawyers, who were asked to think aloud whilst using electronic legal resources to find information for their work. We identify similar information-seeking behaviours to those originally found by Ellis and his colleagues in scientific domains, along with several that were not identified in previous studies such as 'updating' (which we believe is particularly pertinent to legal information-seeking). We also present a refinement of Ellis's model based on the identification of several levels that the behaviours were found to operate at and the identification of sets of mutually exclusive subtypes of behaviours.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes "Digital libraries in the context of users' broader activities"
13Makri, S. ; Blandford, A. ; Cox, A.L.: Using information behaviors to evaluate the functionality and usability of electronic resources : from Ellis's model to evaluation.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 59(2008) no.14, S.2244-2267.
Abstract: Information behavior (IB) research involves examining how people look for and use information, often with the sole purpose of gaining insights into the behavior displayed. However, it is also possible to examine IB with the purpose of using the insights gained to design new tools or improve the design of existing tools to support information seeking and use. This approach is advocated by David Ellis who, over two decades ago, presented a model of information seeking behaviors and made suggestions for how electronic tools might be designed to support these behaviors. Ellis also recognized that IBs might be used as the basis for evaluating as well as designing electronic resources. In this article, we present the IB evaluation methods. These two novel methods, based on an extension of Ellis's model, use the empirically observed IBs of lawyers as a framework for structuring user-centered evaluations of the functionality and usability of electronic resources. In this article, we present the IB methods and illustrate their use through the discussion of two examples. We also discuss benefits and limitations, grounded in specific features of the methods.
14Makri, S. ; Blandford, A. ; Gow, J. ; Rimmer, J. ; Warwick, C. ; Buchanan, G.: ¬A library or just another information resource? : a case study of users' mental models of taditional and digital libraries.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.3, S.433-445.
Abstract: A user's understanding of the libraries they work in, and hence of what they can do in those libraries, is encapsulated in their "mental models" of those libraries. In this article, we present a focused case study of users' mental models of traditional and digital libraries based on observations and interviews with eight participants. It was found that a poor understanding of access restrictions led to risk-averse behavior, whereas a poor understanding of search algorithms and relevance ranking resulted in trial-and-error behavior. This highlights the importance of rich feedback in helping users to construct useful mental models. Although the use of concrete analogies for digital libraries was not widespread, participants used their knowledge of Internet search engines to infer how searching might work in digital libraries. Indeed, most participants did not clearly distinguish between different kinds of digital resource, viewing the electronic library catalogue, abstracting services, digital libraries, and Internet search engines as variants on a theme.