Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Shah, C. ; Marchionini, G.: Awareness in collaborative information seeking.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.10, S.1970-1986.
Abstract: Support for explicit collaboration in information-seeking activities is increasingly recognized as a desideratum for search systems. Several tools have emerged recently that help groups of people with the same information-seeking goals to work together. Many issues for these collaborative information-seeking (CIS) environments remain understudied. The authors identified awareness as one of these issues in CIS, and they presented a user study that involved 42 pairs of participants, who worked in collaboration over 2 sessions with 3 instances of the authors' CIS system for exploratory search. They showed that while having awareness of personal actions and history is important for exploratory search tasks spanning multiple sessions, support for group awareness is even more significant for effective collaboration. In addition, they showed that support for such group awareness can be provided without compromising usability or introducing additional load on the users.
Anmerkung: Erratum in: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(2010) no.11, S.2377.
2Marchionini, G.: Information concepts : from books to cyberspace identities.
San Rafael, Calif. : Morgan and Claypool, 2010. IX, 91 S.
(Synthesis lectures on information concepts, retrieval, and services ; 16)
Abstract: Information is essential to all human activity, and information in electronic form both amplifies and augments human information interactions. This lecture surveys some of the different classical meanings of information, focuses on the ways that electronic technologies are affecting how we think about these senses of information, and introduces an emerging sense of information that has implications for how we work, play, and interact with others. The evolutions of computers and electronic networks and people's uses and adaptations of these tools manifesting a dynamic space called cyberspace. Our traces of activity in cyberspace give rise to a new sense of information as instantaneous identity states that I term proflection of self. Proflections of self influence how others act toward us. Four classical senses of information are described as context for this new form of information. The four senses selected for inclusion here are the following: thought and memory, communication process, artifact, and energy. Human mental activity and state (thought and memory) have neurological, cognitive, and affective facets.The act of informing (communication process) is considered from the perspective of human intentionality and technical developments that have dramatically amplified human communication capabilities. Information artifacts comprise a common sense of information that gives rise to a variety of information industries. Energy is the most general sense of information and is considered from the point of view of physical, mental, and social state change. This sense includes information theory as a measurable reduction in uncertainty. This lecture emphasizes how electronic representations have blurred media boundaries and added computational behaviors that yield new forms of information interaction, which, in turn, are stored, aggregated, and mined to create profiles that represent our cyber identities.
Inhalt: Table of Contents: The Many Meanings of Information / Information as Thought and Memory / Information as Communication Process / Information as Artifact / Information as Energy / Information as Identity in Cyberspace: The Fifth Voice / Conclusion and Directions
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 63(2012) no.2, S.421 (Y. Ding)
BK: 06.35 / Informationsmanagement
RVK: ST 515
3White, R.W. ; Marchionini, G. ; Muresan, G.: Evaluating exploratory search systems : introduction to special topic issue of information processing and management.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.2, S.433-436.
Anmerkung: Einführung in einen Themenschwerpunkt "Evaluating exploratory search systems"
4Pomerantz, J. ; Marchionini, G.: ¬The digital library as place.
In: Journal of documentation. 63(2007) no.4, S.505-533.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present a high-level investigation of the physical-conceptual continuum occupied by both digital and physical libraries. Design/methodology/approach - A framework is provided for thinking about the notions of place and library. The issue of materials and the ideas they represent is considered. Places for people are considered, including issues of people's sense of place in physical and digital spaces. The issue of physical and digital spaces as places for work, collaboration, and community-building is considered. Findings - As more digital libraries are built, and as more physical libraries offer electronic access to parts of their collection, two trends are likely to result: the role of the library as a storage space for materials will become decreasingly important; and the role of the library as a space for users, for individual and collaborative work, and as a space for social activity, will become increasingly important. Research limitations/implications - Digital libraries are unable to fulfill some of the functions of the physical library as physical spaces, but are able to offer functions beyond what the physical library can offer as cognitive spaces. Practical implications - Areas of likely future development for digital libraries are suggested, as vehicles for enhancing cognitive space by augmenting representations of ideas in materials. Originality/value - This paper argues that in many ways digital libraries really are places in the conceptual sense, and will continue to broaden and enrich the roles that libraries play in people's lives and in the larger social milieu.
