Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 03. März 2020)
1Ren, Y. ; Tomko, M. ; Salim, F.D. ; Ong, K. ; Sanderson, M.: Analyzing Web behavior in indoor retail spaces.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.62-76.
Abstract: We analyze 18- million rows of Wi-Fi access logs collected over a 1-year period from over 120,000 anonymized users at an inner city shopping mall. The anonymized data set gathered from an opt-in system provides users' approximate physical location as well as web browsing and some search history. Such data provide a unique opportunity to analyze the interaction between people's behavior in physical retail spaces and their web behavior, serving as a proxy to their information needs. We found that (a) there is a weekly periodicity in users' visits to the mall; (b) people tend to visit similar mall locations and web content during their repeated visits to the mall; (c) around 60% of registered Wi-Fi users actively browse the web, and around 10% of them use Wi-Fi for accessing web search engines; (d) people are likely to spend a relatively constant amount of time browsing the web while the duration of their visit may vary; (e) the physical spatial context has a small, but significant, influence on the web content that indoor users browse; and (f) accompanying users tend to access resources from the same web domains.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23587/full.
2Spina, D. ; Trippas, J.R. ; Cavedon, L. ; Sanderson, M.: Extracting audio summaries to support effective spoken document search.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.9, S.2101-2115.
Abstract: We address the challenge of extracting query biased audio summaries from podcasts to support users in making relevance decisions in spoken document search via an audio-only communication channel. We performed a crowdsourced experiment that demonstrates that transcripts of spoken documents created using Automated Speech Recognition (ASR), even with significant errors, are effective sources of document summaries or "snippets" for supporting users in making relevance judgments against a query. In particular, the results show that summaries generated from ASR transcripts are comparable, in utility and user-judged preference, to spoken summaries generated from error-free manual transcripts of the same collection. We also observed that content-based audio summaries are at least as preferred as synthesized summaries obtained from manually curated metadata, such as title and description. We describe a methodology for constructing a new test collection, which we have made publicly available.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23831/full.
Behandelte Form: Worttonträger
3Aldosari, M. ; Sanderson, M. ; Tam, A. ; Uitdenbogerd, A.L.: Understanding collaborative search for places of interest.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.6, S.1331-1344.
Abstract: Finding a place of interest (e.g., a restaurant, hotel, or attraction) is often related to a group information need, however, the actual multiparty collaboration in such searches has not been explored, and little is known about its significance and related practices. We surveyed 100 computer science students and found that 94% (of respondents) searched for places online; 87% had done so as part of a group. Search for place by multiple active participants was experienced by 78%, with group sizes typically being 2 or 3. Search occurred in a range of settings with both desktop PCs and mobile devices. Difficulties were reported with coordinating tasks, sharing results, and making decisions. The results show that finding a place of interest is a quite different group-based search than other multiparty information-seeking activities. The results suggest that local search systems, their interfaces and the devices that access them can be made more usable for collaborative search if they include support for coordination, sharing of results, and decision making.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23466/abstract.
4Yulianti, E. ; Huspi, S. ; Sanderson, M.: Tweet-biased summarization.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.6, S.1289-1300.
Abstract: We examined whether the microblog comments given by people after reading a web document could be exploited to improve the accuracy of a web document summarization system. We examined the effect of social information (i.e., tweets) on the accuracy of the generated summaries by comparing the user preference for TBS (tweet-biased summary) with GS (generic summary). The result of crowdsourcing-based evaluation shows that the user preference for TBS was significantly higher than GS. We also took random samples of the documents to see the performance of summaries in a traditional evaluation using ROUGE, which, in general, TBS was also shown to be better than GS. We further analyzed the influence of the number of tweets pointed to a web document on summarization accuracy, finding a positive moderate correlation between the number of tweets pointed to a web document and the performance of generated TBS as measured by user preference. The results show that incorporating social information into the summary generation process can improve the accuracy of summary. The reason for people choosing one summary over another in a crowdsourcing-based evaluation is also presented in this article.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23496/abstract.
Themenfeld: Automatisches Abstracting
5Vrettas, G. ; Sanderson, M.: Conferences versus journals in computer science.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.12, S.2674-2684.
