Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 28. April 2022)
1Rodriguez-Esteban, R. ; Vishnyakova, D. ; Rinaldi, F.: Revisiting the decay of scientific email addresses.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 73(2022) no.1, S.136-139.
Abstract: Email is the primary method of communication with authors of scientific publications. This study sought to measure the reliability, over time, of contact email addresses from biomedical publications, particularly depending on email type. Emails were written to randomly selected email addresses from publications in MEDLINE, and email bounce rates were modeled probabilistically. The use of personal email addresses was quantified and compared to the use of other types of email addresses. Eighteen percent of authors' contact email addresses in MEDLINE were estimated to be invalid. A steadily growing share of email addresses was personal: 32% of all new email addresses in MEDLINE in 2018 were of this kind. These email addresses were less likely to be invalid than email addresses from other types of providers. While the percentage of invalid email addresses was significant, it was lower than previously estimated. Personal email addresses are taking an increasingly more important role by supplying more reliable email addresses to scientists. To mitigate the problem of invalid email addresses, institutions should provide email forwarding, scientific directories should offer the possibility of contacting authors, or scientific authors should use more stable email addresses.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24545.
2Koho, M. ; Burrows, T. ; Hyvönen, E. ; Ikkala, E. ; Page, K. ; Ransom, L. ; Tuominen, J. ; Emery, D. ; Fraas, M. ; Heller, B. ; Lewis, D. ; Morrison, A. ; Porte, G. ; Thomson, E. ; Velios, A. ; Wijsman, H.: Harmonizing and publishing heterogeneous premodern manuscript metadata as Linked Open Data.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 73(2022) no.2, S.240-257.
(JASIST special issue on digital humanities (DH): B. Infrastructures of DH)
Abstract: Manuscripts are a crucial form of evidence for research into all aspects of premodern European history and culture, and there are numerous databases devoted to describing them in detail. This descriptive information, however, is typically available only in separate data silos based on incompatible data models and user interfaces. As a result, it has been difficult to study manuscripts comprehensively across these various platforms. To address this challenge, a team of manuscript scholars and computer scientists worked to create "Mapping Manuscript Migrations" (MMM), a semantic portal, and a Linked Open Data service. MMM stands as a successful proof of concept for integrating distinct manuscript datasets into a shared platform for research and discovery with the potential for future expansion. This paper will discuss the major products of the MMM project: a unified data model, a repeatable data transformation pipeline, a Linked Open Data knowledge graph, and a Semantic Web portal. It will also examine the crucial importance of an iterative process of multidisciplinary collaboration embedded throughout the project, enabling humanities researchers to shape the development of a digital platform and tools, while also enabling the same researchers to ask more sophisticated and comprehensive research questions of the aggregated data.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24499.
Behandelte Form: Handschriften
3Pérez Pozo, Á. ; Rosa, J. de la ; Ros, S. ; González-Blanco, E. ; Hernández, L. ; Sisto, M. de: ¬A bridge too far for artificial intelligence? : automatic classification of stanzas in Spanish poetry.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 73(2022) no.2, S.258-267.
(JASIST special issue on digital humanities (DH): C. Methodological innovations, challenges, and new interest in DH)
Abstract: The rise in artificial intelligence and natural language processing techniques has increased considerably in the last few decades. Historically, the focus has been primarily on texts expressed in prose form, leaving mostly aside figurative or poetic expressions of language due to their rich semantics and syntactic complexity. The creation and analysis of poetry have been commonly carried out by hand, with a few computer-assisted approaches. In the Spanish context, the promise of machine learning is starting to pan out in specific tasks such as metrical annotation and syllabification. However, there is a task that remains unexplored and underdeveloped: stanza classification. This classification of the inner structures of verses in which a poem is built upon is an especially relevant task for poetry studies since it complements the structural information of a poem. In this work, we analyzed different computational approaches to stanza classification in the Spanish poetic tradition. These approaches show that this task continues to be hard for computers systems, both based on classical machine learning approaches as well as statistical language models and cannot compete with traditional computational paradigms based on the knowledge of experts.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24532.
4Organisciak, P. ; Schmidt, B.M. ; Downie, J.S.: Giving shape to large digital libraries through exploratory data analysis.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 73(2022) no.2, S.317-332.
