Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Dunne, C. ; Shneiderman, B. ; Gove, R. ; Klavans, J. ; Dorr, B.: Rapid understanding of scientific paper collections : integrating statistics, text analytics, and visualization.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 63(2012) no.12, S.2351-2369.
Abstract: Keeping up with rapidly growing research fields, especially when there are multiple interdisciplinary sources, requires substantial effort for researchers, program managers, or venture capital investors. Current theories and tools are directed at finding a paper or website, not gaining an understanding of the key papers, authors, controversies, and hypotheses. This report presents an effort to integrate statistics, text analytics, and visualization in a multiple coordinated window environment that supports exploration. Our prototype system, Action Science Explorer (ASE), provides an environment for demonstrating principles of coordination and conducting iterative usability tests of them with interested and knowledgeable users. We developed an understanding of the value of reference management, statistics, citation text extraction, natural language summarization for single and multiple documents, filters to interactively select key papers, and network visualization to see citation patterns and identify clusters. A three-phase usability study guided our revisions to ASE and led us to improve the testing methods.
2Aris, A. ; Shneiderman, B. ; Qazvinian, V. ; Radev, D.: Visual overviews for discovering key papers and influences across research fronts.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.11, S.2219-2228.
Abstract: Gaining a rapid overview of an emerging scientific topic, sometimes called research fronts, is an increasingly common task due to the growing amount of interdisciplinary collaboration. Visual overviews that show temporal patterns of paper publication and citation links among papers can help researchers and analysts to see the rate of growth of topics, identify key papers, and understand influences across subdisciplines. This article applies a novel network-visualization tool based on meaningful layouts of nodes to present research fronts and show citation links that indicate influences across research fronts. To demonstrate the value of two-dimensional layouts with multiple regions and user control of link visibility, we conducted a design-oriented, preliminary case study with 6 domain experts over a 4-month period. The main benefits were being able (a) to easily identify key papers and see the increasing number of papers within a research front, and (b) to quickly see the strength and direction of influence across related research fronts.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Visualisierung
3Kules, B. ; Shneiderman, B.: Users can change their web search tactics : design guidelines for categorized overviews.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.2, S.463-484.
Abstract: Categorized overviews of web search results are a promising way to support user exploration, understanding, and discovery. These search interfaces combine a metadata-based overview with the list of search results to enable a rich form of interaction. A study of 24 sophisticated users carrying out complex tasks suggests how searchers may adapt their search tactics when using categorized overviews. This mixed methods study evaluated categorized overviews of web search results organized into thematic, geographic, and government categories. Participants conducted four exploratory searches during a 2-hour session to generate ideas for newspaper articles about specified topics such as "human smuggling." Results showed that subjects explored deeper while feeling more organized, and that the categorized overview helped subjects better assess their results, although no significant differences were detected in the quality of the article ideas. A qualitative analysis of searcher comments identified seven tactics that participants reported adopting when using categorized overviews. This paper concludes by proposing a set of guidelines for the design of exploratory search interfaces. An understanding of the impact of categorized overviews on search tactics will be useful to web search researchers, search interface designers, information architects and web developers.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes "Evaluating exploratory search systems"
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Suchtaktik
4Perer, A. ; Shneiderman, B. ; Oard, D.W.: Using rhythms of relationships to understand e-mail archives.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.14, S.1936-1948.
Abstract: Due to e-mail's ubiquitous nature, millions of users are intimate with the technology; however, most users are only familiar with managing their own e-mail, which is an inherently different task from exploring an e-mail archive. Historians and social scientists believe that e-mail archives are important artifacts for understanding the individuals and communities they represent. To understand the conversations evidenced in an archive, context is needed. In this article, we present a new way to gain this necessary context: analyzing the temporal rhythms of social relationships. We provide methods for constructing meaningful rhythms from the e-mail headers by identifying relationships and interpreting their attributes. With these visualization techniques, e-mail archive explorers can uncover insights that may have been otherwise hidden in the archive. We apply our methods to an individual's 15-year e-mail archive, which consists of about 45,000 messages and over 4,000 relationships.
5Ceaparu, I. ; Shneiderman, B.: Finding governmental statistical data on the Web : a study of categorically organized links for the FedStats topics page.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 55(2004) no.11, S.1008-1015.
Abstract: More than 100 U.S. governmental agencies offer links through FedStats, a centralized Web site that facilitates access to statistical tables, reports, and agencies. This and similar large collections need appropriate interfaces to guide the general public to easily and successfully find information they seek. This paper summarizes the results of 3 empirical studies of alternate organization concepts of the FedStats Topics Web page. Each study had 15 participants. The evolution from 645 alphabetically organized links, to 549 categorically organized links, to 215 categorically organized links tied to portal pages produced a steady rise in successful task completion from 15.6 to 24.4 to 42.2%. User satisfaction also increased. We make recommendations based an these data and our observations of users.
