Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Spink, A. ; Du, J.T.: Toward a Web search model : integrating multitasking, cognitive coordination, and cognitive shifts.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 62(2011) no.8, S.1446-1472.
Abstract: Limited research has investigated the role of multitasking, cognitive coordination, and cognitive shifts during web search. Understanding these three behaviors is crucial to web search model development. This study aims to explore characteristics of multitasking behavior, types of cognitive shifts, and levels of cognitive coordination as well as the relationship between them during web search. Data collection included pre- and postquestionnaires, think-aloud protocols, web search logs, observations, and interviews with 42 graduate students who conducted 315 web search sessions with 221 information problems. Results show that web search is a dynamic interaction including the ordering of multiple information problems and the generation of evolving information problems, including task switching, multitasking, explicit task and implicit mental coordination, and cognitive shifting. Findings show that explicit task-level coordination is closely linked to multitasking, and implicit cognitive-level coordination is related to the task-coordination process; including information problem development and task switching. Coordination mechanisms directly result in cognitive state shifts including strategy, evaluation, and view states that affect users' holistic shifts in information problem understanding and knowledge contribution. A web search model integrating multitasking, cognitive coordination, and cognitive shifts (MCC model) is presented. Implications and further research also are discussed.
Themenfeld: Internet ; Benutzerstudien
2Spink, A. ; Danby, S. ; Mallan, K. ; Butler, C.: Exploring young children's web searching and technoliteracy.
In: Journal of documentation. 66(2010) no.2, S.191-206.
Abstract: Purpose - This paper aims to report findings from an exploratory study investigating the web interactions and technoliteracy of children in the early childhood years. Previous research has studied aspects of older children's technoliteracy and web searching; however, few studies have analyzed web search data from children younger than six years of age. Design/methodology/approach - The study explored the Google web searching and technoliteracy of young children who are enrolled in a "preparatory classroom" or kindergarten (the year before young children begin compulsory schooling in Queensland, Australia). Young children were video- and audio-taped while conducting Google web searches in the classroom. The data were qualitatively analysed to understand the young children's web search behaviour. Findings - The findings show that young children engage in complex web searches, including keyword searching and browsing, query formulation and reformulation, relevance judgments, successive searches, information multitasking and collaborative behaviours. The study results provide significant initial insights into young children's web searching and technoliteracy. Practical implications - The use of web search engines by young children is an important research area with implications for educators and web technologies developers. Originality/value - This is the first study of young children's interaction with a web search engine.
Themenfeld: Benutzerstudien ; Internet ; Suchtaktik
3Spink, A.: Information behavior : an evolutionary instinct.
Heidelberg : Springer, 2010. XXVIII, 85 S.
(Information science and knowledge management ; 6159)
Abstract: Information behavior has emerged as an important aspect of human life, however our knowledge and understanding of it is incomplete and underdeveloped scientifically. Research on the topic is largely contemporary in focus and has generally not incorporated results from other disciplines. In this monograph Spink provides a new understanding of information behavior by incorporating related findings, theories and models from social sciences, psychology and cognition. In her presentation, she argues that information behavior is an important instinctive sociocognitive ability that can only be fully understood with a highly interdisciplinary approach. The leitmotivs of her examination are three important research questions: First, what is the evolutionary, biological and developmental nature of information behavior? Second, what is the role of instinct versus environment in shaping information behavior? And, third, how have information behavior capabilities evolved and developed over time? Written for researchers in information science as well as social and cognitive sciences, Spink's controversial text lays the foundation for a new interdisciplinary theoretical perspective on information behavior that will not only provide a more holistic framework for this field but will also impact those sciences, and thus also open up many new research directions.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: iwp 62(2011) H.1, S.48 (D. Lewandowski): "... Es ist sehr schade, dass die Autorin aus diesem interessanten und für die Zukunft des Fachs sicherlich entscheidenden Thema nicht mehr gemacht hat. Gerade bei einem Thema, das noch nicht intensiv beackert wurde, ist eine ausführliche Darstellung von großer Bedeutung. Auch in Hinblick auf die Unmenge an Literatur, die in diesem Buch zitiert wird, erscheint die Form der Darstellung in keiner Weise angemessen. Ebenso unangemessen wirkt der Preis von 85 Euro für dieses schmale Werk, welches auch gut in der Form von einem oder zwei längeren Aufsätzen hätte veröffentlicht werden können."