(JASIST special issue on digital humanities (DH): C. Methodological innovations, challenges, and new interest in DH)
Abstract: The emergence of large multi-institutional digital libraries has opened the door to aggregate-level examinations of the published word. Such large-scale analysis offers a new way to pursue traditional problems in the humanities and social sciences, using digital methods to ask routine questions of large corpora. However, inquiry into multiple centuries of books is constrained by the burdens of scale, where statistical inference is technically complex and limited by hurdles to access and flexibility. This work examines the role that exploratory data analysis and visualization tools may play in understanding large bibliographic datasets. We present one such tool, HathiTrust+Bookworm, which allows multifaceted exploration of the multimillion work HathiTrust Digital Library, and center it in the broader space of scholarly tools for exploratory data analysis.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24547.
Themenfeld: Data Mining
5Suissa, O. ; Elmalech, A. ; Zhitomirsky-Geffet, M.: Text analysis using deep neural networks in digital humanities and information science.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 73(2022) no.2, S.268-287.
(JASIST special issue on digital humanities (DH): C. Methodological innovations, challenges, and new interest in DH)
Abstract: Combining computational technologies and humanities is an ongoing effort aimed at making resources such as texts, images, audio, video, and other artifacts digitally available, searchable, and analyzable. In recent years, deep neural networks (DNN) dominate the field of automatic text analysis and natural language processing (NLP), in some cases presenting a super-human performance. DNNs are the state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms solving many NLP tasks that are relevant for Digital Humanities (DH) research, such as spell checking, language detection, entity extraction, author detection, question answering, and other tasks. These supervised algorithms learn patterns from a large number of "right" and "wrong" examples and apply them to new examples. However, using DNNs for analyzing the text resources in DH research presents two main challenges: (un)availability of training data and a need for domain adaptation. This paper explores these challenges by analyzing multiple use-cases of DH studies in recent literature and their possible solutions and lays out a practical decision model for DH experts for when and how to choose the appropriate deep learning approaches for their research. Moreover, in this paper, we aim to raise awareness of the benefits of utilizing deep learning models in the DH community.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24544.
6Goldberg, D.M. ; Zaman, N. ; Brahma, A. ; Aloiso, M.: Are mortgage loan closing delay risks predictable? : A predictive analysis using text mining on discussion threads.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 73(2022) no.3, S.419-437.
Abstract: Loan processors and underwriters at mortgage firms seek to gather substantial supporting documentation to properly understand and model loan risks. In doing so, loan originations become prone to closing delays, risking client dissatisfaction and consequent revenue losses. We collaborate with a large national mortgage firm to examine the extent to which these delays are predictable, using internal discussion threads to prioritize interventions for loans most at risk. Substantial work experience is required to predict delays, and we find that even highly trained employees have difficulty predicting delays by reviewing discussion threads. We develop an array of methods to predict loan delays. We apply four modern out-of-the-box sentiment analysis techniques, two dictionary-based and two rule-based, to predict delays. We contrast these approaches with domain-specific approaches, including firm-provided keyword searches and "smoke terms" derived using machine learning. Performance varies widely across sentiment approaches; while some sentiment approaches prioritize the top-ranking records well, performance quickly declines thereafter. The firm-provided keyword searches perform at the rate of random chance. We observe that the domain-specific smoke term approaches consistently outperform other approaches and offer better prediction than loan and borrower characteristics. We conclude that text mining solutions would greatly assist mortgage firms in delay prevention.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24559.
Themenfeld: Data Mining
7Lindau, S.T. ; Makelarski, J.A. ; Abramsohn, E.M. ; Beiser, D.G. ; Boyd, K. ; Huang, E.S. ; Paradise, K. ; Tung, E.L.: Sharing information about health-related resources : observations from a community resource referral intervention trial in a predominantly African American/Black community.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 73(2022) no.3, S.438-448.
Abstract: CommunityRx is a theory-driven, information technology-based intervention, developed with and in a predominantly African American/Black community, that provides patients with personalized information (a "HealtheRx") about self-management and social care resources in their community. We described patient and clinician information sharing after exposure to the intervention during a clinical trial. Survey data from 145 patients (ages 45-74) and 121 clinicians were analyzed. Of patients who shared information at least once (49%), 47% reported sharing =3 times (range 1-14). Patient sharers were in poorer physical health (mean PCS 37.6 vs. 40.8, p = .05) than nonsharers and more likely to report going to a resource on their HealtheRx (79 vs. 41%, p = .05). Most patient sharers provided others a look at or copy of their HealtheRx, keeping the original. Patients used the HealtheRx to promote credibility of the information and communicate that resources were disease-specific and local. Half of clinicians shared HealtheRx resource information with peers; sharers were 3 times more likely than nonsharers to feel they were well-informed about resources to address social needs (55 vs. 18%, p < .01). Information sharing by clinicians and patients is an understudied mechanism that could amplify the effects of a growing class of community resource referral information technologies.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24560.
