Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
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1Veltman, K.H.: Von der aufgezeichneten Welt zur Aufzeichnung der Welten.
In: Online Mitteilungen. 2007, Nr.91, S.15 [=Mitteilungen VÖB 60(2007) H.3].
Inhalt: "Auf der Tagung "Herausforderung: Digitale Langzeitarchivierung - Strategien und Praxis europäischer Kooperation" welche vom 20. bis 21. April 2007 in der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek (Frankfurt am Main) stattfand, befassten sich die einzelnen Referentinnen nicht nur mit der Bewahrung des Kulturgutes, sondern u.a. auch mit der "Aufzeichnung der Welten". Wie man diese "Weltaufzeichnung" in Anbetracht der Fülle und stetigen Zunahme an Informationen zukünftig (noch) besser bewältigen kann, thematisierte Kim H. Veltman in seinem Vortrag. Er präsentierte dazu vier äußerst denkwürdige Ansätze: - Schaffung einer zentralen europäischen Instanz, welche die Gedächtnisinstitutionen über die neusten technologischen Entwicklungen informiert - Errichtung eines digitalen Referenzraums und einer virtuellen Agora innerhalb der Europäischen Digitalen Bibliothek - Gründung eines Instituts zur Wissensorganisation - Erforschen der Anforderungen für eine "Universal Digital Library"."
Anmerkung: Englischer Originaltext des Vortrags: http://langzeitarchivierung.de/downloads/EU/PPT/Veltman_TEXT.pdf Webseite der Konferenz: http://www.langzeitarchivierung.de/downloads/EU/KONFERENZPUBLIKATION.pdf
Themenfeld: Elektronisches Publizieren
2Veltman, K.H.: From Recorded World to Recording Worlds.
Abstract: The range, depths and limits of what we know depend on the media with which we attempt to record our knowledge. This essay begins with a brief review of developments in a) media: stone, manuscripts, books and digital media, to trace how collections of recorded knowledge expanded to 235,000 in 1837 and have expanded to over 100 million unique titles in a single database including over 1 billion individual listings in 2007. The advent of digital media has brought full text scanning and electronic networks, which enable us to consult digital books and images from our office, home or potentially even with our cell phones. These magnificent developments raise a number of concerns and new challenges. An historical survey of major projects that changed the world reveals that they have taken from one to eight centuries. This helps explain why commercial offerings, which offer useful, and even profitable short-term solutions often undermine a long-term vision. New technologies have the potential to transform our approach to knowledge, but require a vision of a systematic new approach to knowledge. This paper outlines four ingredients for such a vision in the European context. First, the scope of European observatories should be expanded to inform memory institutions of latest technological developments. Second, the quest for a European Digital Library should be expanded to include a distributed repository, a digital reference room and a virtual agora, whereby memory institutions will be linked with current research;. Third, there is need for an institute on Knowledge Organization that takes up anew Otlet's vision, and the pioneering efforts of the Mundaneum (Brussels) and the Bridge (Berlin). Fourth, we need to explore requirements for a Universal Digital Library, which works with countries around the world rather than simply imposing on them an external system. Here, the efforts of the proposed European University of Culture could be useful. Ultimately we need new systems, which open research into multiple ways of knowing, multiple "knowledges". In the past, we went to libraries to study the recorded world. In a world where cameras and sensors are omnipresent we have new recording worlds. In future, we may also use these recording worlds to study the riches of libraries.
Inhalt: Vgl. Hinweis in: Online-Mitteilungen 2007, Nr.91 [=Mitt. VOEB 60(2007) H.3], S.15: "Auf der Tagung "Herausforderung: Digitale Langzeitarchivierung - Strategien und Praxis europäischer Kooperation" welche vom 20. bis 21. April 2007 in der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek (Frankfurt am Main) stattfand, befassten sich die einzelnen Referentinnen nicht nur mit der Bewahrung des Kulturgutes, sondern u.a. auch mit der "Aufzeichnung der Welten". Wie man diese "Weltaufzeichnung" in Anbetracht der Fülle und stetigen Zunahme an Informationen zukünftig (noch) besser bewältigen kann, thematisierte Kim H. Veltman in seinem Vortrag. Er präsentierte dazu vier äußerst denkwürdige Ansätze: - Schaffung einerzentralen europäischen Instanz, welche die Gedächtnisinstitutionen über die neusten technologischen Entwicklungen informiert - Errichtung eines digitalen Referenzraums und einer virtuellen Agora innerhalb der Europäischen Digitalen Bibliothek - Gründung eines Instituts zur Wissensorganisation - Erforschen der Anforderungen für eine "Universal Digital Library"."
Themenfeld: Elektronische Dokumente ; Vision
3Veltman, K.H.: Syntactic and semantic interoperability : new approaches to knowledge and the Semantic Web.
In: New review of information networking. 7(2001) no.xx, S.xx-xx.
