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1Williamson, N.J.: Categories, contexts and relations in Knowledge Organization. The 12th International ISKO Conference, Mysore, India.
In: Knowledge organization. 42(2015) no.1, S.40-49.
Abstract: Under the broad title Categories, Contexts and Relations in Knowledge Organization, 54 papers were presented in 12 categories. This analysis is based on the published volume. It also contains abstracts for 10 poster sessions but these will not be analysed here (Bericht über die Tagung mit einer Zusammenfassung der Vorträge).
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_42_2015_1_e.pdf.
2Williamson, N.J.: Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, the Eleventh International ISKO Conference, Rome, 2010.
In: Knowledge organization. 40(2013) no.1, S.42-49.
Abstract: The eleventh International ISKO Conference on "Paradigms and Conceptual Systems in Knowledge Organization" was held in Rome, February 23-26, 2010. The proceedings were edited by Claudio Gnoli and Fulvio Mazzocchi and published by Ergon Verlag in 2010. This analysis follows the order of the text of the proceedings, an order prescribed from the abridged scheme for KO literature published in Knowledge Organization, 25, 1998, no. 4, p. 226. Some invited papers, marked with [LR], have been included and are labelled as such in the table of contents. In all, 64 papers were published.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_40_2013_1_g.pdf.
3Williamson, N.J.: Classification issues in 2011 : report.
In: Knowledge organization. 39(2012) no.1, S.55-59.
Abstract: Bericht über das International UDC Seminar, 2011 in Den Haag.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_39_2012_1_e.pdf.
4Williamson, N.J.: Clare Beghtol : teacher, researcher, and theoretician.
In: Knowledge organization. 37(2010) no.2, S.101-105.
Abstract: The trajectory of the scholarly oeuvre of classification theorist Clare Beghtol is described and evaluated in terms of its significance for the development of modern information systems and the extension of classification theory. Focusing on a distinguished body of research sometimes characterized as "outside the box," Beghtol's explorations of concepts of "aboutness," of faceted classification systems, and of a number of types of warrant, are examined. The article concludes with a consideration of more recent themes of "na¿ve" classification, ethical approaches to knowledge organization, and the nature of relationships in classificatory structure and meaning.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Special issue: A Festschrift for Clare Beghtol
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko372b.pdf.
5Williamson, N.J.: Classification Issues in 2008 : Report.
In: Knowledge organization. 37(2010) no.4, S.318-331.
Inhalt: Enthält Berichte über: Tenth International ISKO Conference, August 2008, Montreal, Canada - IFLA Section on Classification and Indexing (z.B.: Anita Angjeli (France) and Antoine Isaac (Netherlands): Semantic Web and Vocabularies Interoperability: An Experiment With Illuminations Collections - International UDC Seminar 2009 (vgl. Beiträge in diesem Heft)
Anmerkung: Vgl. unter: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko37_2010_4_h.pdf.
6Mcllwaine, I.C. ; Williamson, N.J.: Medicine and the UDC : the process of restructuring.
In: Culture and identity in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Tenth International ISKO Conference 5-8 August 2008, Montreal, Canada. Ed. by Clément Arsenault and Joseph T. Tennis. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2008. S.50-55.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.11)
Inhalt: This project to reconstruct and update the UDC Medicine Class (61) is an experiment in the ongoing development and revision of the Universal Decimal Classification as a whole. As part of that process, in 1988 the UDC Management Board recommended the establishment of a limited life Taskforce on UDC System Development to advise on the future development of UDC. That Taskforce recommended that a study be carried out to determine the feasibility of converting the system into a fully faceted classification. It was decided that the best way to accomplish this would be to convert one class. Medicine (Class 61) was chosen for the experiment for two reasons. First, this class was a part of the system that most out of date and greatly in need of revision, and secondly, it presented an opportunity to test an approach to the subject matter which would be in be in keeping with modem methods of the study and practice of medicine. This project is a direct response to that recommendation. Phase 1 of the project is now complete and Phase 2 is underway. This paper describes Phase 1 and its findings. identifies problems still to be addressed and sets out the methodology for Phase 2.
Anmerkung: Vgl. unter: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/tocs/0497f79b0c0b3ed06/0497f79b0c0b5550a/index.php.
7Williamson, N.J.: Knowledge structures and the Internet : progress and prospects.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 44(2007) nos.3/4, S.329-342.
