Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1White, M.: ¬The value of taxonomies, thesauri and metadata in enterprise search.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.3, S.184-192.
Abstract: Although the technical, mathematical and linguistic principles of search date back to the early 1960s and enterprise search applications have been commercially available since the 1980s; it is only since the launch of Microsoft SharePoint 2010 and the integration of the Apache Lucene and Solr projects in 2010 that there has been a wider adoption of enterprise search applications. Surveys carried out over the last five years indicate that although enterprises accept that search applications are essential in locating information, there has not been any significant investment in search teams to support these applications. Where taxonomies, thesauri and metadata have been used to improve the search user interface and enhance the search experience, the indications are that levels of search satisfaction are significantly higher. The challenges faced by search managers in developing and maintaining these tools include a lack of published research on the use of these tools and difficulty in recruiting search team members with the requisite skills and experience. There would seem to be an important and immediate opportunity to bring together the research, knowledge organization and enterprise search communities to explore how good practice in the use of taxonomies, thesauri and metadata in enterprise search can be established, enhanced and promoted.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Special issue: The Great Debate: "This House Believes that the Traditional Thesaurus has no Place in Modern Information Retrieval." [19 February 2015, 14:00-17:30 preceded by ISKO UK AGM and followed by networking, wine and nibbles; vgl.: http://www.iskouk.org/content/great-debate].
Themenfeld: Konzeption und Anwendung des Prinzips Thesaurus ; Metadaten
2White, M.J.: Patents and patent searching.
In: Encyclopedia of library and information sciences. 3rd ed. Ed.: M.J. Bates. London : Taylor & Francis, 2009. S.xx-xx.
Abstract: Patents are limited monopoly rights granted by governments that allow inventors to prevent others from making, using, or selling their inventions for up to 20 years. In exchange, inventors must disclose details about their inventions. Patent documents are a valuable open source of scientific and technical information, some of which does not appear in other types of publications. For more than 200 years patent offices have disseminated patent information to the public in order to promote awareness of patent rights and to further technological development. During that time patent documents have evolved from handwritten manuscripts to printed documents to electronic text. Print-based search tools such as indexes and patent classification manuals have given way to online databases and hyperlinked documents. Today, patent searchers can search and retrieve millions of patent documents from numerous free Web-based databases hosted by patent offices and independent organizations.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/book/10.1081/E-ELIS3.
3White, M.D. ; Matteson, M. ; Abels, E.G.: Beyond dictionaries : Understanding information behavior of professional translators.
In: Journal of documentation. 64(2008) no.4, S.576-601.
Abstract: Purpose - This paper characterizes translation as a task and aims to identify how it influences professional translators' information needs and use of resources to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach - This research is exploratory and qualitative. Data are based on focus group sessions with 19 professional translators. Where appropriate, findings are related to several theories relating task characteristics and information behavior (IB). Findings - The findings support some of Byström's findings about relationship between task and information use but also suggest new hypotheses or relationships among task, information need, and information use, including the notion of a zone of familiarity. Translators use a wide range of resources, both formal and informal, localized sources, including personal contacts with other translators, native speakers, and domain experts, to supplement their basic resources, which are different types of dictionaries. The study addresses translator problems created by the need to translate materials in less commonly taught languages. Research limitations/implications - Focus group sessions allow only for identifying concepts, relationships, and hypotheses, not for indicating the relative importance of variables or distribution across individuals. Translation does not cover literary translation. Practical implications - The paper suggests content and features of workstations offering access to wide range of resources for professional translators. Originality/value - Unlike other information behavior studies of professional translators, this article focuses on a broad range of resources, not just on dictionary use. It also identifies information problems associated not only with normal task activities, but also with translators' moving out of their zone of familiarity, i.e. their range of domain, language, and style expertise. The model of translator IB is potentially generalizable to other groups and both supports and expands other task-related research.
4White, M.D. ; Marsh, E.E.: Content analysis : a flexible methodology.
In: Library trends. 55(2006) no.1, S.22-45.