LCSH: Anthropology ; Computer science ; Library science ; Social sciences
RSWK: Information / Wissensorganisation / Kognitive Entwicklung / Anthropologie
BK: 06.35 / Informationsmanagement
DDC: 153 / DDC22ger
4Zhang, Y. ; Jansen, B.J. ; Spink, A.: Identification of factors predicting clickthrough in Web searching using neural network analysis.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.3, S.557-570.
Abstract: In this research, we aim to identify factors that significantly affect the clickthrough of Web searchers. Our underlying goal is determine more efficient methods to optimize the clickthrough rate. We devise a clickthrough metric for measuring customer satisfaction of search engine results using the number of links visited, number of queries a user submits, and rank of clicked links. We use a neural network to detect the significant influence of searching characteristics on future user clickthrough. Our results show that high occurrences of query reformulation, lengthy searching duration, longer query length, and the higher ranking of prior clicked links correlate positively with future clickthrough. We provide recommendations for leveraging these findings for improving the performance of search engine retrieval and result ranking, along with implications for search engine marketing.
Themenfeld: Internet ; Informetrie
5Jansen, B.J. ; Booth, D.L. ; Spink, A.: Patterns of query reformulation during Web searching.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.7, S.1358-1371.
Abstract: Query reformulation is a key user behavior during Web search. Our research goal is to develop predictive models of query reformulation during Web searching. This article reports results from a study in which we automatically classified the query-reformulation patterns for 964,780 Web searching sessions, composed of 1,523,072 queries, to predict the next query reformulation. We employed an n-gram modeling approach to describe the probability of users transitioning from one query-reformulation state to another to predict their next state. We developed first-, second-, third-, and fourth-order models and evaluated each model for accuracy of prediction, coverage of the dataset, and complexity of the possible pattern set. The results show that Reformulation and Assistance account for approximately 45% of all query reformulations; furthermore, the results demonstrate that the first- and second-order models provide the best predictability, between 28 and 40% overall and higher than 70% for some patterns. Implications are that the n-gram approach can be used for improving searching systems and searching assistance.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Benutzerstudien
6Tjondronegoro, D. ; Spink, A. ; Jansen, B.J.: ¬A study and comparison of multimedia Web searching : 1997-2006.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.9, S.1756-1768.
Abstract: Searching for multimedia is an important activity for users of Web search engines. Studying user's interactions with Web search engine multimedia buttons, including image, audio, and video, is important for the development of multimedia Web search systems. This article provides results from a Weblog analysis study of multimedia Web searching by Dogpile users in 2006. The study analyzes the (a) duration, size, and structure of Web search queries and sessions; (b) user demographics; (c) most popular multimedia Web searching terms; and (d) use of advanced Web search techniques including Boolean and natural language. The current study findings are compared with results from previous multimedia Web searching studies. The key findings are: (a) Since 1997, image search consistently is the dominant media type searched followed by audio and video; (b) multimedia search duration is still short (>50% of searching episodes are <1 min), using few search terms; (c) many multimedia searches are for information about people, especially in audio search; and (d) multimedia search has begun to shift from entertainment to other categories such as medical, sports, and technology (based on the most repeated terms). Implications for design of Web multimedia search engines are discussed.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Multimedia
7Tjondronegoro, D. ; Spink, A.: Web search engine multimedia functionality.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.1, S.340-357.