8Paris, B. ; Reynolds, R. ; McGowan, C.: Sins of omission : critical informatics perspectives on privacy in e-learning systems in higher education.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 73(2022) no.5, S.708-725.
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic emptied classrooms across the globe and pushed administrators, students, educators, and parents into an uneasy alliance with online learning systems already committing serious privacy and intellectual property violations, and actively promoted the precarity of educational labor. In this article, we use methods and theories derived from critical informatics to examine Rutgers University's deployment of seven online learning platforms commonly used in higher education to uncover five themes that result from the deployment of corporate learning platforms. We conclude by suggesting ways ahead to meaningfully address the structural power and vulnerabilities extended by higher education's use of these platforms.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24575.
9Oesterlund, C. ; Jarrahi, M.H. ; Willis, M. ; Boyd, K. ; Wolf, C.T.: Artificial intelligence and the world of work : a co-constitutive relationship.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 72(2021) no.1, S.128-135.
Abstract: The use of intelligent machines-digital technologies that feature data-driven forms of customization, learning, and autonomous action-is rapidly growing and will continue to impact many industries and domains. This is consequential for communities of researchers, educators, and practitioners concerned with studying, supporting, and educating information professionals. In the face of new developments in artificial intelligence (AI), the research community faces 3 questions: (a) How is AI becoming part of the world of work? (b) How is the world of work becoming part of AI? and (c) How can the information community help address this topic of Work in the Age of Intelligent Machines (WAIM)? This opinion piece considers these 3 questions by drawing on discussion from an engaging 2019 iConference workshop organized by the NSF supported WAIM research coordination network (note: https://waim.network).
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24388.
10Yigit-Sert, S. ; Altingovde, I.S. ; Macdonald, C. ; Ounis, I. ; Ulusoy, Ö,: Explicit diversification of search results across multiple dimensions for educational search.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 72(2021) no.3, S.315-330.
Abstract: Making use of search systems to foster learning is an emerging research trend known as search as learning. Earlier works identified result diversification as a useful technique to support learning-oriented search, since diversification ensures a comprehensive coverage of various aspects of the queried topic in the result list. Inspired by this finding, first we define a new research problem, multidimensional result diversification, in the context of educational search. We argue that in a search engine for the education domain, it is necessary to diversify results across multiple dimensions, that is, not only for the topical aspects covered by the retrieved documents, but also for other dimensions, such as the type of the document (e.g., text, video, etc.) or its intellectual level (say, for beginners/experts). Second, we propose a framework that extends the probabilistic and supervised diversification methods to take into account the coverage of such multiple dimensions. We demonstrate its effectiveness upon a newly developed test collection based on a real-life educational search engine. Thorough experiments based on gathered relevance annotations reveal that the proposed framework outperforms the baseline by up to 2.4%. An alternative evaluation utilizing user clicks also yields improvements of up to 2% w.r.t. various metrics.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24403.
11Soni, S. ; Lerman, K. ; Eisenstein, J.: Follow the leader : documents on the leading edge of semantic change get more citations.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 72(2021) no.4, S.478-492.
Abstract: Diachronic word embeddings-vector representations of words over time-offer remarkable insights into the evolution of language and provide a tool for quantifying sociocultural change from text documents. Prior work has used such embeddings to identify shifts in the meaning of individual words. However, simply knowing that a word has changed in meaning is insufficient to identify the instances of word usage that convey the historical meaning or the newer meaning. In this study, we link diachronic word embeddings to documents, by situating those documents as leaders or laggards with respect to ongoing semantic changes. Specifically, we propose a novel method to quantify the degree of semantic progressiveness in each word usage, and then show how these usages can be aggregated to obtain scores for each document. We analyze two large collections of documents, representing legal opinions and scientific articles. Documents that are scored as semantically progressive receive a larger number of citations, indicating that they are especially influential. Our work thus provides a new technique for identifying lexical semantic leaders and demonstrates a new link between progressive use of language and influence in a citation network.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24421.
12Heisig, P.: Informationswissenschaft für Wissensmanager : Was Wissensmanager von der informationswissenschaftlichen Forschung lernen können.
