Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 04. Juni 2021)
1Clough, P. ; Tang, J. ; Hall, M.H. ; Warner, A.: Linking archival data to location : a case study at the UK National Archives.
In: Aslib proceedings. 63(2011) nos.2/3, S.127-147.
Abstract: Purpose - The National Archives (TNA) is the UK Government's official archive. It stores and maintains records spanning over a 1,000 years in both physical and digital form. Much of the information held by TNA includes references to place and frequently user queries to TNA's online catalogue involve searches for location. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how TNA have extracted the geographic references in their historic data to improve access to the archives. Design/methodology/approach - To be able to quickly enhance the existing archival data with geographic information, existing technologies from Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Geographical Information Retrieval (GIR) have been utilised and adapted to historical archives. Findings - Enhancing the archival records with geographic information has enabled TNA to quickly develop a number of case studies highlighting how geographic information can improve access to large-scale archival collections. The use of existing methods from the GIR domain and technologies, such as OpenLayers, enabled one to quickly implement this process in a way that is easily transferable to other institutions. Practical implications - The methods and technologies described in this paper can be adapted, by other archives, to similarly enhance access to their historic data. Also the data-sharing methods described can be used to enable the integration of knowledge held at different archival institutions. Originality/value - Place is one of the core dimensions for TNA's archival data. Many of the records which are held make reference to place data (wills, legislation, court cases), and approximately one fifth of users' searches involve place names. However, there are still a number of open questions regarding the adaptation of existing GIR methods to the history domain. This paper presents an overview over available GIR methods and the challenges in applying them to historical data.
Objekt: Web 2.0
2Lancaster, F.W. ; Warner, A.: Intelligent technologies in library and information service applications.
Medford, NJ : Information Today, 2001. 214 S.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 53(2002) no.4, S.321-322 (I. Fourie): "A substantial literature exists on artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems in general, as well as in Library and Information Science (LIS). Many reports are over-confident and grossly exaggerate the power and potential of artificial intelligence (AI). This is especially true of the first phase of At, and to some extent also of the third phase that is stimulated by developments surrounding the Internet. The middle phase was mostly marked by disillusionment about the potential of Al and expert systems. The confusion around the promises made by AI and the lack of operational success, leaves managers of library and information services with the dilemma of distinguishing between worthwhile research reporting on operational projects and projects that exists only on paper or in the researchers' heads. It is very difficult to sieve between the two when working through the subject literature, and to distinguish between working technology/applications and wishful thinking. This might be one reason why working systems are sometimes ignored. According to Lancaster and Warner, library managers must also look much wider than the LIS literature to note new trends; this can, however, become a daunting task. Against this background the authors report on a study conducted with the support of the Special Libraries Association's Steven I. Goldspiel Memorial Research Grant. The objective of the study was to gain sufficient familiarity with the developments in Al and related technologies to make recommendations to the information service community on what can be applied, and what to expect in the near future. The intention therefore was to focus on systems that are actually operational, and systems that hold potential for the future. Since digital libraries seems an inevitable part of our future, applications concerning them features strongly in the final recommendations. The scope of AI in Library and Information Science depends on the interpretation of the concepts artificial intelligence and expert systems. "If a system has to `behave intelligently' (e.g. make inferences or learn from its mistakes) to qualify as having AI, few such systems exist in any application. On the other hand, if one accepts that a system exhibits AI if its does things that humans need intelligence to do, many more systems would qualify" (p. 107). One example is the field of subject indexing. The same would apply if a more relaxed definition of expert systems is applied as a system that "can help the non-expert perform some task at a level closer to that of an expert, whether or not all the essential components are in place" (p. 107). Most of the AI literature relevant to libraries falls in the field of expert systems. Lancaster and Warner identify (p. 6) expert systems as " a branch of artificial intelligence, even though very few expert systems exhibit true intelligence.""
5Lancaster, F.W. ; Warner, A.J.: Information retrieval today.
Arlington, VA : Information Resources Press, 1993. XVIII,341 S.
Inhalt: Es handelt sich um die 3. Aufl. von: 'Information retrieval systems: characteristics, testing and evaluation' des ersten Autors
Anmerkung: Rez. in: Information processing and management 30(1994) no.4, S.581-582 (L. Schamber); Journal of documentation 51(1995) no.1, S.76-77 (B. Frohmann)
Themenfeld: Grundlagen u. Einführungen: Allgemeine Literatur
7Warner, A.J.: ¬A linguistic approach to the automated hierarchical organization of phrases.
In: ASIS'90: Information in the year 2000, from research to applications. Proc. of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, Toronto, Canada, 4.-8.11.1990. Ed. by Diana Henderson. Medford, NJ : Learned Information Inc., 1990. S.220-227.
Abstract: A linguistic analysis was carried out on 8 sets of phrases automatically selected from documents surrogates in mathematics. The purpose of this analysis was to derive an algorithm which would automatically generate a hierarchically organised arrangement of phrases for online display to the user. This would replace an alphabetical display and would be particularly useful in online browsing of large numbers of items. It is also the first step toward an automatic thesaurus generator
Themenfeld: Automatisches Indexieren