Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Purves, R.S. ; Winter, S. ; Kuhn, W.: Places in information science.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.11, S.1173-1182.
Abstract: Human spatial concepts, such as the concept of place, are not immediately translatable to the geometric foundations of spatial databases and information systems developed over the past 50 years. These systems typically rest on the concepts of objects and fields, both bound to coordinates, as two general paradigms of geographic representation. The match between notions of place occurring in everyday where questions and the data available to answer such questions is unclear and hinders progress in place-based information systems. This is particularly true in novel application areas such as the Digital Humanities or speech-based human-computer interaction, but also for location-based services. Although this shortcoming has been observed before, we approach the challenges of relating places to information system representations with a fresh view, based on a set of core concepts of spatial information. These concepts have been proposed in information science with the intent of serving human-machine spatial question asking and answering. Clarifying the relationship of the notion of place to these concepts is a significant step toward geographically intelligent systems. The main result of the article is a demonstration that the notion of place fits existing concepts of spatial information, when these are adequately exploited and combined.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24194.
2Reichenbacher, T. ; Sabbata, S. de ; Purves, R.S. ; Fabrikant, S.I.: Assessing geographic relevance for mobile search : a computational model and its validation via crowdsourcing.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.11, S.2620-2634.
Abstract: The selection and retrieval of relevant information from the information universe on the web is becoming increasingly important in addressing information overload. It has also been recognized that geography is an important criterion of relevance, leading to the research area of geographic information retrieval. As users increasingly retrieve information in mobile situations, relevance is often related to geographic features in the real world as well as their representation in web documents. We present 2 methods for assessing geographic relevance (GR) of geographic entities in a mobile use context that include the 5 criteria topicality, spatiotemporal proximity, directionality, cluster, and colocation. To determine the effectiveness and validity of these methods, we evaluate them through a user study conducted on the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. An analysis of relevance ranks for geographic entities in 3 scenarios produced by two GR methods, 2 baseline methods, and human judgments collected in the experiment reveal that one of the GR methods produces similar ranks as human assessors.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23625/full.
3Ostermann, F.O. ; Tomko, M. ; Purves, R.: User evaluation of automatically generated keywords and toponyms for geo-referenced images.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.3, S.480-499.
Abstract: This article presents the results of a user evaluation of automatically generated concept keywords and place names (toponyms) for geo-referenced images. Automatically annotating images is becoming indispensable for effective information retrieval, since the number of geo-referenced images available online is growing, yet many images are insufficiently tagged or captioned to be efficiently searchable by standard information retrieval procedures. The Tripod project developed original methods for automatically annotating geo-referenced images by generating representations of the likely visible footprint of a geo-referenced image, and using this footprint to query spatial databases and web resources. These queries return raw lists of potential keywords and toponyms, which are subsequently filtered and ranked. This article reports on user experiments designed to evaluate the quality of the generated annotations. The experiments combined quantitative and qualitative approaches: To retrieve a large number of responses, participants rated the annotations in standardized online questionnaires that showed an image and its corresponding keywords. In addition, several focus groups provided rich qualitative information in open discussions. The results of the evaluation show that currently the annotation method performs better on rural images than on urban ones. Further, for each image at least one suitable keyword could be generated. The integration of heterogeneous data sources resulted in some images having a high level of noise in the form of obviously wrong or spurious keywords. The article discusses the evaluation itself and methods to improve the automatic generation of annotations.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
4Purves, R.S. ; Sanderson, M.: ¬A methodology to allow avalanche forecasting on an information retrieval system.
In: Journal of documentation. 54(1998) no.2, S.198-209.
Abstract: This papers presents adaptations and tests undertaken to allow an information retrieval (IR) system to forecast the likelihood of avalanches on a particular day. The forecasting process uses historical data of the weather and avalanche condiditons for a large number of days. A method for adapting these data into a form usable by a text-based IR system is first described, followed by tests showing the resulting system's accuracy to be equal to existing 'custom built' forecasting systems. From this, it is concluded that the adaptation methodology id effective at allowing such data to be used in a text-based IR system. A number of advantages in using an IR system for avalanche forecasting are also presented
Inhalt: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/EUM0000000007166.