In: Information - Wissenschaft und Praxis. 72(2021) H.1, S.10-18.
Abstract: Die Informationswissenschaften und das Wissensmanagement weisen zahlreiche Gemeinsamkeiten auf und Anknüpfungspunkte für gemeinsamen Forschungen. Praktiker des Wissensmanagements sollten die Forschungsergebnisse der Schwesterdisziplin eingehender studieren, um für Ihre Organisationspraxis relevante Ergebnisse berücksichtigen zu können. Es ist zu wünschen, dass durch einen gemeinsamen Forschungsdialog potenzielle Synergien für Forschung und Praxis zukünftig erschlossen werden.
Inhalt: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/iwp-2020-2131.
13Lemke, S. ; Mazarakis, A. ; Peters, I.: Conjoint analysis of researchers' hidden preferences for bibliometrics, altmetrics, and usage metrics.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 72(2021) no.6, S.777-792.
Abstract: The amount of annually published scholarly articles is growing steadily, as is the number of indicators through which impact of publications is measured. Little is known about how the increasing variety of available metrics affects researchers' processes of selecting literature to read. We conducted ranking experiments embedded into an online survey with 247 participating researchers, most from social sciences. Participants completed series of tasks in which they were asked to rank fictitious publications regarding their expected relevance, based on their scores regarding six prototypical metrics. Through applying logistic regression, cluster analysis, and manual coding of survey answers, we obtained detailed data on how prominent metrics for research impact influence our participants in decisions about which scientific articles to read. Survey answers revealed a combination of qualitative and quantitative characteristics that researchers consult when selecting literature, while regression analysis showed that among quantitative metrics, citation counts tend to be of highest concern, followed by Journal Impact Factors. Our results suggest a comparatively favorable view of many researchers on bibliometrics and widespread skepticism toward altmetrics. The findings underline the importance of equipping researchers with solid knowledge about specific metrics' limitations, as they seem to play significant roles in researchers' everyday relevance assessments.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24445.
14Du, C. ; Cohoon, J. ; Lopez, P. ; Howison, J.: Softcite dataset : a dataset of software mentions in biomedical and economic research publications.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 72(2021) no.7, S.870-884.
Abstract: Software contributions to academic research are relatively invisible, especially to the formalized scholarly reputation system based on bibliometrics. In this article, we introduce a gold-standard dataset of software mentions from the manual annotation of 4,971 academic PDFs in biomedicine and economics. The dataset is intended to be used for automatic extraction of software mentions from PDF format research publications by supervised learning at scale. We provide a description of the dataset and an extended discussion of its creation process, including improved text conversion of academic PDFs. Finally, we reflect on our challenges and lessons learned during the dataset creation, in hope of encouraging more discussion about creating datasets for machine learning use.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24454.
Behandelte Form: Software
15Bischoff, M.: ¬Das grosse Experiment.
In: Spektrum der Wissenschaft. 2021, H.9, S.48-53.
Abstract: Zahlreiche konkurrierende wissenschaftliche Theorien versuchen, das Bewusstsein zu beschreiben. In einer noch nie da gewesenen Kollaboration finden nun weltweit Versuche an hunderten Probanden statt, um zwei der führenden Ansätze auf den Prüfstand zu stellen.
16Potnis, D. ; Tahamtan, I.: Hashtags for gatekeeping of information on social media.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 72(2021) no.10, S.1234-1246.
(Special issue: Paradigm shift in the field of information)
Abstract: Since the inception of gatekeeping research in the 1940s, most studies on gatekeeping have been human-centric, treating and studying individuals as gatekeepers, who perform their gatekeeping role using a combination of the following mechanisms: forming communities, and/or broadcasting, discovering-searching, collecting, organizing, or protecting information. However, the nature of communication channels and how information is produced by and shared with users has fundamentally changed in the last 80 years. One significant change is the growing use of technology-enabled metadata like hashtags when sharing information on social media. Rarely any study investigates whether hashtags can perform gatekeeping of information and what it means for information gatekeeping. This paper fills in the gap by conducting a content analysis of 77 interdisciplinary studies on hashtags and gatekeeping to confirm how they can implement six gatekeeping mechanisms. This study shows that hashtags expand our understanding of the role of technology solutions in gatekeeping and advance research on hierarchical gatekeeping. The benefits of hashtags for gatekeeping suggest that they act as "information anchors" for online communities, thereby highlighting the utility of information gatekeepers for society.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24467.