Abstract: The question of which type of computer science (CS) publication-conference or journal-is likely to result in more citations for a published paper is addressed. A series of data sets are examined and joined in order to analyze the citations of over 195,000 conference papers and 108,000 journal papers. Two means of evaluating the citations of journals and conferences are explored: h5 and average citations per paper; it was found that h5 has certain biases that make it a difficult measure to use (despite it being the main measure used by Google Scholar). Results from the analysis show that CS, as a discipline, values conferences as a publication venue more highly than any other academic field of study. The analysis also shows that a small number of elite CS conferences have the highest average paper citation rate of any publication type, although overall, citation rates in conferences are no higher than in journals. It is also shown that the length of a paper is correlated with citation rate.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23349/abstract.
Behandelte Form: Kongressschriften
6Aloteibi, S. ; Sanderson, M.: Analyzing geographic query reformulation : an exploratory study.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.1, S.13-24.
Abstract: Search engine users typically engage in multiquery sessions in their quest to fulfill their information needs. Despite a plethora of research findings suggesting that a significant group of users look for information within a specific geographical scope, existing reformulation studies lack a focused analysis of how users reformulate geographic queries. This study comprehensively investigates the ways in which users reformulate such needs in an attempt to fill this gap in the literature. Reformulated sessions were sampled from a query log of a major search engine to extract 2,400 entries that were manually inspected to filter geo sessions. This filter identified 471 search sessions that included geographical intent, and these sessions were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results revealed that one in five of the users who reformulated their queries were looking for geographically related information. They reformulated their queries by changing the content of the query rather than the structure. Users were not following a unified sequence of modifications and instead performed a single reformulation action. However, in some cases it was possible to anticipate their next move. A number of tasks in geo modifications were identified, including standard, multi-needs, multi-places, and hybrid approaches. The research concludes that it is important to specialize query reformulation studies to focus on particular query types rather than generically analyzing them, as it is apparent that geographic queries have their special reformulation characteristics.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.22961/abstract.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
7Wan-Chik, R. ; Clough, P. ; Sanderson, M.: Investigating religious information searching through analysis of a search engine log.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.12, S.2492-2506.
Abstract: In this paper we present results from an investigation of religious information searching based on analyzing log files from a large general-purpose search engine. From approximately 15 million queries, we identified 124,422 that were part of 60,759 user sessions. We present a method for categorizing queries based on related terms and show differences in search patterns between religious searches and web searching more generally. We also investigate the search patterns found in queries related to 5 religions: Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism. Different search patterns are found to emerge. Results from this study complement existing studies of religious information searching and provide a level of detailed analysis not reported to date. We show, for example, that sessions involving religion-related queries tend to last longer, that the lengths of religion-related queries are greater, and that the number of unique URLs clicked is higher when compared to all queries. The results of the study can serve to provide information on what this large population of users is actually searching for.
8Al-Maskari, A. ; Sanderson, M.: ¬A review of factors influencing user satisfaction in information retrieval.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.5, S.859-868.
Abstract: The authors investigate factors influencing user satisfaction in information retrieval. It is evident from this study that user satisfaction is a subjective variable, which can be influenced by several factors such as system effectiveness, user effectiveness, user effort, and user characteristics and expectations. Therefore, information retrieval evaluators should consider all these factors in obtaining user satisfaction and in using it as a criterion of system effectiveness. Previous studies have conflicting conclusions on the relationship between user satisfaction and system effectiveness; this study has substantiated these findings and supports using user satisfaction as a criterion of system effectiveness.
9Lee, W.M. ; Sanderson, M.: Analyzing URL queries.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.11, S.2300-2310.
Abstract: This study investigated a relatively unexamined query type, queries composed of URLs. The extent, variation, and user click-through behavior was examined to determine the intent behind URL queries. The study made use of a search log from which URL queries were identified and selected for both qualitative and quantitative analyses. It was found that URL queries accounted for ?17% of the sample. There were statistically significant differences between URL queries and non-URL queries in the following attributes: mean query length; mean number of tokens per query; and mean number of clicks per query. Users issuing such queries clicked on fewer result list items higher up the ranking compared to non-URL queries. Classification indicated that nearly 86% of queries were navigational in intent with informational and transactional queries representing about 7% of URL queries each. This is in contrast to past research that suggested that URL queries were 100% navigational. The conclusions of this study are that URL queries are relatively common and that simply returning the page that matches a user's URL is not an optimal strategy.