Abstract: At VVWW-7 (Brisbane, 1997), Tim Berners-Lee outlined his vision of a global reasoning web. At VVWW- 8 (Toronto, May 1998), he developed this into a vision of a semantic web, where one Gould search not just for isolated words, but for meaning in the form of logically provable claims. In the past four years this vision has spread with amazing speed. The semantic web has been adopted by the European Commission as one of the important goals of the Sixth Framework Programme. In the United States it has become linked with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). While this quest to achieve a semantic web is new, the quest for meaning in language has a history that is almost as old as language itself. Accordingly this paper opens with a survey of the historical background. The contributions of the Dublin Core are reviewed briefly. To achieve a semantic web requires both syntactic and semantic interoperability. These challenges are outlined. A basic contention of this paper is that semantic interoperability requires much more than a simple agreement concerning the static meaning of a term. Different levels of agreement (local, regional, national and international) are involved and these levels have their own history. Hence, one of the larger challenges is to create new systems of knowledge organization, which identify and connect these different levels. With respect to meaning or semantics, early twentieth century pioneers such as Wüster were hopeful that it might be sufficient to limit oneself to isolated terms and words without reference to the larger grammatical context: to concept systems rather than to propositional logic. While a fascination with concept systems implicitly dominates many contemporary discussions, this paper suggests why this approach is not sufficient. The final section of this paper explores how an approach using propositional logic could lead to a new approach to universals and particulars. This points to a re-organization of knowledge, and opens the way for a vision of a semantic web with all the historical and cultural richness and complexity of language itself.
Anmerkung: Initially written for Dublin Core Meeting in 2000 which rejected the article.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Semantische Interoperabilität
5Veltman, K.H.: Frontiers in conceptual navigation.
In: Knowledge organization. 24(1997) no.4, S.225-245.
Abstract: Recent advances in technology assume a separation of content and presentation with respect to data structures. In terms of access, however, there are important reasons for relating content and presentation (differnt views, perspectives). The paper outlines some fundamental concepts underlying a prototype for a System for Universal Media Searching (SUMS), namely, learning filters, and knowledge contexts, levels of knowledge, questions as strategy: pupose as orientation; media choices, quality, quantity, questions, space using maps and projections; multi-temporal views and integrating tools. It foresees how such a system, linked with the equivalent of a digital reference room, will provide the basis for a System for Universal Multimedia Access (SUMMA). The latter part of the paper addresses recent developments in three-dimensional interfaces. It claims that these are particularly suited for certain tasks such as visualising conncetions in conceptual spaces; seeing invisible differences as well as comprehension and prediction by seeing absence. It suggests also some ways in which two- and three-dimensional interfaces can be used in complementary ways
6Veltman, K.H.: Electronic media and visual knowledge.
In: Knowledge organization. 20(1993) no.1, S.47-54.
Abstract: The real challenge of today lies in exploring how computers will enable us to do what was not possible previously. The paper attempts tp provoke thought about new frontiers of visual knowledge organization. Computers introduce the possibility of interchangeable media. They offer multiple nodes of access to a given term or object. They enable us to approach knowledge on different levels. A scheme of 10 levels is proposed and some consequences for visual knowledge at each of these levels is considered briefly. The final section of the paper considers four navigation tools: questions, maps, meters, and tracking
7Veltman, K.H.: Towards a Semantic Web for culture.
In: Journal of digital information. 4(2004), no.4.
Abstract: Today's semantic web deals with meaning in a very restricted sense and offers static solutions. This is adequate for many scientific, technical purposes and for business transactions requiring machine-to-machine communication, but does not answer the needs of culture. Science, technology and business are concerned primarily with the latest findings, the state of the art, i.e. the paradigm or dominant world-view of the day. In this context, history is considered non-essential because it deals with things that are out of date. By contrast, culture faces a much larger challenge, namely, to re-present changes in ways of knowing; changing meanings in different places at a given time (synchronically) and over time (diachronically). Culture is about both objects and the commentaries on them; about a cumulative body of knowledge; about collective memory and heritage. Here, history plays a central role and older does not mean less important or less relevant. Hence, a Leonardo painting that is 400 years old, or a Greek statue that is 2500 years old, typically have richer commentaries and are often more valuable than their contemporary equivalents. In this context, the science of meaning (semantics) is necessarily much more complex than semantic primitives. A semantic web in the cultural domain must enable us to trace how meaning and knowledge organisation have evolved historically in different cultures. This paper examines five issues to address this challenge: 1) different world-views (i.e. a shift from substance to function and from ontology to multiple ontologies); 2) developments in definitions and meaning; 3) distinctions between words and concepts; 4) new classes of relations; and 5) dynamic models of knowledge organisation. These issues reveal that historical dimensions of cultural diversity in knowledge organisation are also central to classification of biological diversity. New ways are proposed of visualizing knowledge using a time/space horizon to distinguish between universals and particulars. It is suggested that new visualization methods make possible a history of questions as well as of answers, thus enabling dynamic access to cultural and historical dimensions of knowledge. Unlike earlier media, which were limited to recording factual dimensions of collective memory, digital media enable us to explore theories, ways of perceiving, ways of knowing; to enter into other mindsets and world-views and thus to attain novel insights and new levels of tolerance. Some practical consequences are outlined.
Inhalt: Vgl. unter: http://journals.tdl.org/jodi/article/viewArticle/113.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantic Web