Themenfeld: Internet ; Informationsmittel
7Hochheiser, H. ; Shneiderman, B.: Using interactive visualizations of WWW log data to characterize access patterns and inform site design.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 52(2001) no.4, S.331-343.
Abstract: HTTP server log files provide Web site operators with substantial detail regarding the visitors to their sites. Interest in interpreting this data has spawned an active market for software packages that summarize and analyze this data, providing histograms, pie graphs, and other charts summarizing usage patterns. Although useful, these summaries obscure useful information and restrict users to passive interpretation of static displays. Interactive visualizations can be used to provide users with greater abilities to interpret and explore Web log data. By combining two-dimensional displays of thousands of individual access requests, color, and size coding for additional attributes, and facilities for zooming and filtering, these visualizations provide capabilities for examining data that exceed those of traditional Web log analysis tools. We introduce a series of interactive visualizations that can be used to explore server data across various dimensions. Possible uses of these visualizations are discussed, and difficulties of data collection, presentation, and interpretation are explored
8Tse, T. ; Vegh, S. ; Marchionini, G. ; Shneiderman, B.: ¬An exploratory study of video browsing user interface designs and research methodologies : effectiveness in information seeking tasks.
In: Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods. Medford, NJ : Information Today, 1999. S.681-692.
(Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36)
Abstract: The purpose of this exploratory study is to develop research methods to compare the effectiveness of two video browsing interface designs, or surrogates-one static (storyboard) and one dynamic (slide show)-on two distinct information seeking tasks (gist determination and object recognition). Although video data is multimodal, potentially consisting of images, speech, sound, and text, the surrogates tested depend on image data only and use key frames or stills extracted from source video. A test system was developed to determine the effects of different key frame displays on user performance in specified information seeking tasks. The independent variables were interface display and task type. The dependent variables were task accuracy and subjective satisfaction. Covariates included spatial visual ability and time-to-completion. The study used a repeated block factorial 2x2 design; each of 20 participants interacted with all four interface-task combinations. No statistically significant results for task accuracy were found. Statistically significant differences were found, however, for user satisfaction with the display types: users assessed the static display to be "easier" to use than the dynamic display for both task types, even though there were no performance differences. This methodological approach provides a useful way to learn about the relationship between surrogate types and user tasks during video browsing
Behandelte Form: Videos
9Hochheiser, H. ; Shneiderman, B.: Understanding patterns of user visits to Web sites : Interactive Starfield visualizations of WWW log data.
In: Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods. Medford, NJ : Information Today, 1999. S.331-344.
(Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36)
Abstract: HTTP server log files provide Web site operators with substantial detail regarding the visitors to their sites. Interest in interpreting this data has spawned an active market for software packages that summarize and analyze this data, providing histograms, pie graphs, and other charts summarizing usage patterns. While useful, these summaries obscure useful information and restrict users to passive interpretation of static displays. Interactive starfield visualizations can be used to provide users with greater abilities to interpret and explore web log data. By combining two-dimensional displays of thousands of individual access requests, color and size coding for additional attributes, and facilities for zooming and filtering, these visualizations provide capabilities for examining data that exceed those of traditional web log analysis tools. We introduce a series of interactive starfield visualizations, which can be used to explore server data across various dimensions. Possible uses of these visualizations are discussed, and difficulties of data collection, presentation, and interpretation are explored
Themenfeld: Internet ; Benutzerstudien
10Harris, C. ; Allen, R.B. ; Plaisant, C. ; Shneiderman, B.: Temporal visualization for legal case histories : from interpersonal communication to online information process.
In: Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods. Medford, NJ : Information Today, 1999. S.271-279.
(Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36)
Abstract: This paper discusses visualization of legal information using a tool for temporal information called LifeLines. The direct and indirect histories of cases can become very complex. We explored ways that LifeLines could aid in viewing the links between the original case and the direct and indirect histories. The Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corporation and Hewlett Packard Company case is used to illustrate the prototype. For example, if users want to find out how the rulings or statutes changed throughout this case, they could retrieve this information within a single display. Using the timeline, users could also choose at which point in time they would like to begin viewing the case. LifeLines support various views of a case's history. For instance, users can view the trial history of a case, the references involved in a case, and citations made to a case. The paper describes improvements to LifeLines that could help in providing a more
11Kumar, H.P. ; Plaisant, C. ; Shneiderman, B.: Browsing hierarchical data with multi-level dynamic queries and pruning.
In: International journal of human-computer studies. 46(1997) no.1, S.103-124.