5Komlodi, A. ; Marchionini, G. ; Soergel, D.: Search history support for finding and using information : user interface design recommendations from a user study.
In: Information processing and management. 43(2007) no.1, S.10-29.
Abstract: Recording search histories, presenting them to the searcher, and building additional interface tools on them offer many opportunities for supporting user tasks in information seeking and use. This study investigated the use of search history information in legal information seeking. Qualitative methods were used to explore how attorneys and law librarians used their memory and external memory aids while searching for information and in transferring to information use. Based on the findings, interface design recommendations were made for information systems. Results of the study from the legal user group presented evidence of the usefulness of search histories and history-based interface tools. Both user manifestations and researcher observations revealed that searchers need historical information in information seeking. Search histories were found to be useful in many user tasks: memory support, search system use, information seeking, information use, task management, task integration, and collaboration. Integrating information across various user tasks and collaborating with others are extensions of traditional information-seeking and use models. These findings encouraged the design of user interface tools and guidelines building on search history information.
6White, R.W. ; Marchionini, G.: Examining the effectiveness of real-time query expansion.
In: Information processing and management. 43(2007) no.3, S.685-704.
Abstract: Interactive query expansion (IQE) (c.f. [Efthimiadis, E. N. (1996). Query expansion. Annual Review of Information Systems and Technology, 31, 121-187]) is a potentially useful technique to help searchers formulate improved query statements, and ultimately retrieve better search results. However, IQE is seldom used in operational settings. Two possible explanations for this are that IQE is generally not integrated into searchers' established information-seeking behaviors (e.g., examining lists of documents), and it may not be offered at a time in the search when it is needed most (i.e., during the initial query formulation). These challenges can be addressed by coupling IQE more closely with familiar search activities, rather than as a separate functionality that searchers must learn. In this article we introduce and evaluate a variant of IQE known as Real-Time Query Expansion (RTQE). As a searcher enters their query in a text box at the interface, RTQE provides a list of suggested additional query terms, in effect offering query expansion options while the query is formulated. To investigate how the technique is used - and when it may be useful - we conducted a user study comparing three search interfaces: a baseline interface with no query expansion support; an interface that provides expansion options during query entry, and a third interface that provides options after queries have been submitted to a search system. The results show that offering RTQE leads to better quality initial queries, more engagement in the search, and an increase in the uptake of query expansion. However, the results also imply that care must be taken when implementing RTQE interactively. Our findings have broad implications for how IQE should be offered, and form part of our research on the development of techniques to support the increased use of query expansion.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in: Special issue on Heterogeneous and Distributed IR
7Komlodi, A. ; Soergel, D. ; Marchionini, G.: Search histories for user support in user interfaces.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.6, S.803-897.
Abstract: The authors describe user interface tools based on search histories to support legal information seekers. The design of the tools was informed by the results of a user study (Komlodi, 2002a) that examined the use of human memory, external memory aids, and search histories in legal information seeking and derived interface design recommendations for information storage and retrieval systems. The data collected were analyzed to identify potential task areas where search histories can support information seeking and use. The results show that many information-seeking tasks can take advantage of automatically and manually recorded history information. These findings encouraged the design of user interface tools building on search history information: direct search history displays, history-enabled scratchpad facilities, and organized results collection tools.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einer Special Section "Perspectives on Search User Interfaces: Best Practices and Future Visions"
8Marchionini, G. ; Wildemuth, B.M. ; Geisler, G.: ¬The Open Video Digital Library : a Möbius strip of research and practice.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.12, S.1629-1643.