Abstract: This paper analyses the development of the knowledge structures-Web directories, thesauri, and gateways/portals-as they are presented on the Internet as aids to information seeking. It identifies problems and suggests improvements.
Inhalt: Vgl. auch: http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/ - Auch als Beitrag in: Knowledge organization for a globale learning society (ISKO-9)
Anmerkung: Simultaneously published as Cataloger, Editor, and Scholar: Essays in Honor of Ruth C. Carter
8Williamson, N.J.: Knowledge structures and the Internet : progress and prospects.
In: Knowledge organization for a global learning society: Proceedings of the 9th International ISKO Conference, 4-7 July 2006, Vienna, Austria. Hrsg.: G. Budin, C. Swertz u. K. Mitgutsch. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2006. S.213-224.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.10)
Abstract: This paper analyses the development of the knowledge structures provided as aids to users in searching the Internet. Specific focus is given to web directories, thesauri and gateways and portals. The paper assumes that users need to be able to access information in two ways - to locate information on a subject directly in response to a search term and to be able to browse so as to familiarize themselves with a domain or to refine a request. Emphasis is to the browsing aspect. Background and development are addressed. Structures are analyzed, problems are identified, and future directions discussed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/tocs/0497f79b0c0b3ed06/0497f79b0c0c7c33f/index.php.
9Williamson, N.J.: International Society for Knowledge Organization : Ninth International ISKO Conference, Vienna, Austria, 2006.
In: Knowledge organization. 33(2006) no.4, S.221-230.
Abstract: Bericht über die Tagung und einzelne Vorträge. - Vgl. für den Tagungsband: Knowledge organization for a global learning society: Proceedings of the 9th International ISKO Conference, 4-7 July 2006, Vienna, Austria. Eds.: G. Budin, C. Swertz u. K. Mitgutsch. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag 2006.
Anmerkung: Conclusion A scan of this summary indicates that the conference indeed presented a varied program. Overall perhaps there were fewer papers that were precisely focused than those presented at previous conferences. However, collectively the goals focused on theories, tools and methods for improving existing systems or designing alternative approaches. It is inevitable that some topics, such as metadata, permeate the whole conference and have implications for areas of research. Other topics that constantly appear are related to vocabulary and language - ontologies, classification, semantics, etc. Always striking are the papers originating in other disciplines such as nursing and business, whose authors are seeking to use the theories and practices of knowledge organization as models for organization and processes in those disciplines. This is a positive sign demonstrating the potential for generalizing theories and methodologies for knowledge organization to other disciplines. There was one "orphan" paper on library and information science education. True, the theme was global learning, but in a different sense. Another unusual inclusion was three papers dealing with FRBR. One was a report of activities the IFLA Working Group and not research per se, but the other two were on subject authority control, which was more germane to the nature of ISKO conferences. It is inevitable that specific topics become scattered. A precise topic can be dealt with from many points of view, placing papers on the same topic in different categories. There is nothing wrong with this but a good index would counter the scatter and aid readers in use of these proceedings. Nevertheless, despite a few shortcomings this volume is a valuable addition to the research agenda of KO.
10Williamson, N.J.: Professor Neelameghan's contribution to the advancement and development of classification in the context of knowledge organization.
In: Knowledge organization, information systems and other essays: Professor A. Neelameghan Festschrift. Eds.: K.S. Raghavan u. K.N. Prasad. New Dehli : Ess Ess Publ., 2006. S.17-28.
Abstract: Presents a brief overview of Prof. A. Neelameghan's works/contributions more particularly to classification and knowledge organization, based on papers abstracted in Library and Information Science Abstracts and Information Science Abstracts, since the early 1960s when he joined Dr. S.R. Ranganathan at the Documentation Research and Training Centre, in Bangalore. Concludes "Following the path of Neelameghan's research and publication we get a picture of how certain aspects of knowledge organization have developed with particular emphasis on the importance and impact offaceted classification in that development. The result is an outstanding contribution to the history, development and application of the facet model developed by Ranganathan, affirmed at the Dorking Conference in 1957 and seemingly reaffirmed" in the present analysis in 2003.
Themenfeld: Biographische Darstellungen
11Williamson, N.J.: Classification Issues: Report IFLA General Conference, Oslo, Norway, 2005 : Classification and Indexing Section.