17Balakrishnan, U. ; Peters, S. ; Voß, J.: Coli-conc : eine Infrastruktur zur Nutzung und Erstellung von Konkordanzen.
In: Qualität in der Inhaltserschließung. Hrsg.: M. Franke-Maier, u.a. München : DeGruyter-Saur, 2021. S.121-136.
(Bibliotheks- und Informationspraxis; 70)
Abstract: coli-conc ist eine Dienstleistung der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (VZG). Sie stellt webbasierte Dienste für einen effektiveren Austausch von Wissensorganisationssystemen und für die effiziente Erstellung und Wartung von Mappings zur Verfügung. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf den im deutschsprachigen Raum verbreiteten bibliothekarischen Klassifikationen und Normdateien, vor allem den bedeutenden Universalklassifikationen wie Dewey Dezimalklassifikation (DDC), Regensburger Verbundklassifikation (RVK), Basisklassifikation (BK) und den Sachgruppen der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie (SDNB). Dieser Bericht beschreibt den Hintergrund, die Architektur und die Funktionalitäten von coli-conc sowie das Herzstück der Infrastruktur - das Mapping-Tool Cocoda. Außerdem wird auf Maßnahmen zur Qualitätssicherung eingegangen und ein Einblick in das neue Mapping-Verfahren mit dem Konzept- Hub gewährt.
Themenfeld: Semantische Interoperabilität
Objekt: Coli-conc ; Cocoda
18Smutný, M. ; Kaiser, J.: Co-operative categorization in civil engineering.
In: IOP Conference Series Materials Science and Engineering 1203(3):032068 [DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/1203/3/032068].
Abstract: In the paper we indicate the way to allow the coexistence of multiple structures that are mutually supportive, but not mutually exclusive. It allows less organized users to classify entities according to their suitable structure, whilst leaving the possibility for specialised users to classify these entities into related field classification systems or domain ontologies, in mutually beneficial cooperation. Replacing the reductionist enumerative structure with multiplicative categorization should bring organizational and terminological flexibility that will allow future updates without disrupting the existing categorization. It allows one to use parallel hierarchical branches of categories according to aspects and classify the entity into several branches at the same time. It should allow users the freedom to create their own structures without disrupting the structures of other user groups. Such structures could coexist happily side by side. The aim is to indicate the model of an independent data organization system in building design in a multilingual environment, connected through diverse CAD, GIS, BIM, CAFM applications, ECM, CDE, emails, databases and file systems.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/356744426_Co-operative_categorization_in_civil_engineering/references.
19Christensen, A. ; Finck, M.: Discovery-Systeme : eine Analyse ihrer Geschichte und Gegenwart mit dem Hype-Zyklus.
In: Bibliothek: Forschung und Praxis. 45(2021) H.3, S.497-508.
Abstract: Der Beitrag analysiert die Entstehungsgeschichte von bibliothekarischen Discovery-Systemen in Wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken, mit einem Fokus auf Bibliotheken in Deutschland. Hierfür dient der Hype-Zyklus als Rahmen, um vor allem auch auf die Erwartungen und Rezeption der Systeme in bibliothekarischen Kreisen einzugehen und diese zu diskutieren. Der Beitrag liefert außerdem einen Ausblick auf künftige Potenziale von Discovery-Systemen, auch im Kontext von forschungsnahen Dienstleistungen.
Inhalt: Vgl.: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bfp-2021-0039.
Themenfeld: Katalogfragen allgemein ; OPAC
Anwendungsfeld: Wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken
20Kumpulainen, S. ; Keskustalo, H. ; Zhang, B. ; Stefanidis, K.: Historical reasoning in authentic research tasks : mapping cognitive and document spaces.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.2, S.230-241.
Abstract: To support historians in their work, we need to understand their work-related needs and propose what is required to support those needs. Although the quantity of digitized historical documents available is increasing, historians' ways of working with the digital documents have not been widely studied, particularly in authentic work settings. To better support the historians' reasoning processes, we investigate history researchers' work tasks as the context of information interaction and examine their cognitive access points into information. The analysis is based on a longitudinal observational research and interviews in a task-based research setting. Based on these findings in the historians' cognitive space, we build bridges into the document space. By studying the information interactions in real task contexts, we facilitate the provision of task-specific handles into documents that can be used in designing digital research tools for historians.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://asistdl.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24216.