Abstract: Web search engines are beginning to offer access to multimedia searching, including audio, video and image searching. In this paper we report findings from a study examining the state of multimedia search functionality on major general and specialized Web search engines. We investigated 102 Web search engines to examine: (1) how many Web search engines offer multimedia searching, (2) the type of multimedia search functionality and methods offered, such as "query by example", and (3) the supports for personalization or customization which are accessible as advanced search. Findings include: (1) few major Web search engines offer multimedia searching and (2) multimedia Web search functionality is generally limited. Our findings show that despite the increasing level of interest in multimedia Web search, those few Web search engines offering multimedia Web search, provide limited multimedia search functionality. Keywords are still the only means of multimedia retrieval, while other methods such as "query by example" are offered by less than 1% of Web search engines examined.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Multimedia
8Jansen, B.J. ; Booth, D.L. ; Spink, A.: Determining the informational, navigational, and transactional intent of Web queries.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.3, S.1251-1266.
Abstract: In this paper, we define and present a comprehensive classification of user intent for Web searching. The classification consists of three hierarchical levels of informational, navigational, and transactional intent. After deriving attributes of each, we then developed a software application that automatically classified queries using a Web search engine log of over a million and a half queries submitted by several hundred thousand users. Our findings show that more than 80% of Web queries are informational in nature, with about 10% each being navigational and transactional. In order to validate the accuracy of our algorithm, we manually coded 400 queries and compared the results from this manual classification to the results determined by the automated method. This comparison showed that the automatic classification has an accuracy of 74%. Of the remaining 25% of the queries, the user intent is vague or multi-faceted, pointing to the need for probabilistic classification. We discuss how search engines can use knowledge of user intent to provide more targeted and relevant results in Web searching.
Themenfeld: Benutzerstudien ; Suchtaktik
9Jansen, B.J. ; Spink, A. ; Koshman, S.: Web searcher interaction with the Dogpile.com metasearch engine.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.5, S.744-755.
Abstract: Metasearch engines are an intuitive method for improving the performance of Web search by increasing coverage, returning large numbers of results with a focus on relevance, and presenting alternative views of information needs. However, the use of metasearch engines in an operational environment is not well understood. In this study, we investigate the usage of Dogpile.com, a major Web metasearch engine, with the aim of discovering how Web searchers interact with metasearch engines. We report results examining 2,465,145 interactions from 534,507 users of Dogpile.com on May 6, 2005 and compare these results with findings from other Web searching studies. We collect data on geographical location of searchers, use of system feedback, content selection, sessions, queries, and term usage. Findings show that Dogpile.com searchers are mainly from the USA (84% of searchers), use about 3 terms per query (mean = 2.85), implement system feedback moderately (8.4% of users), and generally (56% of users) spend less than one minute interacting with the Web search engine. Overall, metasearchers seem to have higher degrees of interaction than searchers on non-metasearch engines, but their sessions are for a shorter period of time. These aspects of metasearching may be what define the differences from other forms of Web searching. We discuss the implications of our findings in relation to metasearch for Web searchers, search engines, and content providers.
10Jansen, B.J. ; Spink, A. ; Blakely, C. ; Koshman, S.: Defining a session on Web search engines.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.6, S.862-871.
Abstract: Detecting query reformulations within a session by a Web searcher is an important area of research for designing more helpful searching systems and targeting content to particular users. Methods explored by other researchers include both qualitative (i.e., the use of human judges to manually analyze query patterns on usually small samples) and nondeterministic algorithms, typically using large amounts of training data to predict query modification during sessions. In this article, we explore three alternative methods for detection of session boundaries. All three methods are computationally straightforward and therefore easily implemented for detection of session changes. We examine 2,465,145 interactions from 534,507 users of Dogpile.com on May 6, 2005. We compare session analysis using (a) Internet Protocol address and cookie; (b) Internet Protocol address, cookie, and a temporal limit on intrasession interactions; and (c) Internet Protocol address, cookie, and query reformulation patterns. Overall, our analysis shows that defining sessions by query reformulation along with Internet Protocol address and cookie provides the best measure, resulting in an 82% increase in the count of sessions. Regardless of the method used, the mean session length was fewer than three queries, and the mean session duration was less than 30 min. Searchers most often modified their query by changing query terms (nearly 23% of all query modifications) rather than adding or deleting terms. Implications are that for measuring searching traffic, unique sessions may be a better indicator than the common metric of unique visitors. This research also sheds light on the more complex aspects of Web searching involving query modifications and may lead to advances in searching tools.