10Bergman, O. ; Whittaker, S. ; Sanderson, M. ; Nachmias, R. ; Ramamoorthy, A.: ¬The effect of folder structure on personal file navigation.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.12, S.2426-2441.
Abstract: Folder navigation is the main way that personal computer users retrieve their own files. People dedicate considerable time to creating systematic structures to facilitate such retrieval. Despite the prevalence of both manual organization and navigation, there is very little systematic data about how people actually carry out navigation, or about the relation between organization structure and retrieval parameters. The aims of our research were therefore to study users' folder structure, personal file navigation, and the relations between them. We asked 296 participants to retrieve 1,131 of their active files and analyzed each of the 5,035 navigation steps in these retrievals. Folder structures were found to be shallow (files were retrieved from mean depth of 2.86 folders), with small folders (a mean of 11.82 files per folder) containing many subfolders (M=10.64). Navigation was largely successful and efficient with participants successfully accessing 94% of their files and taking 14.76 seconds to do this on average. Retrieval time and success depended on folder size and depth. We therefore found the users' decision to avoid both deep structure and large folders to be adaptive. Finally, we used a predictive model to formulate the effect of folder depth and folder size on retrieval time, and suggested an optimization point in this trade-off.
11Tann, C. ; Sanderson, M.: Are Web-based informational queries changing?.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.6, S.1290-1293.
Abstract: This brief communication describes the results of a questionnaire examining certain aspects of the Web-based information seeking practices of university students. The results are contrasted with past work showing that queries to Web search engines can be assigned to one of a series of categories: navigational, informational, and transactional. The survey results suggest that a large group of queries, which in the past would have been classified as informational, have become at least partially navigational. We contend that this change has occurred because of the rise of large Web sites holding particular types of information, such as Wikipedia and the Internet Movie Database.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Internet
12Sanderson, M.: Revisiting h measured on UK LIS and IR academics.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 59(2008) no.7, S.1184-1190.
Abstract: A brief communication appearing in this journal ranked UK-based LIS and (some) IR academics by their h-index using data derived from the Thomson ISI Web of Science(TM) (WoS). In this brief communication, the same academics were re-ranked, using other popular citation databases. It was found that for academics who publish more in computer science forums, their h was significantly different due to highly cited papers missed by WoS; consequently, their rank changed substantially. The study was widened to a broader set of UK-based LIS and IR academics in which results showed similar statistically significant differences. A variant of h, hmx, was introduced that allowed a ranking of the academics using all citation databases together.
Objekt: Web of Science ; h-index
13Clough, P. ; Sanderson, M.: User experiments with the Eurovision Cross-Language Image Retrieval System.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.5, S.697-708.
Abstract: In this article the authors present Eurovision, a textbased system for cross-language (CL) image retrieval. The system is evaluated by multilingual users for two search tasks with the system configured in English and five other languages. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published set of user experiments for CL image retrieval. They show that (a) it is possible to create a usable multilingual search engine using little knowledge of any language other than English, (b) categorizing images assists the user's search, and (c) there are differences in the way users search between the proposed search tasks. Based on the two search tasks and user feedback, they describe important aspects of any CL image retrieval system.
Anmerkung: Beitrag einer special topic section on multilingual information systems
Themenfeld: Multilinguale Probleme
Behandelte Form: Bilder
14Petrelli, D. ; Levin, S. ; Beaulieu, M. ; Sanderson, M.: Which user interaction for cross-language information retrieval? : design issues and reflections.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.5, S.709-722.
Abstract: A novel and complex form of information access is cross-language information retrieval: searching for texts written in foreign languages based on native language queries. Although the underlying technology for achieving such a search is relatively well understood, the appropriate interface design is not. The authors present three user evaluations undertaken during the iterative design of Clarity, a cross-language retrieval system for lowdensity languages, and shows how the user-interaction design evolved depending on the results of usability tests. The first test was instrumental to identify weaknesses in both functionalities and interface; the second was run to determine if query translation should be shown or not; the final was a global assessment and focused on user satisfaction criteria. Lessons were learned at every stage of the process leading to a much more informed view of what a cross-language retrieval system should offer to users.