Abstract: The Open Video Digital Library (OVDL) provides digital video files to the education and research community and is distinguished by an innovative user interface that offers multiple kinds of visual surrogates to people searching for video content. The OVDL is used by several thousand people around the world each month and part of this success is due to its user interface. This article examines the interplay between research and practice in the development of this particular digital library with an eye toward lessons for all digital libraries. We argue that theoretical and research goals blur into practical goals and practical goals raise new research questions as research and development progress-this process is akin to walking along a Möbius strip in which a locally two-sided surface is actually part of a globally one-sided world. We consider the gulf between the theories that guide current digital library research and current practice in operational digital libraries, provide a developmental history of the OVDL and the research frameworks that drove its development, illustrate how user studies informed its implementation and revision, and conclude with reflections and recommendations on the interplay between research and practice.
9Marchionini, G.: Toward Human-Computer Information Retrieval.
In: Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 33(2006) no.5, S.xx-xx.
Abstract: This is a propitious time for information science. The WWW has propelled information services into the public eye as never before, and information professionals are sought out in all walks of life to assist people with work, learning and play in the information environment. Classical information retrieval has yielded novel techniques for applying computers to retrieval problems, including WWW search engines. The classical model of retrieval is one of matching queries to documents and ranking these matches. It is apparent, however, that a new model of retrieval is needed as people access large-scale digital libraries of multimedia content and vast collections of unstructured data in the WWW. What is needed are ways to bring human intelligence and attention more actively into the search process. To this end, researchers are beginning to combine the lessons from designing highly interactive user interfaces with the lessons from human information behavior to create new kinds of search systems that depend on continuous human control of the search process. I call this hybrid approach to the challenges of information seeking, human-computer information retrieval (HCIR). Though human-computer information interaction is perhaps a more expansive and appropriate phrase, the HCIR phrase unites two well-known fields/communities of practice and is thus adopted here. HCIR aims to empower people to explore large-scale information bases but demands that people also take responsibility for this control by expending cognitive and physical energy. This paper outlines the basic motivations and concepts of HCIR and presents design goals and challenges that are informed by two ongoing HCIR projects.
Anmerkung: Available online at: http://www.asis.org/Bulletin/Jun-06/marchionini.html.
10Marchionini, G.: Co-evolution of user and organizational interfaces : a longitudinal case study of WWW dissemination of national statistics.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 53(2002) no.14, S.1192-1209.
Abstract: The data systems, policies and procedures, corporate culture, and public face of an agency or institution make up its organizational interface. This case study describes how user interfaces for the Bureau of Labor Statistics web site evolved over a 5-year period along with the [arger organizational interface and how this co-evolution has influenced the institution itself. Interviews with BLS staff and transaction log analysis are the foci in this analysis that also included user informationseeking studies and user interface prototyping and testing. The results are organized into a model of organizational interface change and related to the information life cycle.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Internet
13Tse, T. ; Vegh, S. ; Marchionini, G. ; Shneiderman, B.: ¬An exploratory study of video browsing user interface designs and research methodologies : effectiveness in information seeking tasks.
In: Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods. Medford, NJ : Information Today, 1999. S.681-692.
(Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36)
Abstract: The purpose of this exploratory study is to develop research methods to compare the effectiveness of two video browsing interface designs, or surrogates-one static (storyboard) and one dynamic (slide show)-on two distinct information seeking tasks (gist determination and object recognition). Although video data is multimodal, potentially consisting of images, speech, sound, and text, the surrogates tested depend on image data only and use key frames or stills extracted from source video. A test system was developed to determine the effects of different key frame displays on user performance in specified information seeking tasks. The independent variables were interface display and task type. The dependent variables were task accuracy and subjective satisfaction. Covariates included spatial visual ability and time-to-completion. The study used a repeated block factorial 2x2 design; each of 20 participants interacted with all four interface-task combinations. No statistically significant results for task accuracy were found. Statistically significant differences were found, however, for user satisfaction with the display types: users assessed the static display to be "easier" to use than the dynamic display for both task types, even though there were no performance differences. This methodological approach provides a useful way to learn about the relationship between surrogate types and user tasks during video browsing
Behandelte Form: Videos
14Ding, W. ; Soergel, D. ; Marchionini, G.: Performance of visual, verbal, and combined video surrogates.