Abstract: Content analysis is a highly flexible research method that has been widely used in library and information science (LIS) studies with varying research goals and objectives. The research method is applied in qualitative, quantitative, and sometimes mixed modes of research frameworks and employs a wide range of analytical techniques to generate findings and put them into context. This article characterizes content analysis as a systematic, rigorous approach to analyzing documents obtained or generated in the course of research. It briefly describes the steps involved in content analysis, differentiates between quantitative and qualitative content analysis, and shows that content analysis serves the purposes of both quantitative research and qualitative research. The authors draw on selected LIS studies that have used content analysis to illustrate the concepts addressed in the article. The article also serves as a gateway to methodological books and articles that provide more detail about aspects of content analysis discussed only briefly in the article.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: 10.1353/lib.2006.0053.
5Marsh, E.E. ; White, M.D.: ¬A taxonomy of relationships between images and text.
In: Journal of documentation. 59(2003) no.6, S.647-672.
Abstract: The paper establishes a taxonomy of image-text relationships that reflects the ways that images and text interact. It is applicable to all subject areas and document types. The taxonomy was developed to answer the research question: how does an illustration relate to the text with which it is associated, or, what are the functions of illustration? Developed in a two-stage process - first, analysis of relevant research in children's literature, dictionary development, education, journalism, and library and information design and, second, subsequent application of the first version of the taxonomy to 954 image-text pairs in 45 Web pages (pages with educational content for children, online newspapers, and retail business pages) - the taxonomy identifies 49 relationships and groups them in three categories according to the closeness of the conceptual relationship between image and text. The paper uses qualitative content analysis to illustrate use of the taxonomy to analyze four image-text pairs in government publications and discusses the implications of the research for information retrieval and document design.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00220410310506303.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
7Iivonen, M. ; White, M.D.: ¬The choice of initial web search strategies : a comparison between Finnish and American searchers.
In: Journal of documentation. 57(2001) no.4, S.465-491.
Abstract: This paper uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodology to analyse differences between Finnish and American web searchers (n=27 per country) in their choice of initial search strategies (direct address, subject directory and search engines) and their reasoning underlying these choices, with data gathered via a questionnaire. The paper looks at these differences for four types of questions with two variables: closed/open and predictable/unpredictable source of answer (n=16 questions per searcher; total n=864 questions). The paper found significant differences between the two groups' initial search strategies and for three of the four types of questions. The reasoning varied across countries and questions as well, with Finns mentioning fewer reasons although both groups mentioned in aggregate a total of 1,284 reasons in twenty-four reason categories. The reasoning indicated that both country groups considered not only question-related reasons but also source- and search-strategy related reasons in making their decision. The research raises questions about considering cultural differences in designing web search access mechanisms.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/EUM0000000007091.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Suchtaktik
8Wang, P. ; White, M.D.: ¬A cognitive model of document use during a research project : Study II: Decisions at the reading and citing stages.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 50(1999) no.2, S.98-114.
Abstract: This article reports on the follow-up study of a two-part project designed to study the decision-making process underlying how academic researchers select documents retrieved from online databases, consult or read, and cite documents during a research project. The participants are 15 of the the 25 agricultural economics users who participated in the original study of document-selection conducted in 1992. They were interviewed about subsequent decisions on document considered relevant and selected in 1992, as well as documents cited in their written products but not in the original searches. Of particular interest in this article are the decision criteria and rules they apply to documents as they progress through the project. The first study in 1992 emphasized the selection processes and resulted in a document selection model; the 1995 study concentrates on the reading and citing decisions. The model derived from this project shows document use as a decision-making process with decisions occuring at 3 points or stages during a research project: selecting, reading, and citing. It is an expansion pf the document selection model developed in the 1992 study, ientifies more criteria, and clarifies the criteria and rules that are in use at each stage. The follow-up study not only found that all but one of the criteria identified in selection re-occur in connection with reading and citing decisions, but also identified 14 new criteria. It also found that decision rules applied in selection descisions are applied throughout the project
9White, M.D.: Questions in reference interviews.