In: Knowledge organization. 32(2005) no.4, S.163-167.
Inhalt: Darin auch Berichte über die deutschen Beiträge: "The third paper by Magda Heiner-Freiling, of the Deutsche Bibliothek and Patrice Landry of the Swiss National Library focuses on "The Use of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) for the Organization of the National Bibliographies: Switzerland and Germany/Austria." It discusses the reasons that led to the use of DDC for this purpose, and deals with the difficulties of adopting a common approach using the Second Dewey Summary (100 divisions). It also describes the challenges for the three libraries of incorporating German requirements into the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie. Their concerns have been brought about by the introduction of national bibliographies to the web environment and the need to "undertake studies on how to bring electronic documents under bibliographic control." The issues were intensified by the need to arrange national bibliographies in a "userfriendly" way and to ensure efficient subject access to records. In addition there had been "a long-standing IFLA and UNESCO recommendation to arrange bibliography according to an international classification scheme." These events provided the background for the decision by the three libraries to work together to produce a common Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) arrangement for the national bibliographies of Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The position of each library is described. The Swiss National Library undertook a major reorganization of its operations and structures which included a study to select a classification scheme for its collection - a study which also looked at the national bibliography. For the Swiss national bibliography, this evaluation led to the replacement of an indexing system based on UDC with the Dewey Second Summary (100 Divisions) with modifications for Swiss history and geography. In 2004 Die Deutsche Bibliothek (DDB) decided "to use a new scheme based on DDC" for the new Deutsche Nationalbibliografie (DNB) and the Austrian national bibliography followed suit in the same year. These moves can be attributed to two factors. The first was the impending publication of a German translation of DDC. Secondly, since 1982 the three libraries had been using two different systems, a situation that placed constraints on the exchange of data for use by the bibliographies. There was growing international acceptance of DDC and the change to DDC would improve bibliographic services and facilitate cooperation with foreign national libraries. ; Originally, it was decided that the Dewey Second Summary (100 Divisions) would be a suitable level of access for the bibliography and that the standard DDC organization should be used. In many cases there was a good match between DDC and the former subject categories, in all fields of science and in subjects where literary warrant was high However this was not suitable throughout. Among the areas cited as problems are some of the places where UDC and DDC differ (e.g. the 800s). With respect to music, a deeper level of division than the Dewey outline was needed (specifically in 782 and 784-788 sections on printed and recorded music). In 2002 and 2003 an analysis of the distribution of documents with the 100 Divisions was conducted. Documents were not spread evenly in all classes and while some classes could be merged, others could benefit for the use of more specific numbers. Also, there were discipline based problems, for example in the melding of all branches of engineering. As well, there was a lack of correspondence with modern disciplines such as engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering and environmental technology which had been separate subject categories prior to 2004. Another troublesome discipline was archaeology. Moreover the Second Summary level introduced in 2004 proved to be too broad and would not satisfy users' bibliographic needs. In some cases, in classes containing a variety of topics, subtopics were invisible (e.g. 790 Sports, games and entertainment). As a result, beginning in 2006 the DNB will use full DDC notations. However, the problem would not be insurmountable. The authors concluded that - the cooperation was an interesting are rewarding experience. Ultimately each national - library could adjust and adapt the classification for its own needs and the work done was a good basis for further developments Further, it strengthened support for the German version of DDC to be published in 2006."
Objekt: DDC ; UDC ; MSAC
12Williamson, N.J.: Eighth International ISKO Conference, London, UK, 13-16- July 2004 : Report.
In: Knowledge organization. 31(2004) no.3, S.188-195.
Abstract: Bericht über die Tagung mit kurzer Vorstellung der einzelnen Vorträge
13Williamson, N.J.: Complementary and alternative medicine : its place in the reorganized medical sciences in the Universal Decimal Classification.
In: Knowledge organization and the global information society: Proceedings of the 8th International ISKO Conference 13-16 July 2004, London, UK. Ed.: I.C. McIlwaine. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2004. S.257-262.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.9)
Abstract: An investigation into the requirements for the inclusion of alternative and complementary medicine in a universal classification scheme with special reference to a proposed revision of Class 61 Medical Sciences in the Universal Decimal Classification. Questions related to the content and location of the topic and its structure based on the principles set down in the Bliss Bibliographic Classification are addressed. A solution for UDC Class 61 is proposed.