Anmerkung: Beitrag einer special topic section on multilingual information systems
Themenfeld: Multilinguale Probleme ; Suchoberflächen
15Petrelli, D. ; Beaulieu, M. ; Sanderson, M. ; Demetriou, G. ; Herring, P. ; Hansen, P.: Observing users, designing clarity : a case study an the user-centered design of a cross-language information retrieval system.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 55(2004) no.10, S.923-934.
Abstract: This report presents a case study of the development of an interface for a novel and complex form of document retrieval: searching for texts written in foreign languages based on native language queries. Although the underlying technology for achieving such a search is relatively weIl understood, the appropriate interface design is not. A study involving users from the beginning of the design process is described, and it covers initial examination of user needs and tasks, preliminary design and testing of interface components, building, testing, and refining the interface, and, finally, conducting usability tests of the system. Lessons are learned at every stage of the process, leading to a much more informed view of how such an interface should be built.
Anmerkung: Beitrag innerhalb der special topic section des Heftes: "Document search interface design"
Themenfeld: Multilinguale Probleme
16Sanderson, M. ; Lawrie, D.: Building, testing, and applying concept hierarchies.
In: Advances in information retrieval: Recent research from the Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval. Ed.: W.B. Croft. Boston, MA : Kluwer Academic Publ., 2000. S.235-266.
(The Kluwer international series on information retrieval; 7)
Abstract: A means of automatically deriving a hierarchical organization of concepts from a set of documents without use of training data or standard clustering techniques is presented. Using a process that extracts salient words and phrases from the documents, these terms are organized hierarchically using a type of co-occurrence known as subsumption. The resulting structure is displayed as a series of hierarchical menus. When generated from a set of retrieved documents, a user browsing the menus gains an overview of their content in a manner distinct from existing techniques. The methods used to build the structure are simple and appear to be effective. The formation and presentation of the hierarchy is described along with a study of some of its properties, including a preliminary experiment, which indicates that users may find the hierarchy a more efficient means of locating relevant documents than the classic method of scanning a ranked document list
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
17Purves, R.S. ; Sanderson, M.: ¬A methodology to allow avalanche forecasting on an information retrieval system.
In: Journal of documentation. 54(1998) no.2, S.198-209.
Abstract: This papers presents adaptations and tests undertaken to allow an information retrieval (IR) system to forecast the likelihood of avalanches on a particular day. The forecasting process uses historical data of the weather and avalanche condiditons for a large number of days. A method for adapting these data into a form usable by a text-based IR system is first described, followed by tests showing the resulting system's accuracy to be equal to existing 'custom built' forecasting systems. From this, it is concluded that the adaptation methodology id effective at allowing such data to be used in a text-based IR system. A number of advantages in using an IR system for avalanche forecasting are also presented
Inhalt: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/EUM0000000007166.
18Sanderson, M. ; Ruthven, I.: Report on the Glasgow IR group (glair4) submission.
In: The Fifth Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-5). Ed.: E.M. Voorhees u. D.K. Harman. Gaithersburgh, MD : National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1997. S.518-519.
(NIST special publication;)
19Sanderson, M.: ¬The Reuters test collection.
In: Information retrieval: new systems and current research. Proceedings of the 16th Research Colloquium of the British Computer Society Information Retrieval Specialist Group, Drymen, Scotland, 22-23 Mar 94. Ed.: R. Leon. London : Taylor Graham, 1996. S.219-227.
Abstract: Describes the Reuters test collection, which at 22.173 references is significantly larger than most traditional test collections. In addition, Reuters has none of the recall calculation problems normally associated with some of the larger test collections available. Explains the method derived by D.D. Lewis to perform retrieval experiments on the Reuters collection and illustrates the use of the Reuters collection using some simple retrieval experiments that compare the performance of stemming algorithms
20Crestani, F. ; Ruthven, I. ; Sanderson, M. ; Rijsbergen, C.J. van: ¬The troubles with using a logical model of IR on a large collection of documents : experimenting retrieval by logical imaging on TREC.
In: The Fourth Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-4). Ed.: K. Harman. Gaithersburgh, MD : National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1996. S.509-526.
(NIST special publication; 500-236)