11Spink, A. ; Cole, C.: Human information behavior : integrating diverse approaches and information use.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.1, S.25-35.
Abstract: For millennia humans have sought, organized, and used information as they learned and evolved patterns of human information behaviors to resolve their human problems and survive. However, despite the current focus an living in an "information age," we have a limited evolutionary understanding of human information behavior. In this article the authors examine the current three interdisciplinary approaches to conceptualizing how humans have sought information including (a) the everyday life information seeking-sense-making approach, (b) the information foraging approach, and (c) the problem-solution perspective an information seeking approach. In addition, due to the lack of clarity regarding the rote of information use in information behavior, a fourth information approach is provided based an a theory of information use. The use theory proposed starts from an evolutionary psychology notion that humans are able to adapt to their environment and survive because of our modular cognitive architecture. Finally, the authors begin the process of conceptualizing these diverse approaches, and the various aspects or elements of these approaches, within an integrated model with consideration of information use. An initial integrated model of these different approaches with information use is proposed.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Information
12Spink, A. ; Currier, J.: Towards an evolutionary perspective for human information behavior : an exploratory study.
In: Journal of documentation. 62(2006) no.2, S.171-193.
Abstract: Purpose - Since the beginning of human existence, humankind has sought, organized and used information as it evolved patterns and practices of human information behaviors. However, the field of human information behavior (HIB) has not heretofore pursued an evolutionary understanding of information behavior. The goal of this exploratory study is to provide insight about the information behavior of various individuals from the past to begin the development of an evolutionary perspective for our understanding of HIB. Design/methodology/approach - This paper presents findings from a qualitative analysis of the autobiographies and personal writings of several historical figures, including Napoleon Bonaparte, Charles Darwin, Giacomo Casanova and others. Findings - Analysis of their writings shows that these persons of the past articulated aspects of their HIB's, including information seeking, information organization and information use, providing tangible insights into their information-related thoughts and actions. Practical implications - This paper has implications for expanding the nature of our evolutionary understanding of information behavior and provides a broader context for the HIB research field. Originality/value - This the first paper in the information science field of HIB to study the information behavior of historical figures and begin to develop an evolutionary framework for HIB research.
13Koshman, S. ; Spink, A. ; Jansen, B.J.: Web searching on the Vivisimo search engine.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.14, S.1875-1887.
Abstract: The application of clustering to Web search engine technology is a novel approach that offers structure to the information deluge often faced by Web searchers. Clustering methods have been well studied in research labs; however, real user searching with clustering systems in operational Web environments is not well understood. This article reports on results from a transaction log analysis of Vivisimo.com, which is a Web meta-search engine that dynamically clusters users' search results. A transaction log analysis was conducted on 2-week's worth of data collected from March 28 to April 4 and April 25 to May 2, 2004, representing 100% of site traffic during these periods and 2,029,734 queries overall. The results show that the highest percentage of queries contained two terms. The highest percentage of search sessions contained one query and was less than 1 minute in duration. Almost half of user interactions with clusters consisted of displaying a cluster's result set, and a small percentage of interactions showed cluster tree expansion. Findings show that 11.1% of search sessions were multitasking searches, and there are a broad variety of search topics in multitasking search sessions. Other searching interactions and statistics on repeat users of the search engine are reported. These results provide insights into search characteristics with a cluster-based Web search engine and extend research into Web searching trends.
14Spink, A. ; Park, M. ; Jansen, B.J. ; Pedersen, J.: Elicitation and use of relevance feedback information.
In: Information processing and management. 42(2006) no.1, S.264-275.