In: Journal of documentation. 54(1998) no.4, S.443-465.
Abstract: This article characterises the questioning behaviour in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behaviour in other types of interviews/settings. With one exception, the unit of analysis is the question (N=610), not the interview. The author uses A.C. Graesser's typology of questions to analyse type of question and M.D. White's typology of information categories to determine the question's content objective; this is the first application of Graesser's typology to interview questions in any setting. Graesser's categories allow for a more subtle understanding of the kind of information need underlying a question. Comparisons are made between questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client. Findings show that the information specialist dominates the interview, about half the questions were verification questions and about 22% were judgemental questions or requests; all but four types of questions from Graesser's categories appeared in the interviews, but no new question types were discovered. Clients often phrase questions as requests. In content, both clients and information specialists focus on the subject and service requested, but the clients ask also about search strategy and output features. Both parties ask predominantly short-answer questions. Results are related to interface design for retrieval systems.
Inhalt: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/EUM0000000007177.
10White, M.D. ; Wang, P.: ¬A qualitative study of citing behaviour : contributions, criteria, and metalevel documentation concerns.
In: Library quarterly. 67(1997) no.2, S.122-154.
Abstract: Reports a qualitative study of the citing motivations of 12 agricultural economists (faculty and doctoral students), identifying several factors they considered in making citing decisions. Reports citing behaviour derived from a larger empirical, longitudinal study tracing document use during research projects and thus includes behaviour related to decisions both to cite and not to cite. An important finding is the existence of metalevel concerns that influence a decision to cite a document, in addition to situational factors related to its actual use during research
11White, M.: New directions in the delivery of business news.
In: Online information 96: 20th International online information meeting, Proceedings, London, 3-5 December 1996. Ed.: D.I. Raitt u. B. Jeapes. Oxford : Learned Information, 1996. S.271-276.
12White, M.: ¬The market prospects for consumer online services in europe.
In: Online information 96: 20th International online information meeting, Proceedings, London, 3-5 December 1996. Ed.: D.I. Raitt u. B. Jeapes. Oxford : Learned Information, 1996. S.313-320.
13Wang, P. ; White, M.D.: ¬A qualitative study of scholars' citation behaviour.
In: Global complexity: information, chaos and control. Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, ASIS'96, Baltimore, Maryland, 21-24 Oct 1996. Ed.: S. Hardin. Medford, NJ : Learned Information, 1996. S.255-261.
Abstract: Identifies aspects of citing behaviour by directly questioning researchers about decisions to cite or not to cite specific docuements. Finds the existence of meta-level concerns which may indictae documentation styles which influence a decision to cite a document in addition to situation factors related to its actual use during research. Reports the preliminary results of the citing decisions in an empirical, longitudinal study of document use by academic economists and gradutae students during several phases of their research projects
14White, M.D. ; Abels, E.G.: Measuring service quality in special libraries : lessons from service marketing.
In: Special libraries. 86(1994) no.1, S.36-45.
Abstract: As part of a project to develop a means of measuring service quality in special libraries, the authors review the service marketing literature for models and methods. They focus on 2 techniques; SERVQUAL, which measures service quality on the basis of expectations and performance, and SERVPERF, which is based on performance alone. The authors then assess the applicability of these methods to special libraries and information centres. The methods of SERVQUAL and SERVPERF seem applicable to not only these kinds of libraries, but to other kinds as well. An important unknown which may prevent outright adoption of one of these instruments is the extent to which they adequately reflect the values library clients attach to information services. If they do not, some item may have to be addedd
16Gurnsey, J. ; White, M.: Information consultancy.
London : Bingley, 1988. 188 S.
(Looking forward in librarianship)
Abstract: This is a book for those employing consultants and those considering consultancy as a career. The book describes the role of the consultant and the contribution the client can make to the success of a project
LCSH: Library consultants ; Information services
Precis: Information services & libraries / Consultancy services