15Williamson, N.: Classification research issues.
In: Knowledge organization. 31(2004) no.4, S.252-254.
Inhalt: "Universal Decimal Classification Extensions and Corrections to the UDC (E&C) is published in November of each year by the UDC Consortium in The Hague. It documents the additions and changes to the system between printed editions. Changes which have been fully approved are applied immediately to the Master Reference file (MRF). For this reason it is essential that UDC users have access to the changes as they take place. Licensed and Consortium users will become aware of the changes as they use MRF. However, for those who rely an the printed volumes, E&C is an essential tool in the application of UDC. Each issue contains three sections: 1. Comments & Communications, consisting of a collection of articles and notes an research, developments and applications of the UDC system across the world. Also included is a bibliography of recent publications an UDC for the year; 2. Revised UDC Tables, i.e. extensions and corrections to the system, fully approved for use and applied in the MRF; and, 3. Proposals, i.e. preliminary drafts of tables in the process of revision, an which UDC users are encouraged to comment and make suggestions that could affect the final result.result. ; Since E&C is celebrating its 10th year of publication, it is interesting to look at the recent changes taking place in comparison with the tables in the International Medium Edition, 2"d Edition, English Text, the last printed edition published in 1993. Indeed in 2004 UDC is a very different system than it was in 1993. A sample of revisions carried out since the year 2000 bear this out and exemplify a number of important trends. In general, there has been much greater use of faceted structure signifying a definite move in the direction of a fully faceted system. Particularly significant is the completely revised and restructured class "2 Religion. Theology" (E&C 2000, 21-116) in which faceting has been used to eliminate the previous bias toward the Christian religion. In a number of cases, whole classes and disciplines are being replaced. In other situations, while the structure remains the same, there is detailed editing and massive expansion. A Gase in point is the major overhaul of the Auxiliary Table le Common Auxiliaries of Place. Begun in 1999, this is a work still in progress. Expansion includes muck subdivision into various political divisions and the use of lengthy "including" notes to spell out subdivisions where individual class numbers are deemed unnecessary. In other instances there is the deletion of some tables and classes and their replacement by new structures. Noteworthy is the cancellation of Table li Common Auxiliaries of Point of View (E&C 2001, 134-138) and the relocation of those topics in Table lk-02 Common Auxiliaries of Properties (E&C 1999, 133-141) and the development of Table 1k-04 Systematic Auxiliaries of Relations Processes and Operations (E&C 2002 Proposal, 32-35). The introduction of new and updated terminology and the inclusion of new topics is particularly evident. For example in Class 5 (E&C 2002, 120) one can find such new topics as: 574.1 Biodiversity, 575.11 The Genome. Genomics and 575.112 Bioinformatics. In Class 6, particularly noteworthy is the addition of the new multidisciplinary topic 60 Biotechnology (E&C 2002, 120-124) that "embraces aspects of many other disciplines and demands a synthetic style of classification". Several definitions and a detailed explanation, together with supporting sources are given. Included are such topics as 602.6 Genetic engineering, 602.7 Cloning, and 608.1 Bioethics. An example of complete relocation of a topic can be found in Class 65 Management and organization of industry, trade and communication (E&C 2002, 126-129) has been removed and its contents relocated, chiefly in 005. Many more examples Gould be given but these are sufficient to indicate that UDC is gradually becoming a completely new system. ; With each issue of E&C another step takes place in the modernization of the system. The year 2004 is no exception. The Editorial Committee has been marking its 10th anniversary with a "proper springcleaning and tidying up of the many textual inconsistencies and typographical mistakes that were inherited and have crept in over that period." (E&C 2004, 5). These corrections will not appear in E&C but were to be reflected in the files to be released to Consortium members and licence holders in January 2005. With E&C 2004 the work an Table le Common Auxiliaries of Place continued, with Slovakia and Slovenia in Eastern Europe and many of the countries in Africa. Each country is introduced with an editorial note (EN) explaining its origin and the nature of its internal division. The work an the Auxiliaries of Place is expected to be completed in 2005. "This will then mean that all the parts of the world previously designated by alphabetical extensions have now been listed properly and it is possible to use the classification for gazetteer information as well as a means of arranging data" (E&C 2004, 5). Also in this edition, there is a complete revision of 37 Education "so as to incorporate more up-to-date concepts than was previously the Gase and to eliminate the enumeration of compound concepts by a single notation symbol" (E&C 2004, 5). Major