Abstract: A user's single session with a Web search engine or information retrieval (IR) system may consist of seeking information on single or multiple topics, and switch between tasks or multitasking information behavior. Most Web search sessions consist of two queries of approximately two words. However, some Web search sessions consist of three or more queries. We present findings from two studies. First, a study of two-query search sessions on the AltaVista Web search engine, and second, a study of three or more query search sessions on the AltaVista Web search engine. We examine the degree of multitasking search and information task switching during these two sets of AltaVista Web search sessions. A sample of two-query and three or more query sessions were filtered from AltaVista transaction logs from 2002 and qualitatively analyzed. Sessions ranged in duration from less than a minute to a few hours. Findings include: (1) 81% of two-query sessions included multiple topics, (2) 91.3% of three or more query sessions included multiple topics, (3) there are a broad variety of topics in multitasking search sessions, and (4) three or more query sessions sometimes contained frequent topic changes. Multitasking is found to be a growing element in Web searching. This paper proposes an approach to interactive information retrieval (IR) contextually within a multitasking framework. The implications of our findings for Web design and further research are discussed.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
15Jansen, B.J. ; Spink, A.: How are we searching the World Wide Web? : A comparison of nine search engine transaction logs.
In: Information processing and management. 42(2006) no.1, S.248-263.
Abstract: The Web and especially major Web search engines are essential tools in the quest to locate online information for many people. This paper reports results from research that examines characteristics and changes in Web searching from nine studies of five Web search engines based in the US and Europe. We compare interactions occurring between users and Web search engines from the perspectives of session length, query length, query complexity, and content viewed among the Web search engines. The results of our research shows (1) users are viewing fewer result pages, (2) searchers on US-based Web search engines use more query operators than searchers on European-based search engines, (3) there are statistically significant differences in the use of Boolean operators and result pages viewed, and (4) one cannot necessary apply results from studies of one particular Web search engine to another Web search engine. The wide spread use of Web search engines, employment of simple queries, and decreased viewing of result pages may have resulted from algorithmic enhancements by Web search engine companies. We discuss the implications of the findings for the development of Web search engines and design of online content.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
16Spink, A. ; Park, M. ; Koshman, S.: Factors affecting assigned information problem ordering during Web search : an exploratory study.
In: Information processing and management. 42(2006) no.5, S.1366-1378.
Abstract: Multitasking is the human ability to handle the demands of multiple tasks. Multitasking behavior involves the ordering of multiple tasks and switching between tasks. People often multitask when using information retrieval (IR) technologies as they seek information on more than one information problem over single or multiple search episodes. However, limited studies have examined how people order their information problems, especially during their Web search engine interaction. The aim of our exploratory study was to investigate assigned information problem ordering by forty (40) study participants engaged in Web search. Findings suggest that assigned information problem ordering was influenced by the following factors, including personal interest, problem knowledge, perceived level of information available on the Web, ease of finding information, level of importance and seeking information on information problems in order from general to specific. Personal interest and problem knowledge were the major factors during assigned information problem ordering. Implications of the findings and further research are discussed. The relationship between information problem ordering and gratification theory is an important area for further exploration.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Benutzerstudien
17Spink, A. ; Jansen, B.J. ; Blakely, C. ; Koshman, S.: ¬A study of results overlap and uniqueness among major Web search engines.
In: Information processing and management. 42(2006) no.5, S.1379-1391.
Abstract: The performance and capabilities of Web search engines is an important and significant area of research. Millions of people world wide use Web search engines very day. This paper reports the results of a major study examining the overlap among results retrieved by multiple Web search engines for a large set of more than 10,000 queries. Previous smaller studies have discussed a lack of overlap in results returned by Web search engines for the same queries. The goal of the current study was to conduct a large-scale study to measure the overlap of search results on the first result page (both non-sponsored and sponsored) across the four most popular Web search engines, at specific points in time using a large number of queries. The Web search engines included in the study were MSN Search, Google, Yahoo! and Ask Jeeves. Our study then compares these results with the first page results retrieved for the same queries by the metasearch engine Dogpile.com. Two sets of randomly selected user-entered queries, one set was 10,316 queries and the other 12,570 queries, from Infospace's Dogpile.com search engine (the first set was from Dogpile, the second was from across the Infospace Network of search properties were submitted to the four single Web search engines). Findings show that the percent of total results unique to only one of the four Web search engines was 84.9%, shared by two of the three Web search engines was 11.4%, shared by three of the Web search engines was 2.6%, and shared by all four Web search engines was 1.1%. This small degree of overlap shows the significant difference in the way major Web search engines retrieve and rank results in response to given queries. Results point to the value of metasearch engines in Web retrieval to overcome the biases of individual search engines.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
18Jansen, B.J. ; Spink, A. ; Pedersen, J.: ¬A temporal comparison of AItaVista Web searching.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.6, S.559-570.