In: Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods. Medford, NJ : Information Today, 1999. S.651-664.
(Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36)
Abstract: This study investigates the information representation power of different modalities in the video data in order to collect empirical evidence for video surrogate creation and thus better support effective video browsing and information retrieval. Three types of video surrogates - keyframe, keyword/phrase, and combination of the two were created and compared under two user tasks-verbal comprehension and visual gisting in user performance and preference. Results and discussions follow
Behandelte Form: Videos
15Marchionini, G.: Research and development in digital libraries.
In: Encyclopedia of library and information science. Vol.63, [=Suppl.26]. New York : Dekker, 1998. S.259-278.
16Paez, L.B. ; Silva-Fu, J.B.d. ; Marchionini, G.: Disorientation in electronic environments : a study of hypertext and continuous zooming interfaces.
In: Global complexity: information, chaos and control. Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, ASIS'96, Baltimore, Maryland, 21-24 Oct 1996. Ed.: S. Hardin. Medford, NJ : Learned Information, 1996. S.58-66.
Abstract: Explores the hypothesis that using a zooming graphical interface minimizes user disorientation when reading documents in an electronic environment. 36 graduate students at the University of Maryland at College Park, USA, were randomly assigned to read a hypertext document in either Pad++, a zooming graphical interface, or Mosaic, a jump-based interface. Questionnaires, observation, and taped interviews were used to compare and evalutae the use of the 2 interfaces with regard to learning time, performance and user satisfaction. Findings suggest as workstations become more powerful, a hybrid interface that adds continuous zooming to the existing mechanisms of scroll, pan and jump will emerge
Themenfeld: Hypertext ; Suchoberflächen
17Ding, W. ; Marchionini, G.: ¬A comparative study of Web search service performance.
In: Global complexity: information, chaos and control. Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, ASIS'96, Baltimore, Maryland, 21-24 Oct 1996. Ed.: S. Hardin. Medford, NJ : Learned Information, 1996. S.136-142.
Abstract: Investigates the current state of search services conducted by comparing 3 popular WWW based search services: InfoSeek, Lycos and OpenText. A taxonomy of service features was first created to do a descriptive comparison. A set of 5 questions were used to conduct searches with the 3 services. Each service offered some advantage for specific queries although Lycos and OpenText showed better results for the different precision metrics used in this limited study. There was a low result overlap among the 3 services. None of the services provide good output control for users. Makes recommendations for improvements in display, indexing and updating
Anmerkung: Vgl.: Nicholson, S.: Raising reliability of Web search tools ... In: JASIS 51(2000) no.8, S.724-729
Objekt: InfoSeek ; Lycos ; OpenText
18Marchionini, G.: Information seeking in electronic environments.
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1995. 224 S.
(Cambridge series on human-computer interaction; 9)
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIS 47(1996) no.5, S.405-406 (J.R. Hill); Canadian journal of information and library science 20(1995) nos.3/4, S.53-55 (J. Beheshti); Library quarterly 66(1996) no.4, S.483-485 (C.C. Kuhlthau)
Compass: Information retrieval / Use of / On-line computers
LCSH: Human / computer interaction
20Marchionini, G.: Information seeking in full-text end-user-oriented search system : the roles of domain and search expertise.
In: Library and information science research. 15(1993) no.1, S.35-69.
Abstract: Presents a study that identifies and examines the roles that information-seeking expertise and domain expertise play in information seeking in full text, and user search systems. This forms part of an investigation to characterise information seeking and to determine how it is affected by interactive electronic access to primary information. Distinguishes between the approaches of search experts and domain experts. Makes recommendations for systems design