changes have been made to the History of Scotland and the History of Ireland. In 2004, under "Proposed UDC Tables" the work an Class 61 Medical Sciences continues with proposals for the Nervous system and the Sense organs and special senses. The hope is that this phase of the work - the conversion of the tables to structure used in the Bliss Bibliographic Classification - will be completed early in 2006 and final editing of Class 61 can begin. An "Annex" to the 2004 volume contains "(The first part of) An extended place table." This annex recognizes the fact that the Auxiliaries of Place, as currently being developed, are related to the "medium" (now "standard") edition of the English Text, while some UDC users continue to work with versions of the old "full edition" level of detail. It addresses the need to bridge the gap between the two, in lieu of a needed "authoritative standard version" (E&C 2004, 176) which, one hopes will be published at a future date. This extended version of Table le "derives from the old "full editions" but is updated in accordance with E&C. The author recognizes that it may contain inconsistencies, but deems it useful to have this table as a statement of all that is valid in Table le including details of older editions that have not been cancelled. As indicated by the words "part of," space did not permit the publication of the whole table in E&C 2004. It is intended that the remainder will be published in E&C 2005. ; E&C 2004 has a generous collection of articles an UDC drawn from the proceedings of the Eighth International ISKO Conference (McIlwaine, 2004), held in London in July 2004. Four of the articles from the conference are republished here with the authors' consent. A fifth article by a conference attendee appears to be a reworking of his conference paper. Two of these articles focus an the development and extension of the UDC system. "A question of place" by I.C. McIlwaine, Editor of UDC, is a product of her research carried out in conjunction with the overhaul of UDC auxiliary Table le. It discusses problems and solutions related to developing and maintaining an area table in the face of a number of factors - history, politics, administration, colonialism, regions political and non-political, as well grammar, language and scripts. "Complementary and alternative medicine: Its place in the reorganized medical sciences in the Universal Decimal Classification," by Nancy J. Williamson addresses the question of how to deal with topics in the field of alternative medicine and their location and organization in the proposed revision of UDC Class 61. This is a volatile and growing field that exists, partially but not fully, outside what has in the past been deemed to be "traditional" medicine. Whatever classification system is used, the lines of division in the discipline are unclear and constantly changing, demanding a system that is flexible and responsive enough to handle the volatility involved. Two of the articles deal with specific applications of UDC. "Knowledge organization of the Universal Decimal Classification - New solutions and user friendly methods from Hungary" by Agnes Hajdu Barát concentrates an the optimization of searching using UDC Codes and structure. ; Victoria Frâncu, in her article "UDC-based thesauri and multiple access to information" compares the performance to two UDC structures in retrieval from an experimental database. Also related to UDC and retrieval is the article by Woulter Schallier "What a subject search interface can do." In this research, carried out at the K.U. Leuven University Library in Belgium, an experimental interface was developed for subject searching by UDC in an OPAC. The user searches by subject terms and obtains retrieval in which he/she can browse the terms displayed in a hierarchy of terms. Two of the papers are in languages other than English. "Summary of the activities of VINITI in the field of UDC," by Professor Y Arskiy is in Russian and "AENOR y la offerta de productos CDU," by Ana López is in Spanish. The latter describes several products of AENOR which are supportive of the application of the Spanish version of UDC. An article by Barbara Holder of the Forintek Canada Corporation, discusses "Updating the Global Forest Decimal Classification (GFDC)." This system is described as a sister classification to UDC designed to handle materials an forestry-related information resources. It can be used in conjunction with UDC to provide for non-forestry related materials. In addition there is a bibliography of UDC publications for the year prepared by Aida Slavic, who has also prepared a paper entitled "UDC translations: A 2004 survey report and bibliography" This discussion paper, accompanied by a table summarizes data an 38 translations, all but seven of which were published since the last survey of UDC translations carried out in 1982. Her article updates the previous work and brings together important information about the history and development of the various versions of UDC. ; Classification Research Group (CRG) While the CRG was saddened by the loss of Douglas Foskett, a keen mind and stalwart friend, in May 2004, the work an the Bliss Bibliographic Classification (BC2) continues. The group meets an a fairly regular basis an the development of the tables, and meetings often include interesting