Abstract: The PDQ Tree-browser (Pruning with Dynamic Queries) visualization tool was specified, designed and developed for browsing hierarchies with a large number of nodes. It presents trees in 2 tightly coupled views, one a detailed view and the other an overview. Users can use dynamic queries, a method for rapidly filtering data, to filter nodes at each level of the tree. The dynamic query panels are user-customisable. Sub-trees of unselected nodes are pruned out, leading to compact views of the relevant nodes. Usability testing of the PDQ Tree-browser, done with 8 subjects, helped assess strengths and identify possible improvements. It was used in Network Management (600 nodes) and UniversityFinder (1100 nodes) applications. A controlled experiment, with 24 subjects, showed that pruning significantly improved performance speed and subject user satisfaction
13Shneiderman, B. ; Byrd, D. ; Croft, W.B.: Clarifying search : a user-interface framework for text searches.
In: D-Lib magazine. 3(1997) no.1, xx S.
Abstract: Current user interfaces for textual database searching leave much to be desired: individually, they are often confusing, and as a group, they are seriously inconsistent. We propose a four- phase framework for user-interface design: the framework provides common structure and terminology for searching while preserving the distinct features of individual collections and search mechanisms. Users will benefit from faster learning, increased comprehension, and better control, leading to more effective searches and higher satisfaction.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://dlib.ukoln.ac.uk/dlib/january97/retrieval/01shneiderman.html.
Themenfeld: Suchoberflächen ; OPAC ; Suchmaschinen
14Young, D. ; Shneiderman, B.: ¬A graphical filter/flow representation of Boolean queries : a prototype implementation and evaluation.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 44(1993) no.6, S.327-339.
Abstract: A graphical filter/flow representation to Boolean queries was designed to provide users with an interface that visually conveys the meaning of the Boolean operators
15Weiland, W.J. ; Shneiderman, B.: ¬A graphical query interface based on aggregation / generalization hierarchies.
In: Information systems. 18(1993) no.4, S.215-232.
Abstract: Proposes a method of organizing documents based on the concepts of aggregation and hierarchies and a graphical user interface to provide a more intuitive form of Boolean query. The design is based on mapping the nodes of the aggregation hierarchy to Boolean intersection operations, mapping the nodes of the generalization hierarchy Boolean intersection operations (?), and providing a concrete, graphical, manipulable representation of both these node types. A working prototype interface was constructed and evaluated experimentally using 16 subjects against a classical command-line Boolean query interface. The graphical interface produced less than one-tenth of the errors of the textual interface, on average. Significant differences in time spent specifying queries were not found. Makes observations and comments to provide guidance for designers
16Botafogo, R.A. ; Shneiderman, B. ; Rivlin, E.: Structural analysis of hypertexts identifying hierarchies and useful metrics.
In: ACM transactions on information systems. 10(1992) no.2, S.142-180.
Abstract: In many hypertext systems authors are encouraged to create hierachical structures, but when writing, the hierarchy is lost because of the inclusion of cross-reference links. Looks at ways of recovering lost hierarchies and finding new ones, offering authors different views of the same hypertext. Identifies properties of the hypertext document. Develops multiple metrics including compactness and stratum - compactness indicates the intrinsic connectedness of the hypertext, and stratum reveals to what degree the hypertext is organised so that some nodes must be read before others. Uses several exosting hypertexts to illustrate the benefits of each technique. The collection of techniques provides a multifaceted view of the hypertext, which should allow authors to reduce undesired structured complexity and create documents that readers can transverse more easily
17Shneiderman, B.: Designing the user interface : strategies for effective human-computer interaction.2nd ed.
Reading, MA : Addison-Wesley, 1992. XVI,573 S.
Anmerkung: U.a. erwähnt in einer Rez. in J. acad. librarianship 18(1992) no.1, S.43
Themenfeld: OPAC ; Suchoberflächen
Compass: Computers / Interactions / With / Humans
18Faloutsos, C. ; Shneiderman, B. ; Lee, R. ; Plaisant, C.: Incorporating string search in a hypertext system : user interface and signature file design issues.
In: Hypermedia. 2(1990) no.3, S.183-200.
Abstract: Hypertext systems provide an appealing mechanism for informally browsing databases by traversing selectable links. However, in many fact finding situations string searching is an effective complement to browsing. Describes the application of the signature file method to achieve rapid and convenient strung search in small personal computer hypertext environments. The method has been implemented to a prototype, as well as in a commercial product. Presents performance data for search times and storage space from a commercial hypertext database and discusses user interface issues. Experience with the string search interface indicates that it was used successfully by novice users
Themenfeld: Hypertext ; Suchoberflächen