Abstract: Major Web search engines, such as AItaVista, are essential tools in the quest to locate online information. This article reports research that used transaction log analysis to examine the characteristics and changes in AItaVista Web searching that occurred from 1998 to 2002. The research questions we examined are (1) What are the changes in AItaVista Web searching from 1998 to 2002? (2) What are the current characteristics of AItaVista searching, including the duration and frequency of search sessions? (3) What changes in the information needs of AItaVista users occurred between 1998 and 2002? The results of our research show (1) a move toward more interactivity with increases in session and query length, (2) with 70% of session durations at 5 minutes or less, the frequency of interaction is increasing, but it is happening very quickly, and (3) a broadening range of Web searchers' information needs, with the most frequent terms accounting for less than 1% of total term usage. We discuss the implications of these findings for the development of Web search engines.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
19Spink, A. ; Park, M.: Information and non-information multitasking interplay.
In: Journal of documentation. 61(2005) no.4, S.548-554.
Abstract: Purpose - During multitasking, humans handle multiple tasks through task switching or engage in multitasking information behaviors. For example, a user switches between seeking new kitchen information and medical information. Recent studies provide insights these complex multitasking human information behaviors (HIB). However, limited studies have examined the interplay between information and non-information tasks. Design/methodology/approach - The goal of the paper was to examine the interplay of information and non-information task behaviors. Findings - This paper explores and speculates on a new direction in HIB research. The nature of HIB as a multitasking activity including the interplay of information and non-information behavior tasks, and the relation between multitasking information behavior to cognitive style and individual differences, is discussed. A model of multitasking between information and non-information behavior tasks is proposed. Practical implications/limitations - Multitasking information behavior models should include the interplay of information and non-information tasks, and individual differences and cognitive styles. Originality/value - The paper is the first information science theoretical examination of the interplay between information and non-information tasks.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00220410510607516
20Spink, A. ; Cole, C.: New directions in cognitive information retrieval : conclusion and further research.
In: New directions in cognitive information retrieval. Eds.: A. Spink, C. Cole. Dordrecht : Springer Netherland, 2005. S.229-233.
(The information retrieval series, vol. 19)
Abstract: New Directions in Cognitive Information Retrieval (IR) gathers user or cognitive approaches to IR research into one volume. The group of researchers focus on a middleground perspective between system and user. They ask the question: What is the nexus between the wider context of why and how humans behave when seeking information and the technological and other constraints that determine the interaction between user and machine? These researchers' concern for the application of user/cognitive-oriented research to IR system design thus serves as a meeting ground linking computer scientists with their largely system performance concerns and the social science research that examines human information behavior in the wider context of how human perception and cognitive mechanisms function, and the work and social frameworks in which we live. The researchers in this volume provide an in-depth revaluation of the concepts that form the basis of current IR retrieval system design. Current IR systems are in a certain sense based on design conceptualizations that view - the user's role in the user-system interaction as an input and monitoring mechanism for system performance; - the system's role in the user-system interaction as a data acquisition system, not an information retrieval system; and - the central issue in the user-system interaction as the efficacy of the system's matching algorithms, matching the user request statement to representations of the document set contained in the system's database. But the era of matching-focused approaches to interactive IR appears to be giving way to a concern for developing interactive systems to facilitate collaboration between users in the performance of their work and social tasks. There is room for cognitive approaches to interaction to break in here.