discussions of the theory of classification in general and as understood in the context of CRG philosophy. At its 339,h meeting in February, discussion focused an the tables for Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, and an Veterinary Science. Among the details discussed were the possibility of parallels between human medicine and veterinary medicine and the acknowledgment of small animal practice. Specializations such as "zoo medicine" and "hedgehog hospitals" were identified. The logical place for "poaching" was discussed and conservation was deemed to go with ecology because of the intervention of humans. Discussions at the 340,h meeting continued with these same topics in more detail, concentrating an the details of the schedules an "livestock, domestic animals, farm animals." Later, the discussion moved an to "forestry, ecology, and environment." ; A need was identified to give some consideration to detailed classes that were in an advanced state and which would be coming up for finalization in the near future. Thus the 3415` meeting focused an "Developmental biology." Progress an BC2 as reported in The Bliss Classification Bulletin, no 46, 2004 indicates that the publication of the revision Class C (Chemistry) was imminent. Work was also underway an Architecture in Class W (The Arts), which the Group considered to be the most time consuming class to date. With respect to Class W2 (Music) the Bliss Classification Association has decided to investigate the possibility of producing a music thesaurus to appear alongside the classification scheme for Music. A subcommittee chaired by Jean Aitchison was to be set up. It was further reported that Dr. David Johnson, Librarian at St. Peter's College Oxford, has persuaded his committee to adopt BC2 for its library. This is the first Oxford library to adopt BC2, although BC1 is used by three colleges and the Pitt Rivers Museum. They would like to reclassify to BC2, but presently do not have the money to do so. The Bliss Classification Bulletin is published once a year and contains useful news notes and articles an the application of BC2. In 2004 there are two articles related to the application of Bliss in thesaurus construction. "Bliss-based information management at the Department of Health," by Philip Defriez describes ways in which Bliss is used in the U.K. Department of Health. "Thesauri from BC2: problems and possibilities" by Jean Aitchison discusses an experimental thesaurus derived from the Bliss music schedule."
Objekt: UDC ; CRG
17McIlwaine, I.C. ; Williamson, N.J.: ¬A question of place.
In: Extensions and corrections to the UDC. 26(2004), S.33-39.
Anmerkung: Ein Beitrag zur Problematik der Gestaltung geographischer Schlüssel zu Klassifikationssystemen
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
18Williamson, N.: Knowledge integration and classification schemes.
In: Challenges in knowledge representation and organization for the 21st century: Integration of knowledge across boundaries. Proceedings of the 7th ISKO International Conference Granada, Spain, July 10-13, 2002. Ed.: M. López-Huertas. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2003. S.332-337.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.8)
Abstract: A work in progress. An analysis of the handling of the domain "environmental science" in three universal classification schemes. Attention is given to problems of primary location, interdisciplinarity, degree of scatter, tenninology and structure of the domain. 1. Introduction Many traditional tools for organizing and providing access to recorded knowledge have become increasingly inadequate in responding to the changing requirements for effective organization and retrieval. The universal classification systems have been primary targets for criticism. In varying degrees they have been proven too rigid and somewhat limited as tools of modern knowledge organization. These inadequacies can be attributed to several significant factors - the changing nature of knowledge itself, the emergence of new domains, the realignment of old ones, and the development of very large databases. Also, more and more, as new technologies become available, there is increasing emphasis an the retrieval of facts as opposed to the retrieval of whole documents. In particular, the Internet encourages information seeking at a macro-level while the major universal systems were designed to organize information at a macro level. Moreover, there is a growing body of research and practical application aimed at improving the situation. This papers examines three of the best known universal classification systems the Dewey Decimal (DDC), Universal Decimal (UDC) and Library of Congress (LCC) classification systems in the light of their ability to respond to the changing nature of information itself. Recent research is briefly examined for its applicability to them. Environmental science, a recently emerging domain, is used as a basis for the analysis.
Themenfeld: International bedeutende Universalklassifikationen
Objekt: DDC ; UDC ; LCC
20Williamson, N.: Challenges in knowledge representation and organization for the 21st century : Integration of knowledge across boundaries. 7th ISKO International Conference Granada, Spain, July 10-13, 2002.
In: Knowledge organization. 29(2002) no.2, S.94-102.
Anmerkung: Bericht über die Tagung